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The Prose Brut: 

The Development 

of a 

Middle English Chronicle 



cneDievAL & ReKi2s.issAKice 
xexTS & sTuDies 



Volume 180 






The Prose Brut: 

The Development 

of a 

Middle English Chronicle 



by 
Lister M. Matheson 



cneOievAL & RewAissAMce texts & STuOies 

Tempe, Arizona 
1998 



© Copyright 1998 
Arizona Board of Regents for Arizona State University 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PubUcation Data 

Matheson, Lister M. ^ ,.,,.,/.•. j u 

The prose Brut : the development of a Middle Enghsh chronicle / edited by 

Lister M. Matheson. 

p. cm. — (Medieval 6c Renaissance texts 8c studies ; v. 1«0) 

Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and indexes. 

ISBN 0-86698-222-1 (alk. paper) 

1 Chronicles of England — Manuscripts. 2. Great Britain — History — i o 
1485 — Sources — Manuscripts. 3. English language — Middle Enghsh, 1100- 
1500 — Texts. 4. Brutus the Trojan (Legendary character). 5. Middle Ages 
Sources - Manuscripts. 6. Manuscripts, Medieval - England. 7. Manuscripts, 
Enghsh (Middle). I. Tide. II. Series. 

DA130.M38 1998 ^^^^^^^ 

942 — dc21 „p 



This book is made to last. 

It is set in Caslon, 

smythe-sewn and printed on acid-free paper 

to library specifications. 



Printed in the United States of America 



Table of Contents 



Preface ix 

Abbreviations and Short Titles xi 

Location Lists of Manuscripts and Early Printed Editions xvii 

Introduction 

L The Prose Brut: Contents and Overview of the Versions 1 

IL Cultural and Historical Influence 8 

III. The Anglo-Norman ^rw/ 30 

IV. The Latin 5n// 37 

V. The Middle English Brut 47 

VI. Methods of Classification 49 
Appendix 1: The Text of the Cadwallader Episode 57 
Appendix 2: The Text of Queen Isabella's Letter 62 
Appendix 3: The Text of an Extended Version 

Exordium (Group B) 64 

CLASSinCATION OF THE TEXTS OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH BRUT 

Synoptic Inventory of Versions 67 

I. The Common Version 

The Common Version to 1333 (CV-1333) 79 

The Common Version to 1377 (CV-1377) 87 
The Common Version to 1419, ending "and manfiilly 

countered with our English men" (CV-1419[men]) 97 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS 

The Common Version to 1419, ending "in rule and 

governance" (CV-1419[r&g]) 106 
The Common Version to 1419, with "Leyle" for 

Lear (CV-1419 [Leyle]) 128 
The Common Version to 1419, ending in "men" or 

(?) "in rule and governance" (CV-1419[men/?r&g]) 131 
Continuation to a CV-1377 f.c. Stage 3 text from a 

Common Version text ending in 1419(r&g) 132 
The Common Version beyond 1419, including 

John Page's poem 'The Siege of Rouen" (CV-JP) 133 

The Common Version to 1461 (CV-1461) 157 
Manuscripts containing the Polychronicon 1461 

continuation and associated with "Warkworth's" 

Chronicle (Poly. 1461 W.C.) 166 

IL The Extended Version 

The Extended and Abbreviated Versions 173 

The Extended Version to 1377 (EV-1377) 174 

The Extended Version to 1419, Group A (EV-1419:A) 177 

The Extended Version to 1419, Group B (EV-1419:B) 188 

The Extended Version to 1419, Group C (EV-1419:C) 197 

in. The Abbreviated Version 

The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group A (AV-1419:A) 204 

The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group B (AV-1419:B) 215 

The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group C (AV-1419:C) 228 

The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group D (AV-1419:D) 230 

Remarks on the Extended and Abbreviated Versions 234 

IV. Peculiar Texts and Versions 256 

Reworked Texts and Versions 257 

Sections of Longer 5rM/ Texts 311 

Very Brief Works Based on the Brut 314 

Texts Containing Brief King-Lists 318 

Appendages to Other Works 322 

The Translation Attributed to John Mandeville ( JM-1333) 328 

V. Unclassified Texts 335 



TABLE OF CONTENTS vii 

VI. The Early Printed Editions 339 

Bibliography 349 

Index of Manuscripts and Early Printed Editions 366 

Index of Persons, Places, and Texts Associated with 

Manuscripts and Early Printed Editions 378 



Preface 

The Middle English prose Brut survives in more manuscripts than any 
other Middle English work except the two Wycliffite translations of the 
Bible. The present study classifies and groups the Middle English manu- 
scripts and early printed editions and comments on the relationships that 
developed among them from the late fourteenth through the fifteenth 
centuries (and, in some cases, beyond the end of the latter century). 

This book is the product of many years of intermittent engagement 
with the manuscripts and texts of the Brut, in the course of which I have 
incurred many pleasurable debts to scholars, librarians, and owners of 
manuscripts around the world. 

For information on manuscripts, I acknowledge my gratitude above all 
to Michael L. Samuels, A. I. Doyle, and A. S. G. Edwards, as well as to 
Eugene J. Crook, Norman Davis, Marcel Dikstra, Caroline D. Eckhardt, 
Margaret H. Engel, Arthur Henne, Edward Donald Kennedy, Erik 
Kooper, Lan Lipscomb, Felicity Riddy, Christine M. Rose, Kathleen L. 
Scott, Barbara A. Shailor, Linda Ehrsam Voigts, Charlotte Wulf, and the 
librarians, keepers of manuscripts, and archivists of the many far-flung 
institutions, listed on pages xviii-xxi, xxiii-xxxi that hold manuscripts of 
the Brut. For information on early printed editions, I thank Katharine F. 
Pantzer. 

For access to and microfilms of manuscripts in their care, I again thank 
those librarians and keepers, particularly Jack Baldwin (University of 
Glasgow Library), Hans E. Braun (Bibliotheca Bodmeriana), C. R. 
Cheney (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge), William O'Sullivan (Tri- 
nity College, Dublin, Library), and R. L Page (Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge). I mention especially those private owners, Mrs. P. G. Gor- 
dan, Mr. Robert Heyneman, and Professor Toshiyuki Takamiya, who 
generously accommodated, in one way or another, my requests to inspect 
their manuscripts. I am grateful to the staff of Special Collections at 
Edinburgh University Library for providing access to microfilms of Pro- 



X PREFACE 

fessor Takamiya's manuscripts that were made for the Middle English 
Dialect Project and to Margaret Laing for facilitating my examination of 
these. 

Rachel Whitaker and Michael Grisinger were of great help in trans- 
ferring information from paper to computer disk. 

For funding in support of this study, I am much indebted to the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Humanities and the Rackham Foundation of 
the University of Michigan. 

As always, I owe my deepest personal gratitude to my parents, Mar- 
garet A. and Charles Matheson, who supported in so many ways my early 
work at the University of Glasgow. I am grateful to my partner and fel- 
low toiler in the vineyard, Tess Tavormina, who read earlier drafts of the 
present volume and who made many invaluable editorial suggestions on 
style and details of content. I also thank my son, Calum Matheson, for 
his patient tolerance of my frequent disappearances into manuscript read- 
ing rooms or into my study, where the microfilm reader resides. He (and 
I) might well echo the heartfelt sentiments expressed by the scribe of 
New College, Oxford, MS. 121 in a colophon on fol. 376v: 

If Explicit... longissima prolixissima 8c tediosissima scribenti. Deo 
gratias. Deo gratias. 6c iterum Deo gratias. 



LMM. 



Abbreviations and Short Titles 



General Abbreviations 


a 


column a 


Addit. 


Additional 


App. 


Appendix 


b 


column b 


Bibl. Nat. 


Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) 


BL 


British Library (London) 


Bodl. 


Bodleian Library (Oxford) 


ca. 


circa 


cat. 


catalogue 


CCCC 


Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 


CoU. 


College 


CUL 


Cambridge University Library 


EETS 


Early English Text Society 


e.s. 


Extra Series 


EUL 


Edinburgh University Library 


fol(s). 


folio(s) 


HMSO 


Her Majesty's Stationery Office 


MS(S). 


manuscript(s) 


NLS 


National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh) 


NLW 


National Library of Wales (Aberystwyth) 


n.s. 


New Series 


o.s. 


Original Series 


PRO 


Public Record Office (London) 


r 


recto 


Soc. 


Society 


TCC 


Trinity College, Cambridge 


TCD 


Trinity College, Dublin 


V 


verso 


vol(s). 


volume(s) 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES 



Taxonomic Abbreviations Used in Classifying Middle English Brut Texts 


cv 


Common Version 


EV 


Extended Version 


AV 


Abbreviated Version 


PV 


Peculiar Version 


JM 


the translation attributed to John Mandeville, rector of 




Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk 


f.c. 


full continuation from 1333 to 1377 


s.c. 


short continuation from 1333 to 1377 


-[year] 


to [year] (e.g., CV-1333 = Common Version to 1333) 


men, "men" 


ending "and manfully countered with our English men" 




(applied to texts to 1419 that end with these words) 


r&g, "r&g" 


ending "in rule and governance" (applied to texts to 1419 




that end with these words) 


Leyle 


with "Leyle" for Lear (applied to texts to 1419 that refer 




to King Lear as "Leyle") 


JP 


including John Page's poem "The Siege of Rouen" 




(found in certain texts that extend beyond 1419) 


Poly. 1461 


containing the Polychronicon continuation from 1419 to 




1461 


W.C. 


"Warkworth's" Chronicle 


Cad 


the Cadwallader episode 


OIL 


Queen Isabella's letter 



"5w" "fifth ward" (an intrusive heading frequently found in the 

account of the batde of Halidon Hill) 

A, B, C, etc. group A, B, C, etc. 
(a), (b), (c) subgroup (a), (b), (c) 



Abbreviations Used in Textual Citations and Apparatus 

add. added (in) 

corr. corrected, corrector 

del. deleted (in) 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES Xlll 



etc. 


et cetera 


foil- 


followed 


ins. 


inserted (in) 


marg. 


(in) margin 


om. 


omitted (in) 


orig. 


originally 


poss. 


possibly 


vr(r). 


variant reading(s) 



Short Titles 

Frequently cited catalogues, studies, and editions are referred to on their 
first occurrence by full name of author and title (with basic bibliographic- 
al information) and thereafter by surname and abbreviated title. The fol- 
lowing short tides should, however, be particularly noted: they refer to (a) 
editions, bibliographical works, and important studies and (b) works that 
are cited only by short title. Full bibliographical and publishing details are 
found in the Bibliography. 

Brie: Friedrich W. D. Brie, ed., The Brut or The Chronicles of Eng- 
land, EETS o.s. 131, 136 (1906, 1908). 

Brie, Geschichte und Quellen: 

Friedrich W. D. Brie, Geschichte und Quellen der mittelenglischen 
Prosachronik The Brute of England oder The Chronicles of England 
(Marburg, 1905). 

"Davies's" Chronicle: 

John Silvester Davies, ed., An English Chronicle of the Reigns of 
Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI Written Before the 
Year 1471, Camden Society o.s. 64 (1856). 

DNB: The Dictionary of National Biography. 

Gairdner, ed., Chronicles: 

James Gairdner, ed.. Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles , Cam- 
den Society n.s. 28 (1880). 

Gairdner, ed., Hist. Collections: 

James Gairdner, ed.. Historical Collections of a Citizen of London 
in the Fifteenth Century, Camden Society n.s. 17 (1876). 



xiv ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES 

Gransden, Historical Writing II: 

Antonia Gransden, Historical Writing in England. II. c. 1307 to 
the Early Sixteenth Century (Ithaca, 1982). 

Kennedy, Manual: 

Edward Donald Kennedy, "Chronicles and Other Historical 
Writing," A Manual of the Writings in Middle English 1050- 
1500, ed. Albert E. Hartung, vol. 8 (Hamden, 1989). 

Ker, MMBL I: 

N. R. Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries. I. London 
(Oxford, 1969). 

Ker, MMBL II: 

N. R. Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries. II. Abbots- 
ford-Keele (Oxford, 1977). 

Ker, MMBL III: 

N. R. Ker, Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries. III. Lam- 
peter-Oxford (Oxford, 1983). 

Kingsford, ed., Chrons. London: 

Charles L. Kingsford, ed.. Chronicles of London (Oxford, 1905). 

Kingsford, English Historical Literature: 

Charles L. Kingsford, English Historical Literature in the Fif- 
teenth Century (Oxford, 1913). 

LALME: 

Angus Mcintosh, M. L. Samuels, and Michael Benskin, A Lin- 
guistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English, 4 vols. (Aberdeen, 
1986). 

Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts": 

C.W. Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts of the Brut in the 
National Library of Wales," The National Library of Wales Jour- 
nal 27 {1991-92): 361-82. 

Matheson, "Historical Prose": 

Lister M. Matheson, "Historical Prose," in Middle English 
Prose: A Critical Guide to Major Authors and Genres, ed. A. S. G. 
Edwards (New Brunswick, 1984). Pp. 209-48. 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SHORT TITLES xv 

Matheson, "Printer and Scribe": 

Lister M, Matheson, "Printer and Scribe: Caxton, the Poly- 
chronicon, and the Brut" Speculum 60 (1985): 593-614. 

SC: Falconer Madan, H. E. Craster, Noel Denholm Young, et al., 

A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Li- 
brary, 7 vols. (Oxford, 1895-1953). 

Short English Metrical Chronicle (see Zettl). 

Smith, ed., Kalendar. 

Lucy Toulmin Smith, ed.. The Maire ofBristowe Is Kalendar, by 
Robert Ricart, Town Clerk of Bristol, 18 Edward B^, Camden 
Society n.s. 5 (1872). 

STC: A. W. Pollard and G. R. Redgrave, comps., A Short-Title Cata- 
logue of Books Printed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of 
English Books Printed Abroad, 1475-1640, 2nd ed., rev. and en- 
larged by W. A. Jackson, F. S. Ferguson, and Katharine F. 
Pantzer, 2 vols. (London, 1976, 1986). 

Taylor, English Historical Literature: 

John Taylor, English Historical Literature in the Fourteenth Cen- 
tury (Oxford, 1987). 

Zettl, ed., Metrical Chron.: 

Ewald Zettl, ed.. An Anonymous Short English Metrical Chroni- 
cle, EETS o.s. 196 (1935). 



Location Lists of Manuscripts 
and Early Printed Editions 

The Anglo-Norman Brut 

The Anglo-Norman prose Brut survives in at least forty-nine manuscripts 
(containing fifty texts). The following list includes those texts traditionally 
assigned to the Anglo-Norman work that formed the basis for the Mid- 
dle English translation, (The manuscripts Usted below have been sub- 
sumed in a general list of manuscripts and rolls of French historical texts 
published by Diana B. Tyson under the tide of "the French prose Brut 
chronicle." Tyson has, however, defined "^Bruf as an umbrella term for a 
genre rather than as the title of an identifiably separate work; accordingly, 
her hst includes without differentiation many texts and sections of texts 
that have been excluded here, although they may well have drawn upon 
or been influenced by the Anglo-Norman prose Brut}) 



' See Diana B. Tyson, "Handlist of Manuscripts Containing the French Prose Brut 
Chronicle," Scriptorium 98 (1994): 333-44. Tyson's criteria are given on p. 333; it should 
be noted that she has chosen to ignore distinctions between the Short and Long Versions 
and among the continuations, as well as whether Des Grantz Geanz is in verse or prose 
(p. 334). The present list supersedes those given in Friedrich W. D. Brie, Geschichte und 
Quellen der mittelenglischen Prosachronik The Brute of England oder The Chronicles of 
England (Marburg, 1905), pp. 1-2, and Johan Vising, Anglo-Norman Language and Lit- 
erature (London and Oxford, 1923), pp. 74f , 88fF. For partial hsts, see Georgine E. 
Brereton, ed., Des Grantz Geantz. An Anglo-Norman Poem, Medium vEvum Monographs 
2 (Oxford, 1937), pp. vi-xi (manuscripts containing the introductory f>oem); Wendy R. 
Childs and John Taylor, eds.. The Anonimalle Chronicle, 1307 to 1334, From Brotherton 
Collection MS 29, Yorkshire Archasological Society, Record Series 147 (Leeds, 1991), pp. 
74-75 (manuscripts containing the short continuation). See also M. Dominica Legge and 
Georgine E. Brereton, Three Hitherto Unlisted MSS. of the French Prose Brute Chroni- 
cle," Medium jEvum 7 (1938): 113-17; James P. Carley and Julia Crick, "Constructing 
Albion's Past: An Annotated Edition of D^ Origine Gigantum," Arthurian Literature XIU, 
ed. James P. Carley and Felicity Riddy (Cambridge, 1995), p. 46 n. 18; Ruth Dean's 
forthcoming catalogue of Anglo-Norman literature (noted in Carley and Crick). A single 
leaf was Usted in Quaritch cat. 1147, BooJkhands of the Middle Ages: Part V, Medieval 



LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 



England 

Cambridge, Cambridge University Library 

Ee.1.20, fols. 78V-142 

Gg.1.15, fols. l-80v 

Ii.6.8, fols. 1-183V 

Mm.1.33, fols. l-62v 

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 
98 (roll on 16 skins) 

Cambridge, Trinity College 
R.5.32, fols. 1-59 
R.7.14, fols. l-147v 

Leeds, University of Leeds Library 

Brotherton Collection 29, fols. 23-26, 248v-271 (formerly Bradfer- 
Lawrence, Ingilby) 

London, British Library 

Additional 18462(a), fols. 8-lOlv 
Additional 18462(b), fols. 103-204v 
Additional 35092, fols. 5-144 
Additional 35113, fols. 2-92 
Cotton Cleopatra D.iii, fols. 74-1 82v 



Manuscript Leaves (1991), item 101; see H. R. Woudhuysen, "Manuscripts at Auction 
January 1991 to December 1991," in English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700, ed. Peter 
Beal and Jeremy Griffiths, 4 (London and Toronto, 1993), p. 297. The present list does 
not contain BL MS. Additional 10622, fols. l-62v, which agrees with the first part of 
BL MS. Royal 20.A.xviii (the text is similar to that found as the first section of Leeds 
MS. Brotherton 29); there can be no certainty, however, that the Additional manuscript 
ever included the long continuation from the Brut that is appended in a different hand 
in the Royal manuscript. Vising lists Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. R.4.26, which 
contains a text of the Brut abrege; see Ewald Zettl, ed.. An Anonymous Short English 
Metrical Chronicle, EETS o.s. 196 (1935), pp. xxxi-xxxiv (description of CUL Gg.1.1), 
92-107 (text of CUL Gg.1.1). Other manuscripts of the Brut abrege include Trinity 
College, Cambridge, R.7.23; Trinity College, Cambridge, R.14.9; Harvard Law School 
1; Trinity College, Cambridge, R.4.26; Public Record Office, Exchequer 164/24; BL 
Royal 20.C.vi; Bodleian Selden Supra 74; Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 53; see 
Marcia L. Maxwell, "The Anglo-Norman Prose Brut. An Edition of British Library MS 
Cotton Cleopatra D.iii," Ph.D. diss., Michigan State University, 1995, pp. 7, 12-13, and, 
for further manuscripts, Tyson, "Handlist of Manuscripts Containing the French Prose 
Brut Chronicle," pp. 338-44. 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xix 

Cotton Cleopatra D.vii, fols. 76-79v (hand 2), 80-139v (hand 1), 

140-182V (hand 2) 
Cotton Domitian x, fols. 14-87v 
Cotton Julius A.i, fols. 51-53v (fragment)^ 
Cotton Tiberius A.vi, fols. 121-142 
Hariey 200, fols. 4-79v 
Harley 6359, fols. 1-84 
Royal 19.C.ix, fols. 1-155 
Royal 20.A.iii, fols. 121-236 
Royal 20.A.xviii, fols. 311-335v 
Royal App. 85, fols. 15-22 (fragment) 

London, College of Arms 
Arundel 31, fols. l-186v 

London, Lambeth Palace Library 
504, fols. l-77v 

London, Library of the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple 
511, Vol. XIX, fols. 7\^147v 

London, Lincoln's Inn 
88, fols. 9-76v 

London, Westminster Abbey Chapter Library 
25, fols. l-92v 

Oxford, Bodleian Library 

Ashmole 1804 (SC 25174), fols. 49-104v 

Douce 120 (SC 21694), fols. l-64v 

Douce 128 (SC 21702), fols. 60-163v 

e Musaeo 108 (SC 3697), fols. 1-119 

Lyell 17, fols. 58v-121v (formerly Wrest Park 33) 

Rawlinson D.329 (SC 13117), fols. 8-122v 

Wood empt. 8 (SC 8596), fols. l-57v 

Oxford, Corpus Christi College 
78, fols. 3-214 
293, fols. 21-87v 



^ Misnumbered as "A. VI" in John Taylor, English Historical Literature in the Four- 
teenth Century (Oxford, 1987), p. 121, and Childs and Taylor, tds., Anonimalle Chronicle, 
p. 74. 



LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 



Scotland 

Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Library 
181 (Laing 51), fols. 47-201v 

Ireland 

Dublin, Trinity College 

500, pp. 13-199 

501, fols. 51-125 

France 

Paris, Bibliotheque de I'Arsenal 
3346, fols. 84-156 

Paris, Bibliotheque Mazarine 
1860, fols. 1-108 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 

fonds fran9ais 12155, fols. 2-233 
fonds fran9ais 12156, fols. 3-126 
fonds fran^ais 14640, fols. l-49v 
nouvelles acquisitions fran9aises 4267, fols. 9-14 (fragment) 

Paris, Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve 
935, fols. 1-208 

United States of America 

New Haven, Beinecke Library, Yale University 

86, fols. l-12v (fragments; formerly Fletcher, Lyell) 

405, fols. l-74v (formerly Brudenell; Sotheby 10 July 1967, no. 48; 

H. A. Levinson, cat. 60 [1969], no. 765) 
593, fols. l-118v (formerly Phillipps 3338) 



The Latin Brut 
The Latin Brut is known to survive, in whole or in part, in the nineteen 
manuscripts below, although this list is almost certainly incomplete. 

England 

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 
311, fols. 1-101 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xxi 

Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College 
72, fols. 1-51 

London, British Library 

Cotton Domitian iv, fols. 2-57v 

Cotton Galba E.vii, fols. 119v^l20 (15th-century interpolation) 

Cotton Julius B.iii, fols. 51v-101v 

Harley 941, fols. l-3v 

Harley 3884, fols. 227-228v (2 extracts) 

Harley 3906, fols. 2-108 

Lansdowne 212, fols. 2-171v 

London, College of Arms 

Arundel 5, fols. 120-168v 

London, Lambeth Palace Library 
99, fols. l-22v 

Oxford, Bodleian Library 

RawUnson B.147, fols. l-43v 
RawUnson B.169, fols. 1-88 
Rawlinson B.195, fols. 1-54 (16th century) 
Rawhnson C.234, fols. l-72v 
RawUnson C.398, fols. 1-51 

Oxford, Magdalen College 
200, fols. 40-56 

Oxford, St. John's College 
78, fols. 2-55v 

United States of America 
San Marino, Henry E. Huntington Library 
HM 19960, fols. before fol. 175 (extract) 



The Middle English Brut 
The following list of manuscripts and early printed editions consolidates 
the list published by the present writer in 1979 (supplemented in 1984 
and 1985) with those in the Index of Printed Middle English Prose (1985) 
and the Manual of the Writings in Middle English (1989).-^ Some minor 

^ Lister M. Matheson, "The Middle English Prose Brut. A Lxjcation List of the 



xxii LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

corrections have been made, and the only completely new addition to the 
corpus is the Brogyntyn MS. (on deposit in the National Library of 
Wales). Welbeck Abbey MS. 29/331, previously on deposit at the British 
Library, has now been incorporated into the Additional manuscripts as 
BL Additional 70514. 

In addition to English texts of or directly descended from the main 
translation of the Anglo-Norman Brut, the present list also includes 
manuscripts of works derived from or textually related to the Brut, 
namely: 

(a) the manuscripts of John Mandeville's English translation of the 
Anglo-Norman work (BL Harley 4690, Coll. of Arms Arundel 58, and 
the seventeenth-century transcript of Arundel 58 in Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, Pepys 2833); 

(b) Bodl. Digby 196, which includes a short king-list and a brief 
chronicle derived from the main Brut, catalogued separately by Kennedy 
{Manual, p. 2637); 

(c) CUL Ff.1.6 and Folger Shakespeare Library V.a.l98, a brief 
king-list/chronicle, again partly based on the main Brut, catalogued 
separately by Kennedy as The Cronekelys ofSeyntys and Kyngys ofYngelond 
{Manual, p. 2637); 

(d) Bodl. Ashmole 791, Holkham 669, Columbia Plimpton 261, and 
the brief seventeenth-century extracts in Bodl. Ashmole 1139.iv.2, trans- 
lated from a Latin Brut, provisionally classified separately by Kennedy as 
The New Croniclys Compendyusly Idrawn of the Gestys of the Kynges of 
England {Manual, pp. 2638-40); 

(e) Mayor's Calendar, City of Bristol Record Office, no. 04720 (1) 
(the Bristowe Chronicle), the first part of which is an abridgement of the 
Brut (unrecognized as such in Manual, p. 2655). 

In the following list, alternate or former shelfmarks or catalogue 
numbers are given in parentheses. Kennedy's information on former. 



Manuscripts and Early Printed Editions," Analytical and Enumerative Bibliography 3 
(1979): 254-66; Matheson, "Historical Prose," in Middle English Prose: A Critical Guide 
to Major Authors and Genres, ed. A. S. G. Edwards (New Brunswick, 1984), pp. 232-33; 
Matheson, "Printer and Scribe: Caxton, the Polychronicon, and the Brut" Speculum 60 
(1985): 593 n. 3; Robert E. Lewis, N. F. Blake, and A. S. G. Edwards, Index of Printed 
Middle English Prose (New York and London, 1985), pp. 132-34; and Edward Donald 
Kennedy, "Chronicles and Other Historical Writing," A Manual of the Writings in Middle 
English 1050-1500, ed. Albert E. Hartung, vol. 8 (Hamden, 1989), pp. 2818-21. 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xxiii 

modem owners of manuscripts and his references to sale catalogues have 
been incorporated and, where possible, expanded. Texts and transcripts 
that were undoubtedly written after 1500 are so indicated; some represent 
usefiil witnesses to the medieval manuscript tradition. 

England 

Bristol, City of Bristol Record Office 

Mayor's Calendar, no. 04720 (1), fols. 3v-15v 

Cambridge, Cambridge University Library 

Additional 2775, fols. 10-255 (formerly Charlemont [Sotheby 

1865], Harwood [Sotheby 1883]) 
Ee.4.31, fols. 203-276V 
Ee.4.32, fols. 24-207v 

Ff 1.6, fols. 110-113 ("Findern MS.," formerly John Moore 60) 
Ff 2.26, fols. 2-104 (formerly More 611) 
Hh.6.9, fols. 1-183V 

Kk.1.3, 10 unnumbered folios inserted near end of MS. 
Kk.1.12, fols. 1-129 
Ll.2.14, fols. 143-225V 

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 
174, fols. l-198v 
182, fols. 1-179V 

Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum 
McClean 186, fols. 2-198 

Cambridge, Magdalene College 

Pepys 2833, pp. 1-3, fols. 485-518 (ca. 1685 copy of Coll. of Arms 
Arundel 58 [Mandeville translation]) 

Cambridge, Peterhouse 

190, fols. l-214v, ("Warkworth's" Chronicle) 214v-225 

Cambridge, Trinity College 

0.9.1 (1413), fols. 49-227 (including London chronicle from fol. 

198v) 
O.10.34 (1486), fols. 1-160 
O.ll.ll, fols. 3v-130v (formerly Loscombe, Ashbumham Appendix 

CIX, Leighton, Dunn, Murray) 
R.5.43 (731), Part II, fols. 39-199v 



XXIV LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Leicester, University of Leicester Library 

47, fols. 1-1 06v (formerly Ashburnham; Sotheby 1 May 1899, lot 
57) 

Lincoln, Lincoln Cathedral Chapter Library 
70 (C.5.12), fols. l-59v 
98 (A.4.6), fols. 174-181V 

London, Bedford Estates Office, 29 A Montague St., London 
WCIB 5BL 
Woburn Abbey 181, fols. [100v-202v] 

London, British Library 

Additional 6915, fols. 1-141 (transcript of BL Harley 63 by J. H. 

Hindley, made 1785-1827) 
Additional 10099, fols. 1-203 
Additional 12030, fols. l-167v 
Additional 24859, fols. 1-149 
Additional 26746, fols. l-371v (16th century?) 
Additional 33242, fols. 1-164 
Additional 70514, fols. [l-38v] (formerly Welbeck Abbey 29/331, 

Duke of Portland, BL Deposit, MS. Loan 29) 
Cotton Claudius A.viii, fols. 1-12 (7-18 in alternative foliation) 
Cotton Galba E.viii, fols. 29-148 
Egerton 650, fols. 2-1 14v (including London chronicle from fol. 

lllv) 
Harley 24, fols. l-220v 
Harley 53, fols. 14-164v 
Harley 63, fols. l-44v 
Harley 266, fols. l-151v 
Harley 753, fols. l-191v 
Harley 1337, fols. 1*, 1-105 
Harley 1568, fols. 1-182, 183v 
Harley 2182, fols. 1-185 
Harley 2248, fols. l-290v 
Harley 2256, fols. 1-202 
Harley 2279, fols. 3-146 
Harley 3730, fols. 2-119v 
Harley 3945, fols. l-117v 
Harley 4690, fols. 4-108 (Mandeville translation) 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xxv 

Harley 4827, fols. 1-157 

Harley 4930, fols. 1-1 llv 

Harley 6251, fols. l-105v 

Harley 7333, fols. l-24v 

Royal ll.B.ix, fols. 133-134v 

Royal 17.D.xxi, fols. 1-197 

Royal 18.A.ix, fols. 8-132v 

Royal 18.B.iii, fols. l-275v (misbound; begins on fol. 5; fols. 1-4 

should follow fol. 8, though some leaves have been lost after 

fol. 4) 
Royal IS.B.iv, fols. 1-169 
Sloane 2027, fols. 96^^97v, 170-188v 
Stowe 68, fols. l-189v 

Stowe 69, fols. 2-195v (including London chronicle from fol. 192) 
Stowe 70, fols. 3-139v 
Stowe 71, fols. 3-84v 

London, College of Arms 
Arundel 8, fols. 1-68 

Arundel 58, fols. 5-6, 76, 302v-334 (Mandeville translation) 
Vincent 421, fols. [l-143v] 

London, Lambeth Palace Library 
6, fols. 1-257 
84, fols. l-202v 
259, pp. 1-229 
264, fols. l-168v 
306, fols. l-17v 
331, fols. l-117v 
491, fols. l-205v 
738, fols. 1-228V 

London, Library of the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple 
Petyt 511, Vol. XI, fols. 66-169v 

London, Sion College 

Arc. L.40.2/E.42, fols. l-186v 

London, Society of Antiquaries 
93, fols. l-97v 
223, fols. l-45v 



xxvi LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Manchester, John Rylands University Library 

Eng. 102, fols. 1-lOlv (formerly Wasey, Leighton) 
Eng. 103, fols. l-130v (formerly Leighton) 
Eng. 104, fols. l-133v (formerly Tomlynson, Leighton) 
Eng. 105, fols. 3-136v (formerly Phillipps 9486) 
Eng. 206, fols. 3-104v (formerly Coke, Dunn) 
Eng. 207, fols. l-103v, 104-124v (two MSS. combined before 
1749; formerly Quentock, Dunn) 

Norfolk, Holkham HaU 

669, pp. 1-185 

670, fols. [l-125v] (formerly Coke) 

Northumberland, Alnwick Castle 
457A, fols. l-47v, 48-69 

Nottingham, Nottinghamshire County Council 
DDES 3/1, fols. l-83v (formerly Stanhope) 

Oxford, Bodleian Library 

Ashmole 791 (SC 7430), fols. l-59v 

Ashmole 793 (SC 7433), fols. l-148v 

Ashmole 1139.iv.2, fol. 80r-v (transcript of 1672 of excerpts from 

Bodl. Ashmole 791) 
Bodley 231 (SC 2174), fols. l-198v 
Bodley 754 (SC 27653), fols. 2-154 
Bodley 840 (SC 27654), fols. l-166v 
Digby 185 (SC 1786), fols. l-79v 
Digby 196 (SC 1797), fols. 26-27, 156v^l58 
Douce 290 (SC 21864), fols. 157-280v 
Douce 323 (SC 21897), fols. 1-lOlv 
e Musaeo 39 (SC 3634), fols. l-182v 
Hatton 50 (SC 4112), fols. 2-130 
Laud Misc. 550 (SC 1375), fols. l-120v 
Laud Misc. 571 (SC 1493), fols. l-142v 
Laud Misc. 733 (SC 1129), fols. 18-168v 
LyeU 34, fols. l-214v 
Rawlinson B.166 (SC 11535), fols. l-131v 
Rawlinson B.171 (SC 11539), fols. l-201v 
Rawlinson B.173 (SC 11541), fols. l-221v 
Rawlinson B.187 (SC 11548), fols. l-135v 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xxvil 

Rawlinson B.190 (SC 15500), fols. l-163v 

Rawlinson B.196 (SC 11556), fols. 1-109 

Rawlinson B.205 (SC 15506), fols. l-68v 

Rawlinson B.216 (SC 11568), fols. 1-125 

Rawlinson C.155 (SC 12019), fols. 89-94v (transcript of 1606 by 

Henry Spelman) 
Rawlinson C.901 (SC 12735), fols. 1-130 
Rawlinson poet. 32 (SC 14526), fols. 55\^168 
Tanner 11 (SC 9831), fols. 1-211 
Tanner 188 (SC 10014), fols. 1-127 

Oxford, Jesus College 
5, fols. 1-216V 

Oxford, Lincoln College 

Lat. 151, fols. 1-1 77v (numbered to fol. 176 [fol. 26 was omitted]; 
formerly Norris, gift to Norwich Castle Museum 1830; Sotheby 
11 Dec. 1961, lot 159) 

Oxford, Trinity College 
5, fols. 1-216V 

Oxford, University College 
154, fols. 1-121V 

Wiltshire, Longleat House 
183A, fols. l-137v 

Scotland 

Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland 
6128, fols. l-142v (formerly Borthwick) 

Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Library 

184 (Laing 217), fols. l-25v 

185 (Laing 196), fols. 1-125 

Glasgow, University of Glasgow Library 

Hunterian 61 (T.2.19), fols. iv-147v (123 fols. in MS.; several folios 

missing) 
Hunterian 74 (T.3.12), fols. l-114v 
Hunterian 83 (T.3.21), fols. 15-140v, ("Warkworth's" Chronicle) 

141-148V 



xxviii LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Hunterian 228 (U.3.1), fols. l-151v 
Hunterian 230 (U.3.3), fols. 2-246 
Hunterian 443 (V.5.13), fols. 2-173v 

JVa/es 

Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales 
442D (Williams 241), fols. l-342v 
21608D, fols. l-189v (formerly Llannerch-Gwysaney, acquired in 

1978) 
Brogyntyn 8, fols. l-18v (Lord Harlech MS., 1934 deposit) 
Peniarth 343A (Hengwrt 257), pp. 1-45, 58 (16th/17th 

century) 
Peniarth 396D (Hengwrt 429 Appendix and Hengwrt 429), pp. 1- 

16, fols. 3-212v (two texts) 
Peniarth 397C (Hengwrt 115), pp. 1-538 
Peniarth 398D (Hengwrt 320), pp. 3-274 

Ire/and 

Dublin, Trinity College 

489, pp. 35-213 

490, fols. 3-177v 

505, pp. 87-285 

506, fols. l-93v 

5895, fols. 3-133V (formerly Ware, Henniker MS.) 

Belgium 

Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale 

IV.461, fols. l-75v (formerly Baynes, Sotheby 12 Dec. 1966, lot 
183) 

France 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 

fonds anglais 30, fols. l-42v (Gough sale, 1810) 

Germany 

Hamburg, Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek Hamburg 
Cod. 98 in serin, pp. 1-398 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xxix 

Switzerland 

Cologny-Geneve, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana 

Cod. Bodmer 43, fols. l-2v (formerly Aldenham, Sotheby 22 March 
1937, lot 107) 

United States of America 

Ann Arbor, Hatcher Library, University of Michigan 
225, fols. 1-135 

Berkeley, Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley 
152, fols. l-138v (formerly Bute 47; Sotheby 13 June 1983, lot 12, 
H. P. Kraus Cat. 180, Dec. 1988, lot 44) 

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Lehigh University Library 
3 fragments from 1 MS. 

Cambridge, Mass., Houghton Library, Harvard University 
Eng. 530, fols. 59-21 Iv 

Eng. 587, fols. 1-15 Iv (formerly Ashburnham Appendix CX) 
Eng. 750, fols. 10-71v, 84-103 (two texts; formerly Wrest Park 18) 
Eng. 938, fols. 91-lOlv 
Richardson 35, fols. 2-94v 

Chapel Hill, Robert G. Heyneman, 1108 Sourwood Circle, Chapel 
Hill, North CaroUna 27514 
1 MS., fols. l-167v (formerly Earl of Inchiquin, Wangenheim) 

Charlottesville, University of Virginia Library 

38-173, fols. l-229v (formerly von Scherling) 

Chicago, University of Chicago Library 

253, fols. l-132v (C^aritch cat. 303 [1911], no. 882, Sotheby 20 
Nov. 1912, lot 127, Quaritch cat. 344 [1916], no. 8) 

254, fols. 1-149V (formerly Phillipps 2706) 

Cleveland, Cleveland Public Library 

W q091.92-C468, fols. 13 (2nd leaf so numbered)-75v (formerly 
Aldenham, Sotheby 22 Mar. 1937, lot 108; E. P. Goldschmidt, 
cat. 44 [April 1938], no. 4, cat. 50 [Jan. 1939], no. 59, cat. 59 
[Sept. 1940], no. 49; bought in 1944) 

New Haven, Beinecke Library, Yale University 

323, fols. 3-157v (formerly Lord Amherst of Hackney, Jones, 



XXX LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Anderson Galleries, New York, 23 January 1923, cat. 1699, no. 
125, Sinderen) 
494, fols, 3-103 (formerly Segar, Frewen, H. P. Kraus) 

New York, Columbia University Library 

Plimpton 261, fols. l-133v (formerly Phillipps 191) 
Plimpton 262, fols. l-134v (formerly Phillipps 2307) 

New York, Mrs. J. D. Gordan, 113 East 78th St., New York, NY 
10021 
63, fols. 1-1 75v (formerly Duke of Newcastle, probably Rennie 733 
before 1829; Clumber sale, Sotheby 15 Feb. 1938, lot 1140; 
obtained from Maggs, 1938) 

Philadelphia, Free Library of Philadelphia 

Lewis 238, fols. 1-126 (formerly 2nd ToUemache copy, Helming- 
ham HaU; Sotheby 14 June 1965, lot 18) 

Princeton, Princeton University Library 
Garrett 150, fols. l-157v 
Taylor Medieval 3, fols. 40-13 Iv (formerly Wrest Park 5) 

San Marino, Henry E. Huntington Library 

HM 113, fols. 1-171V (formerly Phillipps 8857) 

HM 131, fols. l-154v (formerly Duke of Buccleuch, White, Jones, 

Smith) 
HM 133, fols. 1-1 lOv (formerly Hellman, Smith) 
HM 136, fols. l-172v (formerly Phillipps 8858) 

University Park, Pennsylvania State University Library 

PS. V-3A, fols. 1-197 (formerly Hale, Sotheby 8 Dec. 1981, lot 81) 

Urbana, University of Illinois Library 

82, fols. 1-2 18v (formerly Haslewood) 

116, fols. l-206v (formerly Duke of Buccleuch, Lord Amherst of 

Hackney, Harmsworth, Sotheby 15 Oct. 1945, lot 1951, Halli- 

day) 

Washington, D.C, Folger Shakespeare Library 

V.a.l98 (1232.3), fols. [l-3v] (formerly Phillipps 9613) 
V.b.l06 (725.2), fols. l-92v (formerly Phillipps 3784) 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xxxi 

Australia 

Corio, Victoria, Geelong Church of England Grammar School 

1 MS., fols. l-76v (formerly Baynes; gift to school in 1938 by C. A. 
S. Hawker, now missing) 

Sydney, University of Sydney Library 

Nicholson 13, fols. 1-1 77v (formerly Cochrane, Nicholson) 

Japan 

Tokyo, collection of Toshiyuki Takamiya, Dept. of English, Keio 

University, Mita, Minatoku, Tokyo 108 
12, fols. l-222v (formerly Fairfax of Cameron; Clumber sale, 

Sotheby 15 Feb. 1938, lot 1142; Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1975) 
18, fols. l-71v (formerly 1st Tollemache copy, Helmingham Hall; 

Sotheby 8 July, 1970, lot 66) 
29, fols. l-150v (formerly Hughlock, Duke of Newcastle; Clumber 

sale, Sotheby 15 Feb. 1938, lot 1141; Sotheby 14 Dec. 1977, 

lot 50) 
67, fols. l-203v (formerly Bradfer-Lawrence 11, Ingilby; formerly 

on deposit in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; sold to 

Quaritch ca. 1980) 



Unlocated Manuscripts 

As Kennedy notes, "All but five of the manuscripts listed by Brie have 
been located with certainty," and of these five, Brie's Rennie 733 is prob- 
ably the present Gordan 63 {Manual, p. 2635); the manuscripts listed 
below may also correspond to texts in the list above. The erstwhile 
owners of other manuscripts listed by Brie (but unseen by him) are^ 

1. John Edwards, Glasgow. A manuscript containing a CV heading and 
ending, perhaps imperfectly, with the death of Edward III.^ Edwards 



* Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 5; see Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2635-36, 2821. The 
following corrections to Brie's list of English manuscripts should also be noted: Laud 550 
and 571 are erroneously listed under the British Museum, as well as under the Bodleian 
Library, Lambeth 751 is an error (possibly confused with Laud 571); four manuscripts are 
hsted at Holkham Hall: 210, 236, 670, and 672 — the correct references should be Holk- 
ham 669 and 670. 

^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 59; John Edwards, "History in the 'Chronicle of 
the Brute'," Proceedings of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow 34 (1903): 272-81. 



xxxii LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

records the heading as "Here may a man heren how Engeland was first 
called Albion and thurgh whom it hadde the name." Edwards's citations 
from his manuscript show that it was not an Extended Version, and his 
description suggests that it included the Cadwallader episode. It is very 
possible that the text actually ended in 1377 with the death of Edward 
III and that Edwards described it as "imperfect" because he was primarily 
aware, from his comparisons with manuscripts in the Hunterian collec- 
tion at the University of Glasgow, of texts ending in 1419. If so, then 
this text was probably similar to the important text found as the first part 
of Princeton University Library, Taylor Medieval MS. 3 (item 20). 
Fortunately, Edwards included in the printed form of his paper a good 
facsimile of a page, the text of which recounts Merlin's establishment of 
Stonehenge; the manuscript (which probably still survives) may therefore 
be easily identifiable at some future time. 

2. Sir Edward Lechmere, Rhydd Court, Upton-on-Severn, Worcester- 
shire. Brie lists two manuscripts, while the Report of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission records only one.^ 

3. Sir John Lawson, Brough Hall, Yorkshire. A seventeenth-century 
transcript of 183 pages.'' 

To these should be added: 

4. Gurney MS. 116.13, Keswick Hall, Norfolk, fols. 139-150.^ Gurney 
manuscripts were sold in 1920 and at Sotheby in 1936. 

5. Foyle, Beeleigh Abbey, Maldon, Suffolk, bought a manuscript with 
Durham names at Sotheby 24 Jan. 1944, lot 126.^ 

6. Bradfer-Lawrence MS. 11, formerly deposited in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge, is now Takamiya MS. 67; I have used a microfilm 
copy supplied by the Museum before the sale of the manuscript. 



^ Fifth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (London, 1876), 
Appendix, p. 299. Cf. Guide to the Location of Collections Described in the Reports and 
Calendars Series 1870-1980, Guides to Sources for British History 3 (London, 1982), p. 
36. 

^ Third Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (London, 1872), 
Appendix, p. 255. Cf. Guide to the Location of Collections, p. 36. 

* Twelfth Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (London, 1891), 
Appendix, Part 9, pp. 153-55. Cf. Guide to the Location of Collections, p. 28. 

^ I am indebted for this information to A. L Doyle. 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS xxxiil 

Early Printed Editions 
The STC list of locations has been supplemented from William W. 
Bishop, A Checklist of American Copies of 'Short-Title Catalogue' Books, 
2nd ed. (Ann Arbor, 1950) and David Ramage, A Finding-List of English 
Books to 1640 in Libraries in the British Isles (Durham, 1958); the present 
list is not, however, exhaustive. I have not indicated which copies are im- 
perfect, though where a "copy" consists of only a few leaves this has been 
noted. 

1. William Caxton, Westminster, 1480 (STC 9991). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Lambeth Palace 
Library, London; London University Library; Bodleian Library, 
Oxford; University Library, Cambridge; John Rylands University 
Library, Manchester; Liverpool University Library; University of 
Glasgow Library; (b) United States: Folger Shakespeare Library, 
Washington, D.C.; Huntington Library, San Marino; Library of 
Congress, Washington, D.C.; New York Public Library; Pierpont 
Morgan Library, New York; Garrett Collection, Johns Hopkins 
University Library, Baltimore. 

2. WiUiam Caxton, Westminster, 1482 (STC 9992). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian Li- 
brary, Oxford; University Library, Cambridge; Pepysian Library, 
Magdalene College, Cambridge (5 leaves); John Rylands University 
Library, Manchester; (b) United States: Cornell University Library, 
Ithaca; Mellon Collection, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven; 
Newberry Library, Chicago; New York Public Library (1 leaf); 
Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. 

3. [Schoolmaster-Printer,] St. Albans, [?1483] (STC 9995). 
Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian 
Library, Oxford (3 copies); University Library, Cambridge; Uni- 
versity of Glasgow Library; John Rylands University Library, Man- 
chester; (b) United States: Huntington Library, San Marino; Uni- 
versity of Chicago Library; Newberry Library, Chicago; Pierpont 
Morgan Library, New York; Beinecke Library, Yale University, New 
Haven. 

4. [WiUiam de Machlinia, London, ?1486] (STC 9993). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian 



xxxiv LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Library, Oxford (2 copies); Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, 
Cambridge; Pembroke College Library, Cambridge; John Rylands 
University Library, Manchester; (b) United States: Chapin Library, 
Williams College, Williamstown; Mrs. J. D. Gordan, New York; 
University of Illinois Library, Champaign-Urbana; Pierpont Morgan 
Library, New York; Beinecke Library, Yale University, New Haven; 
Eric H. L. Sexton, Rockport, Maine. 

5. Gerard de Leew, Antwerp, 1493 (STC 9994). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian Li- 
brary, Oxford; University Library, Cambridge; John Rylands Univer- 
sity Library, Manchester; Peterborough Cathedral (on deposit at the 
University Library, Cambridge); Ripon Cathedral Library; (b) Ire- 
land: Trinity College Library, Dublin; (c) United States: Newberry 
Library, Chicago. 

6. Wynkyn de Worde, Westminster, 1497 (STC 9996). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian Li- 
brary, Oxford; University Library, Cambridge; King's College Li- 
brary, Cambridge; John Rylands University Library, Manchester (2 
copies); (b) United States: Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, 
D.C.; Huntington Library, San Marino (1 leaf); Mellon Collection, 
Yale Center for British Art, New Haven; Newberry Library, Chi- 
cago (1 leaf); Pierpont Morgan Library, New York; University of 
South Carolina Library, Columbia; (c) Australia: State Library of 
Victoria, Melbourne (1 leaf). 

7. Wynkyn de Worde, London, 1502 (STC 9997). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian Li- 
brary, Oxford; Wadham College Library, Oxford; Chetham's Li- 
brary, Manchester; (b) Ireland: Marsh's Library, Dublin; (c) United 
States: Boston Public Library; Carl H. Pforzheimer Library, New 
York; Library Company of Philadelphia; Pierpont Morgan Library, 
New York (25 leaves, interleaved with the 1515 W. de Worde edi- 
tion); Princeton University Library. 

8. Julyan Notary, London, 1504 (STC 9998). 

Copies: Great Britain: British Library, London; University Library, 
Cambridge; Trinity College Library, Cambridge. 

9. Richard Pynson, London, 1510 (STC 9999). 



AND EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 



Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian 
Library, Oxford; University Library, Cambridge; John Rylands Uni- 
versity Library, Manchester (2 copies); Peterborough Cathedral (on 
deposit at the University Library, Cambridge); (b) United States: 
Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C.; Annmary Brown 
Library, Brown University, Providence. 

10. Julyan Notary, London, 1515 (STC 10000). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; Bodleian Li- 
brary, Oxford; University Library, Cambridge; John Rylands Uni- 
versity Library, Manchester, Blackburn Public Library; National 
Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; (b) United States: Folger Shake- 
speare Library, Washington, D.C.; Huntington Library, San Mari- 
no; Lehigh University Library, Bethlehem; Pierpont Morgan Li- 
brary, New York; Beinecke Library, Yale University, New Haven; (c) 
Japan: Imperial University Library, Tol^^o. 

11. Wynkyn de Worde, London, 1515 (STC 10000.5, formerly 9985). 
Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; London Uni- 
versity Library; University of Liverpool Library; John Rylands 
University Library, Manchester; (b) United States: Folger Shake- 
speare Library, Washington, D.C.; Huntington Library, San Mari- 
no; Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge; Pierpont 

' Morgan Library, New York; Annmary Brown Library, Brown Uni- 
versity, Providence; St. Vincent College Library, Latrobe (1 leaf). 

12. Wynkyn de Worde, London, 1520 (STC 10001). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: Bodleian Library, Oxford (2 copies); All 
Souls College Library, Oxford; Edward Clark Library, Napier Col- 
lege of Science and Technology, Edinburgh; Ely Cathedral (on de- 
posit at the University Library, Cambridge); National Library of 
Wales, Aberystwyth; (b) United States: Chapin Library, Williams 
College, Williamstown; Mellon Collection, Yale Center for British 
Art, New Haven; Newberry Library, Chicago; University of Notre 
Dame Library, Notre Dame; Pierpont Morgan Library, New York 
(1 leaf); (c) Japan: Toshiyuki Takamiya, Keio University, Tokyo. 

13. Wynkyn de Worde, London, 1528 (STC 10002). 

Copies: (a) Great Britain: British Library, London; King's College 
Library, Cambridge; University of Glasgow Library; University of 
Leeds Library; John Rylands University Library, Manchester, Wor- 



xxxvi LOCATION LISTS OF MANUSCRIPTS 

cester Cathedral Library; (b) Ireland: Trinity College Library, 
Dublin; (c) United States: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; 
Princeton University Library; Beinecke Library, Yale University, 
New Haven (2 copies); (d) Japan: Toshiyuki Takamiya, Keio Uni- 
versity, Tokyo. 



Introduction 

I. The Prose Brut: 
Contents and Overview of the Versions 

Contents 

The chronicle known as the prose Brut is a comprehensive account of the 
history of England from its first discovery and settlement to what were, to 
its writers, continuators, and audience, modern times.^ It occurs in over 240 
manuscripts, written in the three major literary languages of medieval Eng- 
land; it was the first chronicle of England to be printed, going through thir- 
teen early printed editions, and in both the Middle Ages and the early Re- 
naissance it served as the standard account of English history. 

The original Anglo-Norman form of the work, written in the reign of 
Edward I, attributes the discovery of Britain to Brut (Brutus in Latin, 
Latin-based, or Latinate texts, the form of the name henceforward adopted 
in this book), the great-grandson of the Trojan Eneas, who is directed to 
the Isle of Albion by the goddess Diana. Brutus and his Trojan comrades 



^ Ebrtracts from the Anglo-Norman Brut are published in Paul Meyer, "De quelques 
chroniques anglo-normandes qui ont porte le nom de Brut," Bulletin de la society des 
anciens textes franfais (1878): 104-45. Middle English texts are printed in Friedrich W. D. 
Brie, ed., The Brut or The Chronicles of England, EETS o.s. 131, 136 (1906, 1908). For 
comments on Brie's edition and details of editions of variant texts, extracts, and 
unpublished dissertations, see Matheson, "Historical Prose," pp. 212-14 and 233; Kenne- 
dy, Manual, pp. 2631-33, 2824-25. 



INTRODUCTION 



defeat the indigenous giants and their leader Gogmagog and settle the entire 
island, including Scotland and Wales. To Brutus's lieutenant Coryn, who 
kills Gogmagog in a wrestling match, is given a land that he calls Cornwall 
after himself In honor of the Troy to which he and his people trace their 
lineage, Brutus founds the city of New Troy (London) on the banks of the 
Thames. Forests are felled, agriculture is established, and the land is appor- 
tioned to the settlers. The country itself is named Britain after Brutus, while 
Scotland is named Albanye after Brutus's son Albanac, and Wales is called 
Cambre after a second son, Cambre. After a reign of twenty years, Brutus 
dies and is buried at New Troy, to be succeeded by his son Lotiyn. 

The majority of the texts of the Anglo-Norman Brut are prefaced by a 
second foundation story that accounts for the presence of the giants whom 
Brutus defeats. The source for this addition was an Anglo-Norman poem, 
Des Grantz Geanz, a version of which was originally prefixed to the Anglo- 
Norman prose Brut chronicle.^ This verse prologue was subsequently re- 
duced to prose (with some alterations in content), in which form it occurred 
in the texts that formed the bases for the two Middle English translations 
of the chronicle. 

In its prose version, this prologue recounts how King Dioclician of Syria 
weds his thirty-three headstrong, ungovernable daughters to thirty-three 
kings. At the instigation of the eldest daughter, Albine (Albina in Latin, 
Latin-based, or Latinate texts, the form of the name henceforward adopted 
in this book), the sisters murder their husbands. The sisters are banished 
forever, and after a long sea voyage they arrive on an isle that is all wild- 
erness. Albina names the country Albion after herself, and the sisters take 
the land. In time, the women are consumed by sexual desire, which is satis- 
fied by the devil, who appropriates human shape and semen to impregnate 
them. The result is a brood of giants, among whom Gogmagog and Laugh- 
erigan are named, who inhabit Albion until their destruction by Brutus. 

After Brutus and his sons, the narrative continues with the history of the 
British kings, including such notables as Leir, Lud (the eponym of "Lud- 
stan," since "chaungede |)rou3 variance of lettres" to "London" [Brie 31/20, 
21, 22], and builder of Ludgate), Kembelyn (in whose time Christ was 
born), Coel (the founder of Colchester), Constance (a Roman), Constantine 



^ See Brereton, ed., Des Grantz Geanz; Lesley Johnson, "Return to A^'ion" Arthurian 
Literature XIII, ed. Carley and Riddy, pp. 19-40. For a Latin version, see Carley and 
Crick, "Constructing Albion's Past," pp. 41-114; Des Grantz Geanz is discussed on pp. 
45-48. 



INTRODUCTION 



(son of Constance and St. Helena, later emperor of Rome), Vortiger (in 
whose time Engist and his Saxons arrive and establish a brief heptarchy), 
Aurilambros (the slayer of Vortiger and Engist), Uther Pendragon, Arthur 
(conqueror and overlord of much of Europe, whose reign is recounted at 
length), and Curan (son of Havelok). 

Saxon supremacy is reestablished through the help of Gurmond, the mer- 
cenary son of the king of Africa, at which time the names of the country 
and its people are changed to England and Englishmen (after the name of 
Engist), and the heptarchy is reintroduced. A number of the Middle English 
texts (though not all) include an account of Cadwallader, the last British 
king. The histories of the Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings end with the 
death of Harold. 

The chronicle continues with accounts of the reigns of the Norman and 
Plantagenet kings, narrated at greater length and with considerably more 
historical detail than are the reigns of the pre-Conquest monarchs, except 
for Arthur. 

The original Anglo-Norman text probably ended with the death of Henry 
III in 1272 but was continued in later versions to the death of Edward I in 
1307 and then to 1333. The two Middle English translations ended origi- 
nally in 1333; the first and by far more important of these received continu- 
ations to the death of Edward III in 1377 and then to the siege of Rouen 
in 1419, in which year many texts end. Subsequent major continuations car- 
ried the narrative to the death of Henry V in 1422 (with a further continu- 
ation to 1437) and to 1430. William Caxton's Chronicles of England ended 
with the death of Henry VI in 1461. 

These dates, however, only represent salient ending points for major con- 
tinuations. Various minor or individual continuations also exist, the latest of 
which, in Lambeth Palace MS. 84, closes in 1479/82. Throughout the fif- 
teenth century, continuations were frequently supplied to texts that originally 
ended at an earlier point. Even after the Anglo-Norman text was translated 
into Middle English, copies in the original language continued to be made. 
A version of the Middle English text itself was translated into Latin and 
then translated back into English. Combinations of texts of different types 
were made and extracts were used to supplement other historical works. 

Overview of the Versions 

As the preceding paragraphs suggest, the development and interrelationships 
of the texts of the Anglo-Norman, Latin, and English Brut are complicated, 
and any description of the many versions and numerous subgroups must in- 



INTRODUCTION 



evitably be complex. The present section provides a general overview, syn- 
thesized from the fuller descriptions and arguments that form the bulk of 
this study — a simplified roadmap that points out the major landmarks and 
most significant features ahead. Subgroups, minor groups, and nuances of 
classification that require extended discussion are not adduced at this point. 
As a fiirther aid to negotiating the highways and byways of the texts of the 
Middle English Bruty a Synoptic Inventory of all English versions and 
groups, with a complete listing of their manuscripts, appears at the begin- 
ning of the classification of those texts. 

A. THE ANGLO-NORMAN BRUT 

The Anglo-Norman Brut survives in forty-nine known manuscripts, one of 
which contains two texts of the work. The major versions and their primary 
features can be summarized as follows: 

Common Text 

Stage 1: the Anglo-Norman Brut to 1272 (the original form of the text). 
Stage 2: the common text, stage 1, with a continuation to 1307, 

Revisions and continuations made ca. 1350 (two major recensions): 
Short Version 

Stage 1: the common text to 1307 plus the "short continuation" to 
1333 (ending with an English raid on Haddington Fair in Scot- 
land). 
Stage 2: the Short Version, stage 1, plus the Albina verse prologue. 
Long Version: the common text to 1307, much revised (including the 
addition of Merlin's prophecies and many factual details), plus the 
Albina prose prologue and the "long continuation" to 1333 (ending 
with the battle of Halidon Hill). 

The original form of the Anglo-Norman 5rtt/ covered the history of Eng- 
land from Brutus to the death of Henry III in 1272. This first stage received 
a continuation to the death of Edward I in 1307; the resulting text from 
Brutus to 1307 formed a common text that is at the core of the two subse- 
quent versions, both of which were made around the mid-fourteenth century 
and which together comprise the great majority of the extant texts. 

The first of these, the so-called Short Version, went through two stages. 
The first stage consisted of the common text to 1307, to which was added 
a continuation to 1333 that ends with an account of an English raid on the 



INTRODUCTION 



fair at Haddington in southern Scotland. The second stage of the Short 
Version was formed by the addition of a verse prologue telling the story of 
Albina and her sisters. 

The core of the Long Version was a thorough revision of the common 
text to 1307, including the interpolation of a set of prophecies by Merlin 
concerning the five kings to follow King John. A prose prologue on Albina 
and her sisters and a continuation to 1333 that ends with the English vic- 
tory over the Scots at the battle of Halidon Hill were also added, probably 
at the same time as the core text was revised. The former addition may not 
have been derived directly from the verse prologue found in the Short Ver- 
sion; rather, it may have been based on a common original. The continu- 
ation from 1307 to 1333 is independent of the continuation to the same 
year that occurs in the Short Version, though it is possible that the Long 
Version continuator was aware of the other narrative. In the late fourteenth 
century, the Long Version to 1333 was translated into English, thus giving 
rise to the entire family of Middle English Brut texts, except for a second 
translation made in 1435 by the priest John Mandeville, which survives in 
only two manuscripts. The first English translation and its textual descen- 
dants eventually superseded the popularity of the Anglo-Norman texts, for 
although the latter continued to be copied through the fifteenth century, 
only two Anglo-Norman texts contain continuations beyond 1333. 

B. THE LATIN BRUT 

The nineteen known texts of the Latin Brut fall into two major versions that 
are not immediately related except for their use of the same form of the Al- 
bina prologue. (A third, minor "version" consists solely of a short, unique 
translation into Latin of the prose prologue from the Long Version of the 
Anglo-Norman Brut.) 

The first version is based on the second stage of the Anglo-Norman 
Short Version (with the verse prologue translated into Latin prose), which 
is followed to the year 1066. Thereafter, two of the three manuscripts of this 
version continue with a Latin chronicle not based on the vernacular Bruts, 
ending in 1367. 

The second version of the Latin Brut is a sophisticated historical compila- 
tion whose basic framework and some of whose content (especially from 
1377) derives from a version of the Middle English Brut ending in 1437. 
The Albina prologue has been borrowed from the first version of the Latin 
Brut. There are, however, significant additions and adaptations drawn 
from many other sources. This second Latin version has two subgroups, 



INTRODUCTION 



with longer and shorter treatments of the reign of Henry V, of which the 
longer is probably the earlier. The subgroup with the longer treatment was 
itself retranslated into English, thereby creating a second, later class of 
Middle English Bruts ending in 1437. 

C. THE ENGLISH BRUT 

The English Brut has survived in 181 medieval and post-medieval manu- 
scripts (three of which contain two discrete texts of the work) and in 
thirteen early printed editions. Many of the manuscripts contain recogniz- 
ably composite texts cobbled together from texts of different types, whose 
component parts must be considered separately. Accordingly, the total num- 
ber of entries in the classification comes to 215. 

The English texts can be divided into four major categories, labeled the 
Common Version (CV), the Extended Version (EV), the Abbreviated Ver- 
sion (AY), and a looser grouping of Peculiar Texts and Versions (PV). 

The Common Version is based on the Anglo-Norman Long Version 
ending in 1333 with the battle of Halidon Hill; it gives rise to all other 
English Brut texts, aside from John Mandeville's independent translation 
from the Anglo-Norman Long Version. 

The texts of the Common Version developed primarily through a process 
of accretion, in which the narrative was brought more up to date through 
the acquisition of continuations. The numerous groups belonging to this 
version are classified in the first instance by the date at which the texts end 
(1333, 1377, 1419, 1430, 1461; abbreviated CV-1333, CV-1377, etc.). The 
classification can be refined by considering sets of textual variations within 
the date-defined groups. For example, a narrative on the reign of Cadwal- 
lader (Cad) and the text of a letter sent by Queen Isabella (QIL) to the citi- 
zens of London, neither of which is found in the Anglo-Norman Long Ver- 
sion and its original English translation to 1333, appear in successive groups 
of the Common Version that ended in 1377 (see Methods of Classification 
below). The absence or presence of one or both of these narratives is a 
powerful factor in (a) determining the provenance of the text to 1333 in 
texts that proceed past that date and (b) assessing the relationships among 
groups. 

Similarly, Common Version texts ending in 1419 can be divided into 
those that end in the midst of the siege of Rouen with the phrase "and 
manfiilly countered with our English men" and those that end at the suc- 
cessful conclusion of the siege with "in rule and governance" — the CV- 
1419(men) and the CV-1419(r&g) groups, respectively. Some groups, such 



INTRODUCTION 



as the CV-1419 (Leyle), are distinguished not only by their formal contents 
but also by their verbal changes. Other variations generate further subgroups, 
as summarized in the Synoptic Inventory of Versions below. The final group 
of the Common Version (the CV-1461) includes a continuation from 1419 
to 1461 that was almost certainly written by William Caxton for his 1480 
edition of the Brut as The Chronicles of England. When this continuation 
occurs in manuscripts, it was copied from a printed edition. Caxton's editio 
princeps served as the base for the twelve subsequent early printed editions, 
which fall into two types according to whether certain interpolations have 
been added. 

The initial identification of texts of the Extended and Abbreviated Ver- 
sions depends on three primary features: (1) the presence of an added exor- 
dium, of one or another particular type, describing the historical origins of 
the Brut itself; (2) the words "Some time ..." at the beginning of the Albina 
prologue; (3) the inclusion in the prologue and early parts of the narrative of 
details borrowed from the Short English Metrical Chronicle. The exordium is 
of particular interest in that it reflects contemporary understanding of the 
genesis of English chronicle writing. 

Although all surviving complete texts of the Extended and Abbreviated 
Versions end in 1419 (though sometimes with subsequent continuations), 
the language of the exordium shows that the original Extended Version was 
based on a text of a Common Version group with the full continuation to 
1377. It is even possible that the Cadwallader episode was first interpolated 
in this original Extended Version and subsequentiy introduced into the 
Common Version. 

Based on three distinct forms of the exordium, the wording of the addi- 
tions from the Short English Metrical Chronicle, and verbal differences else- 
where in the general narrative, three groups within the Extended Version 
(EV-1419:A, B, C) can be identified. 

Similarly, the Abbreviated Version presents different recensions of the 
exordium, three of which correspond to those in the Extended Version and 
one of which presents a text unparalleled among extant Extended Version 
texts. Despite this correspondence, however, there is not a simple one-to- 
one relationship between the groups of the Abbreviated and the Extended 
Versions. Four primary groups (the AV-1419:A, B, C, D) can be distin- 
guished in the Abbreviated Version. The first of these comprises three sub- 
groups, connected primarily by the presence of the same exordium as is 
found in the EV-1419:A; otherwise, however, these AV-1419:A subgroups 
are not immediately related. Textual analyses of various Abbreviated Version 



8 INTRODUCTION 

groups show correspondences and differences vis-a-vis the Extended Ver- 
sion that can be best explained by a complex development, the precise details 
of which may now be irrecoverable, that included the crossing of texts of the 
Common and Extended Versions. Some features that are particularly dis- 
tinctive of individual Abbreviated Version groups are the omission of ma- 
terial after King Arthur (who is thus succeeded by Conan rather than Con- 
stantine) in the AV-1419:A(a), the AV-1419:B, and the AV-1419:C; the 
sharing of a common chapter on Constantine in the AV-1419:A(c) and the 
AV-1419:D; and the omission of material around the battle of Halidon Hill 
in the AV-1419:B. 

Finally, there is an amorphous, heterogeneous category of Peculiar Texts 
and Versions, often of historical and literary importance, consisting of indivi- 
dual reworkings of Brut texts, works based on or adapted from the Brut, and 
combinations of the Brut with adaptations of other works. Many such texts 
are unique, but a number fall into recognizable groups. Of particular interest 
are the PV-1437:A (a sizable group) and the PV-1437/1461, which are 
related to the second version of the Latin Brut, and the PV-1437:B, which 
represents a translation back into English from that Latin version. Also in- 
cluded, for convenience, under Peculiar Texts and Versions are John Mande- 
ville's translation of the Anglo-Norman Brut to 1333 (JM-1333) and three 
skimpy king-lists possibly drawn, at least in part, from English Brut texts. 



II. Cultural and Historical Influence 

Circulation 

The result of this massive scribal activity is that the Brut survives, in whole 
or in part, in at least forty- nine Anglo-Norman manuscripts, almost 180 
EngUsh manuscripts (including a few post-medieval transcripts), and about 
twenty Latin manuscripts. Its dissemination spread even wider when, under 
the title T/je Chronicles of England, the Brut became the first chronicle 
printed in England, passing through thirteen editions between 1480 and 
1528. As I have remarked elsewhere, such "a number of manuscripts of a 
Middle English work [is] exceeded only by that of the manuscripts of the 
two Wycliffite translations of the Bible."^ In comparison, the Prick of Con- 
science is found, in whole or in part, in 115 manuscripts, Chaucer's Canter- 



^ Matheson, "Historical Prose," p. 210; see Conrad Lindberg, "The Manuscripts and 
Versions of the Wycliffite Bible," Studia Neophilologica 42 (1970): 333-47. 



INTRODUCTION 



bury Tales in eighty-three, Gower's Confessio Amantis in sixty-four, and 
Langland's Piers Plowman in sixty-one.'* If the Prick of Conscience was "the 
most popular English poem of the Middle Ages," then the Middle English 
prose Brut was "the most popular secular work of the fifteenth century in 
England."^ 

The amount of time and labor that went into the production of such a 
number of manuscripts — let alone the probably greater number that have 
failed to survive — must have made the Brut omnipresent for those engaged 
or interested in the book trade in the fifteenth century, whether as scribes, 
illuminators, binders, and booksellers or as librarians, readers, hearers, and 
owners. It is no exaggeration to say that in the late Middle Ages in England 
the Brut was the standard historical account of British and English history. 
It is clear that it occupied a central position in fifteenth- and sixteenth-cen- 
tury historical writing and was a major influence in shaping national con- 
sciousness in medieval and post-medieval England. 

Ownership and Audience 

The extent of the Brut's contemporary influence is indicated by the social 
and geographical range of its medieval ownership. 

The style, content, and chivalric tone of the Anglo-Norman work suggest 
that it was originally aimed at an upper-class, lay audience.^ Among the 
twenty-seven books given in 1305 by Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, to 
Bordesley Abbey, Worcestershire, occurs "Un Volum del Romaunce deu 



* These figures include fragmentary and excerpted texts. See Robert E. Lewis and 

Angus Mcintosh, y1 Descriptive Guide to the Mantiscripts of the Prick of Conscience, 
Medium i^vum Monographs n.s. 12 (Oxford, 1982), p. 1; Helen Cooper, The Canterbury 
Tales (Oxford, 1989), p. 6; John H. Fisher, R. Wayne Hamm, Peter G. Beidler, and 
Robert F. Yeager, "John Gower," A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, ed. Albert 
E. Hartung, vol. 7 (Hamden, 1986), pp. 2408-2409; Ralph Hanna III, William Langland, 
Authors of the Middle Ages 3 (Aldershot, Hants., 1993), p. 37. 

^ Lewis and Mcintosh, Descriptive Guide, p. 1; Matheson, "Historical Prose," p. 210. 
Cf Charles L. Kingsford, English Historical Literature in the Fifteenth Century (Oxford, 
1913), p. 113: "the most popular and widely diffused history of the time"; Taylor, English 
Historical Literature, p. 110: "the most popular reteUing of the Arthurian legend in late 
medieval England . . . the most widely diffused history of the day." See also Carol M. 
Meale, "Patrons, Buyers and Owners: Book Production and Sociai Status," in Book Pro- 
duction and Publishing in Britain 1375-1475, ed. Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall 
(Cambridge, 1989), pp. 215-16. 

* See Antonia Gransden, Historical Writing in England. II. c. 1307 to the Early 
Sixteenth Century (Ithaca, 1982), pp. 75-76. 



10 INTRODUCTION 

Brut, e del Roy Costentine," perhaps an Anglo-Norman Brut to 12727 An 
early, variant text of the Brut, known as Le Petit Bruit (BL MS. Harley 
902), was an abridgement made in 1310 by Ralph de Bohun for Henry de 
Lacy, earl of Lincoln.^ Isabella of France (died 1358) bequeathed a French 
Brut to her son, Edward III.^ A French Brut is listed in an inventory made 
in 1388 of the books of Sir Simon Burley, knight of the royal household 
and tutor of Richard \\}^ In 1391 John Percyhay of Swynton, rector of St. 
Edward's in York, left "unum Brutum in gallico, quod est in manibus 
Thomae Slegill" (a knight from Leeds) to Master John de Scardeburgh, 
notary public, canon of York, and rector of Tickmarsh; this book reappears 
in an inventory of the latter's goods in 1395 as "Bruyt in Gallico, pret. ij 
s., non vend."^^ Sir Thomas Ughtred (died 1401) of Yorkshire left his wife 
"unum Romauns quod vocatur Bruyt" in his will, dated 1398.^^ John Man- 



^ See Madeleine Blaess, "L'abbaye de Bordesley et les livres de Guy de Beauchamp," 
Romania 78 (1957): 513; Blaess suggests that this was either a prose Brut or a copy of 
Wace (p. 518 n. 2). 

^ Diana B. Tyson, ed., Le Petit Bruit ofRaufde Boun, Anglo-Norman Text Society 
(London, 1987). See also M. Dominica Legge, Anglo-Norman Literature and Its Back- 
ground (Oxford, 1963), pp. 280-83; Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 74; Taylor, Eng- 
lish Historical Literature, p. 118. 

^ See Edith Rickert, "King Richard II's Books," Tbe Library 4th. ser., 13 (1932): 
144-45; Richard F. Green, "King Richard II's Books Revisited," The Library 5th. ser., 31 
(1976): 235-39. The inventory of Isabella's books made on her death lists "Unus Uber qui 
vocatur Tresor et Bruyt in fine"; see Juliet Vale, Ed-ward III and Chivalry: Chivalric Society 
and Its Context 1270-1350 (Woodbridge, 1982), p. 170. This volume may be connected 
with books listed in a roll of issues and receipts from the privy wardrobe (1322-1341), 
which includes "j libro romanc' . . . vocato Tresor" (possibly the Tresor of Brunetto Latini) 
and a very ambiguous work that is called both "De Bricton in latino" and "De Brittonibus 
in latino" — in other words, a copy of either Britton's legal treatise or, perhaps, a Latin 
Brut — that was issued to John de Bohun, earl of Hereford (died 1336); see Vale, Edward 
III and Chivalry, pp. 49, 127 n. 101, 169. 

^° See John Scattergood, "Two Medieval Booklists," The Library 5th ser., 23 (1968): 
237 (printed from PRO E154/1/19); for another copy in Bodleian MS. Eng. hist. b. 229, 
fol. 3, see Vale, Edward III and Chivalry, p. 131 n. 155. See also Maude V. Clarke, 
Fourteenth-Century Studies, ed. L. S. Sutherland and M. McKisack (Oxford, 1937), pp. 
120-21. 

^^ James Raine Jr., ed., Testamenta Eboracensia, vol. 1, Surtees Society 4 (1855), p. 
164; vol. 2, Surtees Society 45 (1865), p. 6. See also Jo Ann Hoeppner Moran, The 
Growth of English Schooling 1340-1548: Learning, Literacy, and Laicization in Pre- 
Reformation York Diocese (Princeton, 1985), p. 203. 

^^ Raine, ed., Testamenta Eboracensia, 1: 243; cf. M. G. A. Vale, Piety, Charity and 
Literacy among the Yorkshire Gentry, 1370-1480, Borthwick papers 50 (1976), p. 30. The 
short continuation of the Anglo-Norman Brut makes honorable mention of an earlier Sir 



INTRODUCTION 11 

deville, rector of Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, must have had access to an 
Anglo-Norman text to 1333 when he made his translation thereof in 1435. 
Among other chronicles listed in a catalogue of 1450, Sir John Fastolf 
owned a French Cronicles (TAngleterre}^ Also in the fifteenth century. Tri- 
nity College, Cambridge, MS. R.7.14 belonged to Robert Isham, the sene- 
schal of the count of Weedon Bec.^'* 

Various religious houses also possessed copies of the French Brut. BL 
MS. Cotton Vitellius A.x belonged to the Cistercians of Fountains Abbey, 
Yorkshire; the Cistercian abbey of Hailes, Gloucestershire, owned BL MS. 
Cotton Cleopatra D.iii; and Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 500 was owned 
in 1385 by the priory of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John in Clerkenwell, 
London. ^^ In addition to the Anonimalle Chronicle (Leeds, Brotherton Col- 
lection MS. 29), which incorporates a 5rz// continuation from 1307 to 1333, 
St. Mary's Abbey, York, acquired Bodleian MS. LyeU 17 in the fifteenth 
century, "de perquisicione" of John Graystock, the librarian. ^^ 

Several manuscripts of the Anglo-Norman Brut^ all of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, are of continental origin: Bibliotheque de I'Arsenal, Paris, MS. 3346, 



Thomas Ughtred, "noble chivaler et vaillant," especially in the defense of the bridge at 
Roxsburgh in late 1332; see Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 146, 152, 
156. Cf. Joel Rosenthal, "Down the Up Staircase: Quondam Peers and Downward Mobili- 
ty in Late Medieval England," Medievalia 15 (1993, for 1989): 309, 318 n. 43 (I am in- 
debted to Professor Rosenthal for this reference). 

^^ Noted in H. S. Bennett, The Pastons and Their England: Studies in an Age of 
Transition, 2nd ed. (1932; rpt. Cambridge, 1970), p. 111. 

^* Taylor, English Historical Literature, p. 120. The manuscript also belonged in the 
fifteenth century to John Gardenere; see Montague Rhodes James, The Western 
Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. A Descriptive Catalogue, 3 vols. 
(Cambridge, 1901-1903), 2: 229. 

^^ N. R. Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: A List of Surviving Books, 2nd ed. 
(London, 1964), pp. 88, 94, xxxii (addendum to p. 126); Brereton, ed., Des Grantz 
Geanz, p. ix. It may have been for the loan of a French Brut ("pro uno hbro Brute 
vocato") that in the fourteenth century John Phelippus of Mansell gave first as security 
("caucio") and then as a bequest a manuscript, now Hereford Cathedral MS. O.v.12, to 
the Franciscan convent at Hereford; see R. A. B. Mynors and R. M. Thomson, Catalogue 
of the Manuscripts of Hereford Cathedral Library (Cambridge, 1993), p. 37. 

^^ See Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 12-15, 21-22; Taylor, 
English Historical Literature, p. 121 and n. 66; Ker, Medieval Libraries, pp. 217, 321; 
Albinia de la Mare, Catalogue of the Collection of Medieval Manuscripts Bequeathed to the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, by James P. R. Lyell {Oxford, 1971), p. 42. 



12 INTRODUCTION 

written in Lorraine^^; Bibiiotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. fonds fran9ais 
12156, written in France^^; Bibiiotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. fonds fran- 
9ais 12155, written in Flanders, perhaps for the seigneur de la Gruthuyse or 
the dukes of Burgundy^^; BL MS. Royal 19.C.ix, written in northern 
France^^; Bibiiotheque Genevieve, Paris, MS. 935, written in France.^^ 

The major Middle English translation of the Brut, with its derivative 
groups and versions, was even more popular than its Anglo-Norman fore- 
bear. It retained the audience that had already been established and ex- 
panded it among the merchant class in the fifteenth century. (The following 
discussion of ownership of the Middle English manuscripts is abstracted 
from the full Classification of Texts that follows this Introduction, and 
readers are referred to the individual entries there for further factual and 
bibliographical details.) 

Among the landowning gentry, Glasgow MS. Hunterian 74 belonged to 
the Wauton family of Great Staughton, Huntingdonshire, and Basmead, 
Bedfordshire; Bodleian MS. Digby 185 was owned and possibly commis- 
sioned by the Hopton family of Swillington, near Leeds, in Yorkshire; BL 
MS. Harley 53 has been ascribed to the Stokes family; and BL MS. Royal 
18 B.iii contains the signatures of members of the Gaynesford family of 
Surrey. BL MS. Additional 70514 probably belonged to the Hill family of 
Nettlecombe, Somersetshire. Glasgow MS. Hunterian 230 seems to have 
belonged to the Willoughby and Zouche families of Nottinghamshire and 
Derbyshire. Princeton MS. Garrett 150 probably belonged to Sir John Sul- 
yard (died 1488), justice of the King's Bench, before passing to Sir Thomas 
Bourghier (died 1492; the son of Henry Bourghier, earl of Essex), the 
constable of Leeds Castle, who married Sulyard's widow, Anne. CUL MS. 
Ff 1.6, which contains a brief king-list, belonged to the Findern family in 
Derbyshire and is associated with other local gentry families. Coats of arms 
in Bodleian MSS. Rawlinson B.171 and Douce 323 suggest armigerous 
ownership, as does, perhaps, the inclusion of a treatise on arms in Bodleian 



^^ See Legge and Brereton, "Three Hitherto Unlisted MSS.," pp. 114-15. The Brut 
forms a sequel to the Geste des Loheraim, an account of the dukes of Lorraine. 

^* See Legge and Brereton, "Three Hitherto Unlisted MSS.," p. 115; Brie, Geschichte 
und Quellen, p. 21; Meyer, "De quelques chroniques," p. 117. 

^' See Meyer, "De quelques chroniques," p. 126 n. 1; Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 
29. 

^° See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 30. 

^^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 30. 



INTRODUCTION 13^ 

MS. Laud 733 and of a catalogue of shields in Harvard MS. Richardson 35 
(an owner of which was Richard Thomas of Neath, Glamorganshire). An 
owner of Yale MS. Beinecke 323 was particularly interested in the fortunes 
of the Clare family. William Braundon of Knowle, Warwickshire, who 
owned BL MS. Sloane 2027, and John Willeys, probably of Berkshire, who 
owned Lambeth Palace MS. 264, were minor provincial landowners. 

As in the case of the Anglo-Norman texts, several religious houses pos- 
sessed copies. The Augustinian priory of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield, 
London, owned BL MS. Royal 17.D.xxi, and the Dominican priory of the 
Virgin Mary and St. Margaret in Dartford, Kent, owned Trinity College, 
Dublin, MS. 490. Yale MS. Beinecke 494 is associated with a Dominican 
convent in Suffolk or at Chelmsford in Essex (see below). It has been sug- 
gested that BL MS. Harley 7333 was compiled at the Augustinian abbey of 
St. Mary de Pratis in Leicester. 

Ecclesiastics who owned personal copies were John Neuton, prior of 
Battle Abbey in Sussex (Chicago MS. 254), and John Warkworth, master of 
Peterhouse, Cambridge (Peterhouse, Cambridge, MS. 190). William Trouthe, 
vicar in the close of Salisbury, left Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 571 to his 
niece, Isabel Alen. 

Among women owners and readers, Isabel is joined by "Domina" Alice 
Brice, who owned Longleat MS. 183 A. The name of Elizabeth Dawbne ap- 
pears on the first flyleaf of Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 733. Huntington MS. 
HM 136 seems to have belonged in the late fifteenth century or early six- 
teenth century to John Leche of Nantwich, Chester, and to Dorothy Hel- 
bartun, whose name, either alone or in more extended annotations, appears 
more than sixty times throughout the volume. 

In the fifteenth century the Middle English Brut increasingly appealed to 
a mercantile audience, in addition to the gentry and the religious. The stan- 
dard continuation that carried the narrative from 1377 to 1419 and succeed- 
ing continuations to 1430 and 1461 are heavily indebted to London civic 
chronicles. In the case of these continuations, the material has been adapted 
into a narrative format that is generally consistent with the preceding text. 
In a number of instances, however, appended material is left in the typical 
annalistic civic chronicle format, as in MSS. Trinity College, Cambridge, 
0.9.1, CUL Hh.6.9, BL Egerton 650, Bodleian Rawlinson B.173, and BL 
Stowe 69. Lambeth Palace MS. 306 contains both an abbreviated Brut and 
a London chronicle. Presumably such manuscripts were usually produced or 
augmented for London merchant-owners. The appended civic chronicle ma- 
terial in Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. 0.9.1, is followed by a copy of a 



14 INTRODUCTION 

London mercantile indenture. (On the other hand, RawUnson B.173 has 
strong West Herefordshire connections and omits some material of local 
London interest that is found in the related BL Egerton 650.) Various 
manuscripts can be linked with mercantile owners, such as Lambeth Palace 
MS. 259, which contains shields with a merchant's mark. Yale MS. Bei- 
necke 494 (also associated with a Dominican convent; see above) was bought 
by William Nasby, skinner of London, in 1464 (another note records its 
earlier purchase from S. Belamy in 1455). Among other names, that of 
Thomas Northlond, grocer, possibly the alderman and sheriff of London in 
1483 who died in 1484, appears in Woburn Abbey MS. 181, which includes 
regulations on cooks' fees in London. The sumptuous Lambeth Palace MS. 
6 may have belonged to William Purchas, mercer, who was mayor of Lon- 
don in 1497-98. Outside London, an abbreviated Brut text forms the be- 
ginning of the official Bristowe Chronicle, begun in the late fifteenth century 
by Robert Ricart, the town clerk, for the use of the civic officers of Bristol. 
William Caxton, mercer, probably possessed a copy ending in 1419 that 
formed the basis for his Chronicles of England^ published in 1480. This edi- 
tion (and the twelve subsequent printed editions to 1528) undoubtedly 
served to spread further ownership of the work, especially in the London 
merchant class.^-^ The evidence of sixteenth-century names suggests that 
mercantile acquisition of existing manuscripts also expanded. 

Irrespective of their dialect or place of writing, the widespread geogra- 
phical availability of Middle English Brut texts is suggested by the identified 
owners noted above: in the north, the West Riding of Yorkshire; in the 
West Midlands and Wales, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Warwickshire, Hereford- 
shire, Gloucestershire, and Glamorganshire; in the East Midlands, Notting- 
hamshire, Leicestershire, Huntingdonshire or Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, 
and Suffolk or Essex; in the south, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Surrey, Kent, and 
Sussex; and, of course, London. Possibly English copies were bequeathed by 
Sir Thomas Chaworth of Wiverton, Nottinghamshire (1459), John Ha- 
mundson of York (1472), and John Fell of York (1506).23 



^^ See Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," pp. 593-94. Caxton indicates the popularity 
and circulation oi Brut manuscripts in his prologue to the Description of Britain (1480): 
"Hit is so that in many and diuerse places the comyn cronicles ben had and also now late 
enprinted at Westmynstre." 

^^ See R. M. Wilson, The Lost Literature of Medieval England, 2nd ed. (London, 
1970), pp. 150-51; cf. Kate Harris, "Patrons, Buyers and Owners: The Evidence for 
Ownership and the Role of Book Owners in Book Production and the Book Trade," in 



INTRODUCTION t5 

Given the sheer amount of copying, combining, and recopying of texts, 
the lateness of the majority of the manuscripts, and the associations with 
metropolitan London, it is not surprising that many of the manuscripts are 
written in language that is dialectally mixed or "colorless."^^ Those scribes 
whose dialectal origins can be determined parallel and supplement the geo- 
graphical information provided by owners of the Brut (though it should be 
recalled that scribes need not have worked in or even near the places where 
they had learned their letters). The scribes of the following manuscripts can 
be localized: from the north, Bodleian Digby 185 (West Riding of 
Yorkshire), Glasgow Hunterian 83; from the West Midlands, CUL Ff 1.6 
(basically Derbyshire), Bodleian Rawlinson B.166 (Staffordshire), Bodleian 
Rawlinson B.171 (South-West Herefordshire), Bodleian Rawlinson B.173 
(West Herefordshire), CUL Kk.1.12 (Central Herefordshire), BL Sloane 
2027 (Warwickshire); from the East Midlands, Pennsylvania State PS. V- 
3A (possibly Northamptonshire, with central West Midlands elements), 
Bodleian Bodley 840 (Essex, with Herefordshire relicts), Glasgow Hunterian 
74 (North- West Essex; Central South Essex, with some Kentish or East 
Sussex relicts; South-East Suffolk, Ipswich area); from the south, Glasgow 
Hunterian 443 (Central Surrey), Bodleian Lyell 34 (Surrey), BL Harley 
7333 (Hampshire), and College of Arms Arundel 58 (Wiltshire). CUL MS. 
Ff.2.26 is written in Central Midland Standard. 

As might be expected in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Latin 
prose Brut appealed to the more educated segment of the potential reading 
public, primarily to a monastic audience, though there is some evidence of 
lay interest. 

Among those texts that have been called Latin Bruts, Lambeth Palace 
MS. 99 (late fourteenth century) belonged to St. George's Chapel, Wind- 



Book Production and Publishing in Britain 1375-1475, ed. GrifiElths and Pearsall, pp. 164 
and 184 n. S.John Hamundson was an Oxford B.A. in 1455, headmaster of the Howden 
Schools in 1456, and grammar-master at St. Peter's School in York from 1465 to his 
death; see Jo Ann Hoeppner Moran, Education and Learning in the City of York 1300- 
1560, Borthwick Papers 55 (1979), p. 40. 

^^ On the types of language mixtures in Middle English texts, see LALME, 1: 13, 
19-23. On the growth of standardization, see M. L. Samuels, "Some Applications of 
Middle EngUsh Dialectology," English Studies 44 (1963): 81-94; M. L. Samuels, "Spelling 
and Dialect in the Late and Post-Middle EngHsh Periods," in So Meny People Longages 
and Tonges: Philological Essays in Scots and Mediaeval English Presented to Angus Mcintosh, 
ed. Michael Benskin and M. L. Samuels (Edinburgh, 1981), pp. 43-54. 



16 INTRODUCTION 

sor.^^ BL MS. Cotton Julius B.iii may be associated with William Rede, 
Oxford scholar and bishop of Chichester.^^ BL MS. Lansdowne 212 (fif- 
teenth century), a text of the Noua Cronica, was at Glastonbury Abbey in 
Somerset.^^ St. John's College, Oxford, MS. 78 (mid-fifteenth century) 
was either owned or written by the monk John Shyrburne.^^ BL MS. 
Harley 3906 was almost certainly written soon after 1456 at the Benedictine 
abbey of Sherborne in Dorset.^^ In several instances, the Brut is followed 
by monastic annals of more local interest to the religious house.''^ 

Kingsford suggests that a continuation in BL MS. Harley 3884 was writ- 
ten before 1460 by an Oxford scholar.^^ College of Arms MS. Arundel 5 
ends with a continuation written between 1471 and 1480 by someone fa- 
miliar with London civic chronicles.-'^ Sir John Fortescue (died 1476), 
chief justice of the King's Bench, owned Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.398 
(mid-fifteenth century), which attributes the work to Richard Rede, who 
may have been, however, an earlier owner or the scribe.''-' 

Use and Influence 

Further indications of the popularity, authority, and textual availability of the 
prose Brut are found in its widespread use as a source (or possible source or 
influence) first by medieval historical writers of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries and then by sixteenth-century historians. As with owners of Brut 
manuscripts, a range of social backgrounds is found among writers who used 
them as sources — noble, gentry, ecclesiastical (especially monastic), and mer- 
chant. The houses of monastic chroniclers who used the Brut presumably 
owned or were able to borrow copies of the work. Until near the end of the 
fourteenth century, the only text available was the Anglo-Norman; after 
that time, it is often uncertain whether the text being used was in Anglo- 



^^ See Ker, Medieval Libraries, p. 203; the time of ownership may, however, be late. 

26 See p. 42. 

2^ See Ker, Medieval Libraries, p. 91. 

2^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 311: "Frater Johannes Shyrburne me 
fecit fieri" (fol. 156). 

2' See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 158, 346-47. 

■'^ See Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 412-13. 

^^ Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 158, 310, 342-43. 

■'^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 159; James Gairdner, ed., Three 
Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, Camden Society n.s. 28 (1880), pp. xx-xxvi. 

^^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 311. 



INTRODUCTION 1_7 

Norman, English, or Latin, unless the material occurs in texts found in only 
one of these languages. The following is a representative listing of such 
works that either used or may have used the Brut as a source, arranged by 
approximately chronological date of composition, or, in the case of works 
that underwent revision, the date of the final revision. 

A. FOURTEENTH-CENTURY USE AND INFLUENCE 

In the mid-fourteenth century the Chronicon (covering the period 1303 to 
1356) of Geoffrey le Baker, a secular clerk from Swinbrook, Oxfordshire, 
has points of similarity to details in the Brut. It is perhaps significant that 
Baker was connected with the Bohun family, since the preparer of an earlier 
abridgment of the Brut was a Master Ralph de Bohun (see above)."'* 

The close connection between the civic chronicles of London and the 
Brut began early: an Anglo-Norman Brut with the short continuation to 
1333 (see below) was a major source for the anonymous French Croniques de 
London (1259 [probably originally 1189] to 1343), written around the mid- 
dle of the fourteenth century in London.^^ 

John, vicar of Tynemouth in Northumberland, seems to have used the 
short continuation to 1333 (see below) of the Anglo-Norman Brut for the 
text of Queen Isabella's letter to the citizens of London (1326), translated 
into Latin in his massive Historia Aurea (origins to 1347).''^ 

Sir Thomas Gray of Heaton in Northumberland began his Anglo-Nor- 
man prose Scalacronica (Creation to 1363) during his captivity in Edinburgh 



•''* Edward Maunde Thompson, ed., Chronicon Galfridi le Baker de Swynebroke 
(Oxford, 1889). See Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 37-39, 74; ht^c, Anglo-Norman 
Literature, pp. 280-83. Baker was also connected with the Augustinian abbey of Osney 
in Oxfordshire. 

^^ George J. Aungier, ed., Croniques de London depuis Fan 44 Hen. Hljusqua Pan 17 
Edw. Ill, Camden Society o.s. 28 (1844); Edmund Goldsmid, trans., The Chronicles of 
London from 44 Hen. UI to 17 Edw. UI, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1885-1886). See Childs and 
Taylor, cds. , Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 62-63; D. C. Cox, "The French Chronicle of Lon- 
don," Medium y£vum 45 (1976): 201-208; Gransden, Historical Writing U, p. 71; Taylor, 
English Historical Literature, p. 123. 

^ See V. H. Galbraith, The Historia Aurea of John, Vicar of Tynemouth, and the 
Sources of the St. Albans Chronicle," in Essays in History Presented to Reginald Lane 
Poole, ed. H. W. C. Davis (Oxford, 1927), pp. 379-93; V. H. Galbraith, "Extracts from 
the Historia Aurea and a French 'Brut' (1317-47)," English Historical Review 63 (1928): 
203-206, 208-15 (text of Queen Isabella's letter on pp. 211-12). On the Brut source, see 
Childs and Ta)dor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 62, 124 and 126 (text of the letter); 
Cox, "French Chronicle of London," p. 207 n. 12. 



18 INTRODUCTION 

Castle from 1355 to 1359, utilizing a large number of Latin, French, and 
English chronicles that he found there, possibly including the prose Brut?^ 

The fifth book of the Eulogium Historiarum, written at the Benedictine 
abbey of Malmesbury in Wiltshire, treats the history of England from Bru- 
tus to 1366. To 1333 its narrative uses the Brut as a major source.^^^ 

For a brief continuation (1348 to 1360) to his English translation of Ra- 
nulph Higden's Polychronicon, completed in 1387, John Trevisa, vicar of 
Berkeley in Cornwall, may have drawn upon the London chronicles and the 
Brut?^ 

There are some similarities between Ralph de Bohun's Le Petit Bruit and 
the Chronicon (tenth century to 1395) of Henry Knighton (died ca. 1396), 
canon of the Augustinian abbey of St. Mary's in Leicester. Wendy Childs 
and John Taylor suggest that he may have found the short continuation to 
the Anglo-Norman Brut incorporated in a text of Walter de Guisborough's 
Chronicle.^ 



^^ Found in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 133. The later part (1066 to 
1362) is published in Joseph Stevenson, ed., Scalacronica: By Sir Thomas Gray of Heton, 
Knight, Maitland Club (Edinburgh, 1836); translated in Herbert Maxwell, trans., Scala- 
cronica. The Reigns of Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III As Recorded by Sir Thomas 
Gray (Glasgow, 1907). See Legge, Anglo-Norman Literature, pp. 283-87; Gransden, His- 
torical Writing II, p. 93; Lister M. Matheson, "King Arthur and the Medieval English 
Chronicles," in King Arthur through the Ages, ed. Valerie M. Lagorio and Mildred Leake 
Day, 2 vols. (New York and London, 1990), 1: 257-58. Gray's inspiring Sibyl instructs 
him to consult Geoffrey of Monmouth ("le Brut"), the Historia Aurea, and a number of 
standard sources, including "Bruyt en Engles, — '^at Cadwaladre sal on Conan cal,' etc. — 
per ditz de Merlyn"; it seems likely that Gray used some form of the prose Brut, either 
directly or through his sources (Stevenson, ed., Scalacronica, pp. 2-4). 

■'^ Frank S. Haydon, ed., Eulogium Historiarum sive Temporis: Chronicon ab Orbe 
condito usque ad Annum Domini M.CCC.LXVI, a Monacho quodam Malmesburiensi 
exaratum, 3 vols., Rolls Series 9 (London, 1858-1863), 2: 205-385, 3: 1-201; see also 
Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 103-104. Among the compiler's major sources is 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, from whom the Cadwallader episode is taken (1: 379—85), as 
well as a version of the Latin tag appended to the name of Blegabred in certain groups 
of the Extended Version of the English Brut (1: 248). 

^^ Joseph R. Lumby, ed., Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monachi Cestrensis, vol. 8, 
Rolls Series 41 (London, 1882), pp. 339-52. Lumby suggests (p. xxviii) that Trevisa 
translated his continuation from the manuscript of Higden that he used, but see 
Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 221. 

''° Joseph R. Lumby, ed., Chronicon Henrici Knighton vel Cnitthon Monachi 
Leycestrensis, 2 vols.. Rolls Series 92 (London, 1889, 1895). See Childs and Taylor, eds., 
Anonimalle Chronicle, p. 65; Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 179 and n. 125; Taylor, 
English Historical Literature, p. 119; Legge, Anglo-Norman Literature, p. 282. 



INTRODUCTION 19 

Among many other sources, Thomas Burton of the Cistercian abbey of 
Meaux in Yorkshire (abbot from 1396 to 1399, died 1437), used the Anglo- 
Norman Brut^ with the short continuation to 1333 (see below), as a subsidi- 
ary source for the general history subsections in his chronicle of the abbey 
(1150 to 1396), written and revised between 1388 and 1402/^ 

B. nFTEENTH-CENTURY USE AND INFLUENCE 

Compiled in the early fifteenth century, the early part of the Latin chronicle 
(Creation to 1413) of the Cistercian abbey of Louth Park in Lincolnshire 
may be based, at least in part, on the Brut, some material in the later part of 
the chronicle is reminiscent of the English Brut.'^^ 

The chronicle (Brutus to 1420) ascribed to Thomas of Otterbourne, prob- 
ably a northerner and perhaps rector of Chingford in Essex in 1393, was 
written after 1423 and has some similarities to the Brut^^ 

John Strecche, a canon of the Augustinian priory of St. Mary's at Kenil- 
worth, Warwickshire, compiled a collection of romances and histories in the 
first quarter of the fifteenth century. It includes a Historia Regum Anglie 
from Anglo-Saxon times to 1422, to which is prefixed a brief history from 
Brutus to A.D. 827. Gransden notes that the early part is derived from the 



^^ Edward A. Bond, ed., Chronica Monasterii de Melsa, a Fundatione usque ad Annum 
1396, Auctore Thoma de Burton, Abbate, 3 vols., Rolls Series 43 (London, 1866-1868). 
The catalogue of the abbey's Ubrary (BL MS. Cotton Vitellius V.vi, fols. 241v^245), 
printed by Bond (3: Ixxxiii-c) includes "Brutus, et alia: multas chronicas Anghas" (p. xcvii); 
Bond suggests that either this work included the Brut or that Burton kept his own (or 
the monastery's) copy in his chamber (1: booc). See also Childs and Taylor, eds., Anoni- 
malle Chronicle, pp. 64-65; Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 358-59. 

"^ The text from 1066 is printed in Edmund Venables, ed., with a trans, by A. R. 
Maddison, Chronicon Abbatie de Parco Lude: The Chronicle of Louth Park Abbey, 
Lincolnshire Record Society (Horncastle, 1891). The manuscript still belongs to the 
Allison family, now of Flackwell Heath, Buckinghamshire. The text begins imperfectly 
during an account of the ages of the world, before proceeding to the history of England, 
which begins with Brutus; Venables notes that "[t]he earlier portion appears to be derived 
from Geoffrey of Monmouth, Henry of Huntingdon, and Florence of Worcester, and 
possibly Simeon of Durham" (xi). See also Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 412. 

^^ Printed in volume 1 of Thomas Hearne, ed., Duo Rerum Anglicarum Scriptores 
Veteres viz. Thomas Otterbourne et Johannes Whethamstede, 2 vols. (Cbcford, 1732). See 
Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 21-22, 116; Gransden, Historical Writing II, 
p. 196 n. 18. 

"^ Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 405. See also Kingsford, English Historical 
Literature, pp. 39-40 and n. 2. Strecche's collection is found in BL Additional MS. 



20 INTRODUCTION 

Two related mid-fifteenth-century lives of Henry V use the Brut to diffe- 
rent degrees. Titus Livius's Vita Henrici Quinti was written before 1438 or 
1439 at the behest of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester. The Latin Brut end- 
ing in 1437 formed an important source and is frequently quoted almost 
verbatim. Kingsford suggests that the Italian humanist might also have been 
acquainted with the English Brut.'*^ The Vita et Gesta Henrici Quinti by 
pseudo-Elmham survives in two recensions, the first of which was dedicated 
to Walter Lord Hungerford (died 1449) and the second of which, written 
between 1445 and 1446, was dedicated to John Somerset (died 1455), who 
had been physician to Henry VI from 1428 to about 1432 and who re- 
mained in royal employ until 1450. The earlier part of the work is based 
closely on Titus Livius and thus echoes Livius's use of the Latin Brut.'^ 

The Latin annals (1066 to 1447) of the Augustinian abbey of Waltham, 
Essex, are a compilation from several sources, including the EngUsh Brut, 
from which the narrative for the reigns of Henry IV and Henry V is chiefly 
derived.'*'' 

The work known as Giles's Chronicle is a compilation of individual Latin 
narratives on the reigns of Richard II through Henry VI. The first part of 
the narrative of Henry VI's reign (1422 to 1438), composed about 1460, is 
based mainly on the Brut or on a London chronicle.'*^ 

John Hardyng's English verse Chronicle survives in two versions. The first 
(Brutus to 1437) was completed by 1457 and intended for presentation to 
Henry VI; the second (Brutus to 1464) was revised first for Edward, duke 
of York, and then twice re-revised for final presentation to Edward IV in 



35295; a large section of the fifth book is printed in Frank Taylor, "The Chronicle of 
John Strecche for the Reign of Henry V (1414-1422)," Bulletin of the John Rylands Li- 
brary 16 (1932): 137-87. 

^^ Thomas Hearne, ed., Titi Livii Foro-Juliensis Vita Henrici Quinti (Oxford, 1716). 
See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 53-54; Gransden, Historical Writing II, 
p. 212. Livius also uses John Page's poem on the siege of Rouen, which was itself used 
by compilers of the English Brut. 

^^ Thomas Hearne, ed., Thomae de Elmham Vita et Gesta Henrici Quinti (Oxford, 
1727). See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 56, 59-61; Gransden, Historical 
Writing II, p. 215. 

"^ Found in BL MS. Cotton Titus D.xv, fols. 7-57. Selections from 1403 to 1447 are 
printed in Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 350-54; see also pp. 160-61; 
Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 412-13. 

^* John A. Giles, ed., Incerti Scriptoris Chronicon Angliae de Regnis Trium Regum 
Lancastrensium Henrici IV, Henrici V, et Henrici VI (London, 1848); the narrative on 
Richard II is omitted. See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 156-57, 338; 
Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 160 n. 17. 



INTRODUCTION 21^ 

1464. Hardyng probably used a Peculiar Version of the Brut ending in 1437, 
in either Latin or English, as a source for the story of Joseph of Arimathea's 
settling in Britain and for his general scheme of history from 1399 to 1437 
(in which year Hardyng's first version ends). Kingsford suggests that Har- 
dyng's marginal references to the chronicle of Master Norham, doctor of 
theology, which occur in BL MS. Lansdowne 204, a copy of the first ver- 
sion, refer to a copy of the Latin Brut owned by Norham. It is possible that 
in the second version of his Chronicle Hardyng made additional use of an- 
other copy of the Brut^^ 

The first continuation (1149 to 1470) to the chronicle of the Benedictine 
abbey of Crowland, Lincolnshire, was written in Latin by the prior. Its pri- 
mary focus up to 1460 is local, and some of its general information, such as 
the story of Henry V and the tennis-balls, may have been derived from the 
Brut}"^ 

The first part of the Chronicle (creation to 1462) attributed to John Benet 
and perhaps written between 1462 and 1468, is based on the Polychronicon, 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, and Florence of Worcester, though the compiler 
may have used the Brut for the period 1333 to 1377. A version of the Brut 
similar to that in "Davies's" Chronicle (see items 168 and 169) underlies the 
narrative for 1422 to 1440. Benet was vicar of Harlington in Bedfordshire 
(1443-1471) at the time of writing his chronicle and subsequently rector of 
Broughton in Bedfordshire (1471 to his death in 1474); it is possible that he 
was able to borrow books from the Augustinian priory in Dunstable or from 
the chapel and hospital at nearby Toddington in Bedfordshire.^^ 

The Latin compilation attributed in a fifteenth-century note to John Tip- 
toft, earl of Worcester (ca. 1427-1470), contains a section drawn from the 
version of the Latin Brut that ends in 1437.^^ 



"" Henry Ellis, ed., TAe Chronicle oflohn Hardyng (London, 1812). See Charles L. 
Kingsford, "The First Version of Hardyng's Chronicle^ English Historical Review 27 
(1912): 476-78; Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 147-48; Gransden, Historical 
Writing U, p. 283 and n. 267; Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2645, 2647. 

^° The first continuation is printed in William Fulman, ed., Rerum Anglicarum 
Scriptorum Veterum Tom. /(Oxford, 1684), pp. 451-546. See Kingsford, English Historical 
Literature, p. 179; Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 265 n. 110, 411. 

^^ The later part of the chronicle is published, with introduction, in G. L. Harriss 
and M. A. Harriss, eds., John Benet's Chronicle for the Years 1400 to 1462, Camden 
Miscellany 24 (1972), pp. 151-252; see pp. 157-58 for biographical details and pp. 161- 
63 for the Brut sources. See also Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 255. 

^^ Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 253; Gransden examined the manuscript when 
it was in the hands of Maggs Bros. (Cat. no. 838, item 44, 1956) and reproduces her 



22 INTRODUCTION 

In the second half of the fifteenth century the version of British and Eng- 
lish history presented in the Brut was made available to the nobility of Bur- 
gundy through the Recueil des Croniques et Anchiennes Istories de la Grant 
Bretaigne by Jean de Waurin, lord of Forestal, which was begun at the re- 
quest of Waurin's nephew Waleran, lord of Waurin. He completed the first 
four volumes in 1455, from Albina to the death of Henry V in 1422, but 
subsequently added two volumes that brought the narrative down to 1443 
(written after 1461) and to Edward IVs restoration to the throne in 1471. 
For the earlier part and the history of England to the beginning of the four- 
teenth century Waurin relied very heavily on the Brut. For the fourteenth 
century he turned primarily to Jean Froissart's Chroniques (1327 to 1400) 
and for 1400 to 1443 he drew either on Enguerran de Monstrelet's Chro- 
nique (1400 to 1444) or on a common source. For his last volume, in addi- 
tion to personal observation and oral information, Waurin used such official 
English narratives as the Arrival of Edward IV 2ind the Chronicle of the Re- 
bellion in Lincolnshire, probably consulted in the ducal library of Burgundy. 
Waurin may well have been able to use a copy of the Anglo-Norman Brut 
in the same library (see the manuscripts written in France noted above, es- 
pecially Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. fonds fran9ais 12155). The in- 
clusion of the Cadwallader episode and material in his fifteenth-century his- 
tory, however, suggests strongly that he also had knowledge of an English 
text of the type of BL MS. Harley 53 and Lambeth Palace MS. 6 (the latter 
of which was illuminated by a Flemish artist). Waurin's work was directed 
at the highest of noble audiences: the surviving manuscripts are all sumptu- 
ous de luxe productions with fine illustrations. A presentation copy was pos- 
sibly made for Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy from 1419 to 1467; an- 
other was probably made for Philip's successor to 1477, Charles the Bold, 
who had aided Waurin's work and married Margaret of York. Other copies 
were owned by Edward IV of England, Louis de Bruges, seigneur de Gru- 
thuyse (and earl of Winchester), the counts of Marche, and a marquis whose 



report on p. 480. The manuscript, formerly Phillipps MS. 11301, is now Huntington 
Library MS. HM 19960; see C. W. Dutschke, Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manu- 
scripts in the Huntington Library, 2 vols. (San Marino, 1989), 2: 618-20. The fifteenth- 
century attribution to Tiptoft (fol. iiii), signed by "Sheldwych," is accepted in Rosamond 
J. Mitchell, /o/&;z Tiptoft, 1427-1470 (London, 1938), pp. 9-10, 195-96 (cf also pp. 242, 
243), but is rejected in R. Weiss, Humanism in England during the Fifteenth Century, 3rd 
ed.. Medium .^vum Monographs n.s. 4 (Oxford, 1967), pp. 118-19 and n. 11. 



INTRODUCTION 23^ 

coronet and arms appear in Bibliotheque Nationale MS. fonds fran9ais 6761.^^ 
When William Caxton undertook the preparation of a Liber ultimus 
(1358 to 1461) for his edition of John Trevisa's translation of Higden's Poly- 
chronicon (1482), bringing the narrative more up to date, he turned to his 
1480 edition of the Chronicles of England as a major source for his 
material.^'* 

The Historia RegumAnglie (creation to 1485) of the bibliophile and anti- 
quary John Rous (died 1491), a chantry priest at Guy's Cliff in Warwick- 
shire, was written between 1480 and 1486. Rous used numerous sources, 
including the Bruty to which he may refer when he cites Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth.^^ 

C. SIXTEENTH-CENTURY USE AND INFLUENCE 

In the sixteenth century the Brut continued to be used, in both its manu- 
script and printed forms, as a principal source for historical works.^^ It 
should also be noted that the Brut text itself, under its printed title as the 
Chronicles of England, remained salable in the early sixteenth century: there 
were seven reprinted editions by various publishers between 1502 and 1528. 
Sixteenth-century names and annotations in the medieval manuscripts attest 
that these were read, but such texts were increasingly the province of the 
antiquary or the casual owner. 



" The text from Albina to 688 and from 1399 to 1471 is printed in William Hardy 
and E. L. C. P. Hardy, eds., Recueil des Croniques et Anchiennes Istories de la Grant 
Bretaigne, 5 vols., with an English translation in 3 vols., Rolls Series 39 (London, 1864- 
1891); the text from 1325 to 1471 is printed in L. M. E. Dupont, ed., Anchiennes 
Cronicques d'Engleterre par Jehan de Wavrin, 3 vols., Societe de I'Histoire de France (Paris, 
1858-1863). See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 136-37; Gransden, Historical 
Writing II, pp. 288-92. 

''' See Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," pp. 601-607. 

^^ Thomas Hearne, ed., Joannis Rossi Antiquarii Warwicensis Historia Regum Angliae 
(Oxford, 1716). See Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 321-22 and n. 86. Rous cites 
Geoffrey of Monmouth as his source for the story of Brutus (pp. 18, 26); however, as 
noted by Charles Ross, a comment in Rous's roll history of the earls of Warwick suggests 
that he knew Geoffrey through the medium of the "comen Brute": see John Rous, The 
Rous Roll introd. Charles Ross (Gloucester, 1980), p. viii n. 10 and cap. 7. The Historia 
includes the Albina and her sisters narrative (pp. 10-14); on Rous's treatment, see T. D. 
Kendrick, British Antiquity (London, 1950), pp. 24-25. 

^ For an account of the activities of sixteenth-century antiquaries, manuscript 
collectors, and historians, see May McKisack, Medieval History in the Tudor Age (Oxford, 
1971); see also WiUiam R. Trimble, "Early Tudor Historiography \A%S-\SA%," Journal of 
the History of Ideas 11 (1950): 30-41. 



24 INTRODUCTION 

The New Chronicles of England and France (creation to 1485) by Robert 
Fabyan, draper, alderman, and sheriff of London in 1493-94 (died 1513), 
were completed in 1504 and published posthumously and anonymously in 
1516. For much of the later part of his work Fabyan alternates chapters on 
French and English history. The earlier history of Britain and England is 
modeled on the Brut, from which Fabyan borrows extensively, the French 
material is mainly based on Robert Gaguin's Compendium super Francorum 
Gestis, printed in 1497 at Paris. From 1189 the English material constitutes 
a London chronicle (Fabyan was almost certainly the author of the later sec- 
tion of Guildhall Library, London, MS. 3313, The Great Chronicle of Lon- 
don)?' 

The so-called Translator of Livius compiled his English life of Henry V 
in 1513-1514. His principal source was, of course, Titus Livius's Vita Hen- 
rici Quinti, which had itself used the Brut (see above), supplemented by En- 
guerran de Monstrelet and by reminiscences ultimately derived from the earl 
of Ormonde. However, the Translator also used the version of the Brut pre- 
pared by Caxton for his Liher ultimus to the Polychronicon edition.^^ 

The Italian humanist Polydore Vergil offered a new response to the ver- 
sion of history presented in the Brut. He began his Anglica Historia (Roman 
times to, originally, 1509) at the command of Heniy VII; the first printed 
edition, dedicated to Henry VIII, appeared in Basle in 1534. Vergil is highly 
skeptical about the historicity of Brutus and Arthur as presented by Geoffrey 
of Monmouth (and thus in the Brut). For the fifteenth century, Vergil relied 
on some version of the London chronicle, perhaps supplemented by the 
printed editions of Fabyan and the Chronicles of England}'^ Vergil was not 



^^ Henry Ellis, ed., The New Chronicles of England and France, by Robert Fabyan, 
Named by Himself the Concordance of Histories (London, 1811). See Kingsford, English 
Historical Literature, p. 105; McKisack, Medieval History in the Tudor Age, pp. 95-97; 
Gransden, Historical Writing II, p. 246; Matheson, "Historical Prose," p. 221; Kennedy, 
Manual, p. 2654; Lister M. Matheson, "English Chronicle Contexts for Shakespeare's 
Death of Richard II," in From Page to Performance: Essays in Early English Drama, ed. 
John A. Alford (East Lansing, 1995), p. 230. 

^* Charles L. Kingsford, ed., The First English Life of King Henry the Fifth (Oxford, 
1911). See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 64; Gransden, Historical Writing II, 
p. 217. 

^' Sections from an Enghsh translation of Henry VIII's time are printed in Henry 
Ellis, ed.. Three Books of Polydore Vergil's English History, Comprising the Reigns of Henry 
VI, Edward IV, and Richard III, Camden Society o.s. 29 (1844); Henry EUis, ed., Polydore 
Vergil's English History, From an Early Translation. Vol 1, Containing the First Eight 
Books, Comprising the Period Prior to the Norman Conquest, Camden Society o.s. 36 
(1846). The later, original narrative is printed in Denys Hay, ed. and trans., The Anglica 



INTRODUCTION 25^ 

entirely alone in doubting the veracity of Geoffrey of Monmouth; his na- 
tionality and suspect religion did, however, single him out for vehement 
attack, and although a sign of things to come, his skepticism about evidence 
did not affect other popular English histories of the sixteenth century.^^ 

The scope of Edward Hall's Union of the Two Noble Families of Lancaster 
and York (first edition published posthumously in 1548), recounting the 
reigns of Henry IV to Henry VIII, circumvented the problems of the histo- 
rical assessment of early British history that attended Vergil's Anglica His- 
toria. Hall borrowed from Vergil and was influenced by his style, but he also 
turned to a wide range of medieval chronicles for his material. Among his 
English sources Hall notes Trevisa, Fabyan, and Caxton, whose Liber ulti- 
mus is much used; in his preface. Hall acknowledges "one with out name, 
whiche wrote the common English Chronicle," that is, the Brut.^^ 

Hall's Union was a major source for fifteenth-century English history in 
the collaborative work known as Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, first published in 1577. Raphael Holinshed (died ca. 1580) was 
the principal compiler of the first edition; the lengthy "Names of the Auth- 
ors" used as sources for the history of England (creation to 1577), compiled 
as two books of the whole work, includes "Caxtons Chronicles," Hardyng, 
Fabyan, and Hall, as well as "diuers other bookes and treatises of historicall 
matter" by anonymous authors. The revised and expanded edition of 1587 
contains supplementary material contributed by John Hooker, Francis 
Thynne, Abraham Fleming, and John Stow, whose "diligent collected sum- 
marie" is acknowledged in the first edition and whose Chronicles are used in 
the second.^^ 



Historia ofPolydore Vergil A.D. 1485-1537, Camden Society, 3rd ser., 74 (1950). See also 
Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 254-55; McKjsack, Medieval History in the 
Tudor Age, pp. 99-103; Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 436-37, 442. 

^ See Hugh A. MacDougall, Racial Myth in English History: Trojans, Teutons, and 
Anglo-Saxons (Montreal and Hanover, 1982), pp. 19-20; Gransden, Historical Writing II, 
pp. 442-43. 

" Henrjr Ellis, ed., Hall's Chronicle (London, 1809); The Union of the Two Noble 
Families of Lancaster and York, 1550 (Menston, Yorkshire, 1970) (a facsimile of Richard 
Grafton's second edition of 1550). See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 262, 
265; McKisack, Medieval History in the Tudor Age, pp. 105-11; Gransden, Historical 
Writing II, p. 223. Hall also seems to have known Lambeth Palace MS. 84 directly; see 
Matheson, "English Chronicle Contexts for Shakespeare's Death of Richard 11," pp. 226, 
232. 

^^ The edition of 1587 is the basis of Henry EUis, ed., Holinshed's Chronicles, 6 vols. 
(London, 1807-1808; rpt., with an introduction by Vernon Snow, New York, 1965); for 



26 INTRODUCTION 

John Stow (?1525-1605), originally a London tailor by trade and a free- 
man of the Merchant Taylors' Company, owned manuscripts of the Brut 
and also used Brut material in his historical works, all of which went 
through numerous editions. The earliest of these works, A Summarie ofEng- 
lyshe Chronicles (1565), contains a section listing the names of all the kings 
of England since Brutus. Stow's major sources for the Summarie were Har- 
dyng, Fabyan, and Hall; in subsequent, much enlarged editions he added the 
Translator of Livius. His Chronicles of England (1580) covered the period 
from Brutus to the year of publication; this work reappeared in 1592 in an 
enlarged and restructured form under the new title Annales of England. Stow 
utilized Thomas Walsingham's chronicles, Fabyan, Hall, the Translator of 
Livius, and many other chronicle, record, and literary sources. He incorpor- 
ated material from the Peculiar Version of the Brut known as "Davies's" 
Chronicle from the manuscript that is now Bodleian MS. Lyell 34, which he 
owned (it was later in the possession of John Speed, who used it in his His- 
torie of Great Britaine [1611]; see item 168 below). Stow also owned Lam- 
beth Palace MS. 306, which contains a much abbreviated Peculiar Version 
of the Brut, a London chronicle, and other works, including a number of 
memoranda and transcriptions by Stow himself (some of which were inser- 
ted by Abraham Fleming in the 1587 edition of Holinshed's Chronicles). ^^ 



an overview, see McKisack, Medieval History in the Tudor Age, pp. 116—20. On the 
influence of the Brut, cf. Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 113, 118; on the 
revised edition, see Annabel Patterson, Reading Holinshed's Chronicles (Chicago and 
London, 1994), pp. 9-10, 56. Although he also recounts the Albina story, Holinshed 
adopts as his primary account of the first inhabiting of Britain the version devised by 
John Bale in which Samothes, son of Japhet, son of Noah, is the first king of Britannia 
and Gaul. The giant Albion is later given Britain (which he renames after himself) by his 
father Neptunus, who is descended from Noah's wicked son Ham, thus accounting for 
the giants whom Brutus and his men defeat upon their arrival; see Kendrick, British 
Antiquity, pp. 69-73. 

^^ Stow's Chronicles (or Annales) have not been reprinted in modern times; on the 
Summarie, the Chronicles, and the Annales, see McKisack, Medieval History in the Tudor 
Age, pp. 112-14. On Stow's indefatigable collecting of manuscripts, one may note that a 
search of Stow's house in 1569 revealed, among other books, "a great Parcell of old M.S. 
Chronicles, both in Parchment and Paper": see A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley, eds.. 
The Great Chronicle of London (London and Aylesbury, 1938; microprint rpt. Gloucester, 
1983), p. xvi. On Fleming's additions from Stow's Lambeth Palace MS. 306, see Patter- 
son, Reading Holinshed's 'Chronicles', p. 283 n. 6. 



INTRODUCTION 27 

D. SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY USE AND INFLUENCE 

Manuscripts of the Brut continued to be used by late sixteenth- and seven- 
teenth-century antiquaries: the name of Sampson Erdeswicke (died 1603) 
appears in Glasgow MS. Hunterian 83; Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.155 
contains extracts made by Sir Henry Spelman in 1606 from an EngUsh text 
ending in 1333; Bodleian MS. Ashmole 1139.iv.2 contains passages tran- 
scribed in 1672 from Bodleian MS. Ashmole 791; Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, MS. Pepys 2833 contains a copy from College of Arms MS. 
Arundel 58 of John Mandeville's English translation of the Bruty made ca. 
1685 for Sir William Hayward; NLW MS. Peniarth 343A contains a much 
abbreviated Peculiar Version of the English Brut written by William White 
in the seventeenth century. 

However, the last printed edition of the Chronicles of England 2i^^t2iTtd in 
1528, suggesting that as the standard popular narrative of the history of 
England the Brut had been replaced by the works of the sixteenth-century 
historians such as Stow and Holinshed, which were regularly reprinted into 
the seventeenth century. Since these had in fact utilized the Brut as a source, 
its indirect influence on conceptions of the past survived. Increasingly, 
though, the version of early British history presented in the Brut (and in its 
ultimate source, Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britannie) was 
challenged and ridiculed.^ 

Declared skeptics of Geoffirey's Historia, either in whole or in part, had 
existed from its first appearance but were in a small minority until the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries.^^ The major points of attack on the His- 



^ A full account of the debate is found in Kendrick, British Antiquity, see also 
MacDougall, Racial Myth, pp. 17-27, and Stuart Piggott, Ancient Britons and the 
Antiquarian Imagination: Ideas from the Renaissance to the Regency (New York, 1989), pp. 
59-60. 

*^ For active skeptics of all or part of the British History, see Kendrick, British 
Antiquity, pp. 11-14 (Alfred of Beverley, Giraldus Cambrensis, William of Newburgh, 
Ranulph Higden), 34-35 Qohn Whethamstede, Thomas Rudborne), 41-44 (Robert Fa- 
byan, John Rastell, John Twyne, George Lily, Thomas Lanquet, Thomas Elyot, John 
Harington, PhUip Sidney), 78-85 (John of Fordun, John Major, Polydore Vergil, George 
Buchanan), 105-11 Qohn Twyne, Wilham Camden, John Clapham, John Selden, Walter 
Raleigh, John More, Samuel Daniel, Digory Whear, Matthias Prideaux, WiUiam Temple, 
James Tyrrell); MacDougall, Racial Myth, p. 22 (Edward Ayscu, John Speed). See also 
Laura Keeler, Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Late Latin Chroniclers, 1300-1500, University 
of California Publications in English 17.1 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1946), pp. 29-46, 
76-85; Matheson, "King Arthur and the Medieval English Chronicles," pp. 263-65. 



28 INTRODUCTION 

toria and its chronicle descendants were the accounts of Brutus and of Arth- 
ur, though the non-Galfridian stories of Albina and of St. Joseph of Arima- 
thea were also doubted. Counter-attacks in defense of the "British History" 
were vigorous, especially those directed against Polydore Vergil's discounting 
of King Arthur.^^ Full-scale scholarly support, however, grew ever feebler 
in the face of developments in Renaissance historiographical methodology, 
embryonic anthropological studies resulting from the discovery of the 
Americas, and the rise of Anglo-Saxon studies.^^ Kendrick also distin- 
guishes a middle party "that did not countenance total belief or total dis- 
belief in the British History, but preferred a position that may be described 
as that of the institutionalist."^^ While pointing out the historical inconsis- 
tencies and illogicalities in the foundation and other stories, including that 
of King Arthur, the institutionalists suggested that there might be grains of 
truth contained therein that had been overlaid by the fabulous. Thus Milton 
in his History of Britain . . . From the first Traditional Beginning, Continu'd to 
the Norman Conquest (1670; 2nd ed., 1677) summarily dismisses Samothes 
but is less skeptical about Albion, son of Neptune. The Albina story is dis- 
missed out of hand — "too absurd, and too unconscionably gross is that fond 
invention that wafted hither the fifty Daughters of a strange Dioclesian 
King of Syria." Brutus and his line cannot, however, "so easily be dis- 
charg'd" — -faute de mieux, Milton's first book records Geoffrey's British kings 
up to Cassibelan, at which point the much relieved author is able to switch 



^* For active defenders of all or part of the British History, see Kendrick, British 
Antiquity, pp. 14 (John Trevisa's rebuttal of Higden), 85-98 (attacks on Polydore Vergil 
by John Leland, Arthur Kelton, David Powel, Humphrey Lluyd, John Price), 99 (attack 
on George Buchanan by Richard Harvey), 100 (attack on Camden by Henry Lyte; gener- 
al defenses by John Ross and John Lewis; attack on Polydore Vergil by Edmund Howes), 
101-102 (defense on linguistic grounds by Robert Sheringham; uncritical use by Bul- 
strode Whitelock and Winston Churchill); MacDougall, Racial Myth, pp. 23-25 (general 
defense by Edmund Bolton; attack on Polydore Vergil by Silas Taylor; general defense by 
Nathaniel Crouch). For Caxton's defense of Arthur's historicity, see Eugene Vinaver, ed., 
The Works of Sir Thomas Malory, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1947), 1: cxii-cxiii. See also James P. 
Carley, "Polydore Vergil and John Leland on King Arthur: The Battle of the Books," In- 
terpretations 15 (1984): 86-100. 

^^ See Kendrick, British Antiquity, pp. 114-15, 120-25; George P. Gooch, A History 
of Historical Writing, 2nd rev. ed. (New York, 1962), pp. 114-17; Ernst Breisach, 
Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern (Chicago and London, 1983), pp. 165-66, 
173-77; MacDougall, Racial Myth, pp. 31-50. 

^* Kendrick, British Antiquity, p. 125; for members, see pp. 126-32 (Edmund 
Spenser), 126 (John Milton), 101 and 125 (Daniel Langhorne), 102 and 125 (William 
Wynne). 



INTRODUCTION 29 

to Roman sources, though his "disease" over verifiable historicity returns 
during the Arthurian period.^^ 

Modem Value 

By the end of the seventeenth century only a few diehards continued to sup- 
port the veracity of Geoffrey of Monmouth. However, despite the general 
exploding of the British history related in the Brut, its later sections, especi- 
ally from 1307 on, and the individual late medieval continuations have re- 
mained valuable for political and social historians/^ 

As a cultural artifact the Brut is of the first importance. Its popularity and 
circulation in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and its influence in the 
sixteenth century gave it the status of a standard history that defined and 
created a sense of England's past, its national identity, and its destiny. 
Besides providing continuity with an ancient Trojan past, the Brutus story 
(and the Albina story) served a usefijl political and legal purpose in English 
claims to the overlordship of Scotiand.^^ The central figure of King Arth- 
ur, conqueror of much of Europe, was a potent political icon used by and on 
behalf of monarchs from Henry II to the Tudors to the Stuarts.^^ Both in 
its own right and as a source for later writers, the account of Henry V in the 
English Brut was central in creating the cult surrounding that king and his 
exemplary victories in France.^'' 



^' See the facsimile of the second edition (1677) in John Milton, The History of 
Britain, introd. Graham Parry (Stamford, 1991), pp. 8-38, 143-49. 

''° See, for example, the assessments in Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 
113-35; Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 35-61; Edgar B. Graves, ed., 
A Bibliography of English History to 1485 (Oxford, 1975), pp. 409 (item 2811), 413 (item 
2829). 

^^ See Susan Reynolds, "Medieval Origines Gentium and the Community of the 
Realm," History 68 (1983): 375-90; Carley and Crick, "Constructing Albion's Past," pp. 
42-43, 54-67. For a detailed examination of earher (pre-Brut) stages in the development 
of English national consciousness, see Thorlac Turville-Petre, England the Nation: Langu- 
age, Literature, and National Identity, 1290-1340 (Oxford, 1996). 

^^ See Gordon H. Gerould, "King Arthur and Politics," Speculum 2 (1927): 33-51; 
Kendrick, British Antiquity, pp. 35-39, 42; R. S. Loomis, "Edward I, Arthurian Enthu- 
siast," Speculum 28 (1953): 114-27; Sydney Anglo, "The British History in Early Tudor 
Propaganda," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 44 (1961-62): 21-44; MacDougall, 
Racial Myth, pp. 13-19, 21-26; Vale, Edward III and Chivalry, pp. 67-69, 93-94; Sharon 
L. Jansen, "Prophecy, Propaganda, and Henry VIII," in King Arthur through the Ages, ed. 
Lagorio and Day, 1: 275-91; Carley and Crick, "Constructing Albion's Past," p. 68. 

^^ See Christopher Allmand, Henry F (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1992), pp. 426-35. 



30 INTRODUCTION 

III. The Anglo-Norman Brut 

Development and Sources 

For present purposes, the main outlines of textual development and the 
sources of the Anglo-Norman Brut seem reasonably clear/"* However, a 
comprehensive and detailed catalogue, description, and textual classification 
of the Anglo-Norman and continental French manuscripts remain a matter 
for future study, and the following discussion makes no attempt to classify 
or account for every text. 

In its earliest form, the Anglo-Norman Brut related the history of Eng- 
land from Brutus to the death of Henry III in 1272, at which point end 
MSS. Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds fran^ais 14640; Bibliotheque Nationale, 
nouveUes acquisitions fran9aises 4267; BL Additional 35092; and BL Cotton 
Tiberius A.vi/^ The work must have been composed between 1272 and ca, 
1300 (the date of the earliest manuscript, Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds 
fran9ais 14640); the author of this first stage is anonymous. 

For his narrative from Brutus to what corresponds to the beginning of 
Cadwallader's reign, the writer used primarily Wace's Roman de Brut, appar- 
ently in a form closer to its source in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia than 
is found in the surviving manuscripts.^^ The Cadwallader episode, the end- 
ing point of both Geoffrey of Monmouth and Wace, is omitted. This omis- 
sion is either a deliberate, politically motivated decision, as C. W. Marx has 



Cf. also Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2633-34. "The cronycle of l^ng Henry the v" in BL MS. 
Cotton Claudius A.viii is an extract from Caxton's Chronicles of England. 

"^^ See Meyer, "De quelques chroniques anglo-normandes," pp. 113-44; Brie, Ge- 
schichte und Quellen, pp. 13-51; Vising, Anglo-Norman Language and Literature, nos. 
378(a)-(i); Brereton, ed., Des Grantz. Geanz, pp. xiv^xviii; Taylor, English Historical 
Literature, pp. 117-18, 120-27, 274-84; Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, 
pp. 15-17. 

^^ Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 13-15. Vising, Anglo-Norman Language and Li- 
terature, no. 378a, lists Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. R.4.26, but this is a text of the 
Brut ahrege. See also Taylor, English Historical Literature, p. 117; ambiguous phrasing in 
Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, p. 15, seems to suggest that the original 
ended in 1307. Brie argues that the original text ended in 1066 {Geschichte und Quellen, 
pp. 13-14, 37, 42), partly since the pre- and post-1066 sources seem of very different 
sorts and partly from the evidence of some of the Latin Brut texts, but these arguments 
are far from convincing. 

^^ Ivor Arnold, ed., Le Roman de Brut de Wace, 2 vols. (Paris, 1938, 1940); see Brie, 
Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 38-40, who adduces convincing parallel passages to support 
this view. 



INTRODUCTION 31 

speculated/^ or it reflects some loss of text or dislocation of narrative at 
this point in the source text or in the writer's transition from one source to 
another. The material from what should have been the death of Cadwallader 
to Harold's death in 1066 seems to be derived from Geffrei Gaimar's Estoire 
des Engkis, though more loosely than from the previous source in Wace/^ 
A version of the Havelok story, which occurs near the beginning of Gaimar, 
is inserted in the Brut soon after Arthur (though it is not simply derived 
from Gaimar)/^ The direct source for the narrative from 1066 to 1100, 
covering the reigns of William the Conqueror and William Ruftis, is not 
known; for the remainder of the text to 1272, the writer used the annals 
(A.D. 1 to 1291) written at the Cistercian abbey of Waverley in Surrey (or 
perhaps, as Brie suggests, an intermediary Anglo-Norman work based on 
them).«« 

There are some indications that in the early fourteenth century the basic 
text to 1272 received a continuation covering the reign of Edward I and 
ending with his death in 1307, though this stage must have been quickly 
subsumed into later recensions. Among complete manuscripts, only CUL 
MS. Ee.1.20, a text of the later Long Version (see below), ends in 1307.^^ 
The first part of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, MS. 78 is a text of the 
basic version to 1307, with an Anglo-Norman prose translation from a Latin 
version of the Albina prologue and some additions, to which a second scribe 



^ See C. W. Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts of the Brut in the National Library 
of Wales," The National Lih-ary of Wa/es Journal 27 (1991-92): 377-80. 

^^ Alexander Bell, ed., L'Estoire des Eng/eis: By Geffrei Gaimar, Anglo-Norman Text 
Society 14-16 (Oxford, 1960); see Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 40-42. The parallel 
passages from the Brut and Gaimar cited by Brie on p. 41 are very close, but much of 
Gaimar's text, at least as it now survives, is omitted or altered. Thus the tedious series of 
minor wars among the heptarchy kingdoms (that occur in Gaimar up to the parallel pass- 
ages quoted by Brie) are reduced to a short, general statement (cf. the English version in 
Brie 102/24-28). Gaimar's occasional confusions of persons with the same or similar 
names could not have helped the composer of the Brut. Brie suggests that the Brut writer 
might have used an earlier, simpler version of Gaimar (p. 42). 

" See Friedrich W. D. Brie, "Zum Fortleben der Havelok- Sage," Englische Studien 35 
(1905): 360-64. The heroine is called "Goldeburgh" in BL Cotton Domitian x (fol. 45), 
a Short Version text; "Argentil" in BL Cotton Cleopatra D.iii (fol. 108), a Long Version 
text. 

^ Printed in Henry R. Luard, ed.. Annates Monastici, vol. 2, Rolls Series 36 (London, 
1865), pp. 127-211. 

*' Bodl. Wood empt. 8, a text of the Short Version, breaks off just after the 
beginning of the reign of Edward I. 



32 INTRODUCTION 

has added a unique continuation to 1398.^-^ College of Arms MS. 31, a 
text of the Short Version with the metrical prologue (see below) that ends 
incompletely in 1329, leaves half a page blank after the death of Edward 
I.^^ Bodleian MS. Wood empt. 8, which does not contain the metrical 
prologue, breaks off soon after the beginning of the reign of Edward I. It 
could, therefore, represent a text that originally ended in 1307, though it 
could belong to the Short Version with a continuation to 1333 (see below), 
depending on how much text has been lost. Most convincingly, however, 
Brie notes that the majority of texts extending beyond 1307 fall into three 
groups that essentially agree up to that point and then diverge independently 
thereafter.^'* 

The source of the material from 1272 to 1307 is an unedited version of 
Langtoft's verse Chronicle that is exemplified in MSS. College of Arms 
Arundel 14, CUL Gg.1.1, and Bodleian Fairfax 24.^^ 

Major additions and revisions to the basic text of the Anglo-Norman Brut 
occurred between 1333 and the middle of the fourteenth century, resulting 
in the two major recensions known as the Short and Long Versions. 

The first stage of the Short Version was formed by the addition of a con- 
tinuation from the accession of Edward II in 1307, known as the short con- 
tinuation, which survives in various states of fullness or abbreviation. The 
precise conclusion of this first stage is somewhat unclear since none of the 
manuscripts is unambiguously complete. Yale MS. Beinecke 405 apparently 
ends at some point in the year 1333, but the "final foHo [is] only partially 
legible, with end of text totally obscured."^^ Other manuscripts of the 
group end incompletely: BL Additional 35113 breaks off in 1324; CUL 



*^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 16, 25. Brie mistakenly believed the prose 
prologue to have been based on the Anglo-Norman Des Grantz Geanz; see Brereton, ed., 
Des Grantz Geanz, p. xxxvi, and Carley and Crick, "Constructing Albion's Past," pp. 45, 
86-87. 

^^ Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 16. 

^^ Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 16; cf. Taylor, English Historical Literature, p. 117. 
Brie includes among these three groups Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 78, whose 
evidence I have mentioned above; the remaining texts really fall into two major groups, 
with subgroups. 

*^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. AA-A6, for a comparison of readings. The Brut 
continuation presents some omissions and alterations and a number of misunderstandings. 

*^ Barbara A. Shailor, Catalogue of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the 
Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, 3 vols., Medieval & Renais- 
sance Texts & Studies 34, 48, 100 (Binghamton, 1984-1992), 2: 293. 



INTRODUCTION 33 

Mm. 1.33 in 1326; Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 293 in 1329; while BL 
Cotton Julius A.i contains only a fragment from the reign of Edward 11. 
Nevertheless, the evidence of the next stage in the development of the Short 
Version suggests strongly that the end point was the English raid on Had- 
dington fair in Scotland that occurred in 1333, shortly before the battle of 
Halidon Hill. 

In view of the London interest of the earlier part of the continuation, 
coupled with the amount and the detail of the material on Edward Ill's 
Scottish campaigns, Taylor suggests that the writer may have been a clerk of 
the Exchequer who accompanied the administration to York in the 1330s 
and that the continuation may have been an originally independent work 
that became attached to the Brut?^ 

The next stage in the development of the Short Version was the addition 
of a metrical prologue that recounts the story of Albina and her sisters, the 
thirty daughters of an unnamed king of Greece who, exiled after plotting 
unsuccessfully to murder their husbands, are the first settlers of Albion and 
the mothers of giants, whose descendants Brutus and his men were to 
slay.^^ This prologue is an abbreviated redaction of an Anglo-Norman 
poem, Des Grantz Geanz, that is found in full in BL MS. Cotton Cleopatra 
D.ix, a manuscript that has been dated by Carley and Crick between 1332 
and 1334.^^ All but two of the Brut manuscripts that contain Des Grantz 
Geanz also include a short linking passage in Latin or French between the 
prologue and the main text that summarizes the Albina story and the future 
contents up to the arrival of the Saxons. College of Arms, MS. Arundel 31 
(breaks off in 1329) and Bodleian MS. e Musaeo 108 (breaks off in 1327) 
contain no linking passage. 

The following manuscripts contain the linking summary in Latin: BL 



*^ See John Taylor, The French Prose Brut. Popular History in Fourteenth-Century 
England," in England in the Fourteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1985 Harlaxton Sympo- 
sium, ed. W. M. Ormrod (Woodbridge, 1986), pp. 253-54 and n. 30; Taylor, English 
Historical Literature, pp. 122-24, 146; Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 
19-20. 

^^ See Brereton, ed., Des Grantz Geanz, p. v. 

^ "Constructing Albion's Past," p. 45 and n. 17. For the following account of the 
manuscripts of the Short Version, see Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 17-24; Brereton, 
ed., Des Grantz Geanz, pp. vi^, xii-xviii (classification of the manuscripts), and xxxvi; 
Legge and Brereton, Three Hitherto Unlisted MSS.," pp. 113-17; Taylor, English Histo- 
rical Literature, pp. 120-24; Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 20-22; 
Carley and Crick, "Constructing Albion's Past," pp. 45-47. 



34 INTRODUCTION 

Harley 6359 (breaks off in 1330); BL Additional 18462(b) (breaks off in the 
first chapter of Edward I's reign); Lambeth Palace 504 (ends in 1333 with 
Haddington raid); Inner Temple Library, London, 511, Vol. XIX (to 1333, 
Haddington); Trinity College, Dublin, 500 (to 1333, Haddington); Bodleian 
Rawlinson D.329 (to 1333, Haddington); Bodleian Lyell 17 (to 1333, Had- 
dington); CUL Gg.1.15 (breaks off in 1326); Trinity College, Cambridge, 
R.7.14 (breaks off in 1333 with Archibald Douglas's raid into England); 
EUL 181 (to 1333, Haddington); Yale Beinecke 593 (to 1333, Hadding- 
ton); Westminster Abbey 25 (ends in 1330); Bibliotheque de I'Arsenal, 
Paris, 3346 (ends in 1330 at the same point as the preceding, related text). 
BL Cotton Domitian x (to 1333, Haddington) contains the Latin summary 
but not the prologue, which has either been lost or was deliberately omitted 
despite its presence in the exemplar. The Latin summary follows Des Grantz 
Geanz in Leeds Brotherton 29 {The Anonimalle Chronicle). It occurs also in 
BL Cotton Cleopatra D.vii as part of the fifteenth-century augmentation of 
the original fourteenth-century text. In Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds fran- 
9ais 12156, a fifteenth-century continental French manuscript (possibly from 
Picardy), the prologue is completely recast into laisses of monorhyme alexan- 
drines and precedes a Short Version text (to 1333, Haddington). Three fif- 
teenth-century manuscripts form a distinct group in which the linking pass- 
age is in Anglo-Norman: BL Harley 200, Bodleian Douce 128, and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, R.5.32 contain the metrical prologue, the Short Ver- 
sion of the Brut to 1332, followed by the Latin chronicle of Robert of Aves- 
bury (died 1359).^° 

The Long Version was also generated between 1333 and 1350, though its 
less circumspect account of Edward II's murder suggests that it may have 
been compiled slightly later than the Short Version.^^ 

All but two of those manuscripts of the Long Version that are complete 
at the beginning contain a prose prologue that recounts a version of the Al- 
bina story. The two exceptions are CUL Ee.1.20 and Lincoln's Inn 88, each 
of which possesses individual textual peculiarities; their texts cannot, there- 
fore, represent the initial stage of the Long Version, though it is just possi- 



'° Avesbur/s work survives in these three manuscripts only. It is printed in Edward 
Maunde Thompson, ed., Adae Murimuth Continuatio Chronicorum. Robertus de Avesbury 
de Gestis Mirabilibus Regis Edwardi Tertii, Rolls Series 93 (London, 1889), pp. 279-471. 
See also Gransden, Historical Writing 11, pp. 67-71; Taylor, English Historical Literature^ 
p. 127. 

'^ See Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, p. 22. 



INTRODUCTION 35^ 

ble that they are descended from an original Long Version that did not in- 
clude the prologue.^^ 

The prose prologue that is generally found in the Long Version represents 
a different version of the Albina story from that found in the metrical pro- 
logue to the Short Version; for example, Albina is now one of thirty-three 
daughters of King Dioclisian of Syria who succeed in murdering their hus- 
bands, rather than one of thirty daughters of an unnamed king of Greece 
who fail in their homicidal plot. It is uncertain whether the prose version is 
derived directly from the metrical version or whether both versions had a 
common source, possibly in Latin.'-' 

The text to the death of Edward I in 1307 is a much revised version of 
the basic, standard text described above.'"* There are many changes in the 
names of the towns in which the British kings are buried and in the lengths 
of their reigns. Some factual details are changed: for example, Gorbodian's 
four brothers become his sons, in the Havelok story Goldeburgh becomes 
Argentille, and a long story recounts the poisoning of King John by a monk 
in Swineshead rather than the short report of the king's death from illness. 
Some small omissions are found, such as the notice of Malgo, the successor 
to Conan Meriadoc, and the names of the bishops present at Henry Ill's 
coronation. A number of minor additions also are made, and an important 
new section of narrative, the lengthy set of Merlin's prophecies concerning 
the five kings to follow King John (cf Brie 72-76), appears. Many addi- 
tional historical details appear in the account of the reign of Edward I. 

This revised text proceeds with a continuation from 1307 to the battle of 
Halidon Hill in 1333, ending with the words "saunz chalenge de ascuny. 
Amen. Deo gracias." (BL Cotton Cleopatra D.iii). The narrative is indepen- 
dent of the short continuation and is known as the long continuation. It 
covers the reign of Edward II and the early years of Edward III in much 
fuller detail and at greater length than any preceding reign. The notion that 
it was written by William Pakington, who served as a clerk in the house- 
holds of the Black Prince and Richard II and whose career is recorded from 



'^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 28 and 30-31, for a description of these 
manuscripts. Despite its verbal peculiarities, Lincoln's Inn 88 can be associated with a 
subgroup of Long Version texts that do include the prologue (see below). 
See Brereton, ed., Des Grantz. Geanz, pp. xxxv-xxxvii. 

'" For a fuller and more detailed account of the differences up to 1307 between the 
Short and the Long Versions, see Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 26-27. 



36 INTRODUCTION 

1364 to 1390, has been successfully refuted by John Taylor.'^ Instead, 
Childs and Taylor suggest that, like the short continuation, the long con- 
tinuation, which shows marked knowledge of northern events, may have 
been written by a clerk attached to the central administration and stationed 
at York during the 1330s who was aware of the short continuation.^^ 
Indeed, it is possible that the continuator was also responsible for the entire 
compilation and revision of the Long Version. 

Thirteen of the fourteen manuscripts of the Long Version (BL Royal 
App. 85 is a fragment) can be divided into three primary subgroups: (a) 
CUL Ee.1.20 (breaks off in 1307 during the interpretation of Merlin's pro- 
phecy on Edward I) lacks the prologue and abbreviates heavily, (b) BL 
Royal 20.A.iii; Trinity College, Dublin, 501; CUL Ii.6.8; BL Additional 
18462a; (c) BL Cotton Cleopatra D.iii; Bibliotheque Mazarine 1860; Bib- 
liotheque Nationale, fonds franfais 12155; BL Royal 19.C.ix; Bibliotheque 
Ste. Genevieve 935; Bodleian Ashmole 1804; Lincoln's Inn 88; BL Royal 
20.A.xviii.^^ 

Brie reports that his comparisons of readings in Long Version manu- 



'^ See Taylor, English Historical Literature, pp. 277-83 (originally printed as part of 
"The French Brut and the Reign of Edward II," English Historical Review 76 [1957]: 
423-37). The attribution to Pakington began with John Leland and was accepted by Brie, 
who thought he had discovered Pakington's original chronicle in BL MS. Cotton Tibe- 
rius A.vi: see Friedrich W. D. Brie, "Recovery of an Anglo-Norman Chronicle," Notes 
and Queries 10th ser., 2 (1904): 41; Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 47-51. Taylor shows that 
this text is, in fact, a composite chronicle derived from various sources, including the 
Anglo-Norman Brut (pp. 278-81). 

^* Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, pp. 22-23. 

'■^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 32. I paraphrase Brie's further distinctions 
among the texts: in group (b), BL Royal 20.A.iii and Trinity College, Dubhn 501 agree 
almost word for word, while CUL Ii.6.8 and BL Additional 18462a have deviations in 
common; in group (c), Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds fran9ais 12155, BL Royal 19.C.ix, 
and Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve 935 stand against BL Cotton Cleopatra D.iii, 
Bibliotheque Mazarine 1860, Bodleian Ashmole 1804, Lincoln's Inn 88, and BL Royal 
20.A.xviii; furthermore, BL Royal 19.C.ix and BibHotheque Ste. Genevieve 935 stand 
against Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds frangais 12155, while BL Cotton Cleopatra D.iii 
and Bodleian Ashmole 1804 agree almost word for word against Bibliotheque Mazarine 
1860, Lincoln's Inn 88, and BL Royal 20.Ajcviii. Also within group (c), BL Royal 
20.A.xviii contains variations from the normal continuation to 1333, such as a concluding 
section that recounts rumors that Edward II was still alive, followed by the prophecies of 
Merlin, which have been accorded chapter numbers to fit in at the end of the appropriate 
reign; see Taylor, "The French Prose Brut. Popular History in Fourteenth-Century 
England," in England in the Fourteenth Century, ed. Ormrod, p. 250, and Childs and 
Taylor, eds., Anonimalle Chronicle, p. 18. 



INTRODUCTION 37 

scripts show that a text of the type of MSS. Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds 
fran9ais 12155, BL Royal 19.C.ix, and Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve 935 
formed the basis for the Middle English translation that was made in the 
second half of the fourteenth century.'^ The work of supplying continu- 
ations to the Anglo-Norman text essentially ceased, though it continued to 
be copied and read in the fifteenth century. But, apart from the three manu- 
scripts that append Robert of Avesbury's Latin chronicle, only two surviving 
manuscripts contain continuations beyond 1333. Leeds MS. Brotherton 29 
adds two French continuations that bring the narrative to 1381.^ Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, MS. 78 originally ended in 1307 but subsequently 
received two continuations. The first, in a fourteenth-century hand, recounts 
the reigns of Edward II and Edward III; the second, in a fifteenth-century 
hand, covers the period from 1377 to 1397.^^ 



IV. The Latin Brut 

The definition — let alone the affiliations — of the so-called Latin Brut texts 
has been subject to debate by those few scholars who have considered them. 
Brie identified three manuscripts — Magdalen College, Oxford, 200; Lam- 
beth Palace 99; and BL Cotton Julius B.iii — as constituting a close and 
accurate translation from the Anglo-Norman Brut, though the last of these 
contained abbreviations and additions from other Latin sources that were 
not found in the other two texts. ^°^ However, to account for instances 
where he considered that the Latin text agreed better with Geoffrey of 
Monmouth's Historia Regum Britannie, Brie posited that the translation had 
been made from an earlier form of the Anglo-Norman Brut than now sur- 
vives, one that corresponded more closely to Geoffrey and that ended in 
1066, the date of the conclusion of the Brut texts in the three Latin manu- 
scripts (two of which then append continuations). To account for the pres- 
ence of the Albina prologue, not found in the earliest extant Anglo-Norman 



** Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 54-55. 

^ See V. H. Galbraith, ed., The Anonimalle Chronicle 1333-1381 (Manchester, 1927); 
Taylor, English Historical Literature, pp. 133-53. 

^°° See Galbraith, "Extracts from the Historia Aurea and a French 'Brut' (1317-47)," 
pp. 206-207 (description), 215-17 (extract from the first continuation). 

'°' For these, and Brie's other comments that are summarized below, see his 
Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 127—30. 



38 INTRODUCTION 

texts ending in 1272, Brie suggested that either there had once existed 
Anglo-Norman texts to 1272 that included the prologue or the prologue was 
an individual addition to a text ending in 1066. 

Brie remarked further the presence of the same prologue in an anonymous 
Latin chronicle in Bodleian MSS. Rawlinson B.169, B.195, C.398, "u. a. m." 
(that is, "and many others"), but felt that this work had nothing otherwise 
to do with the Brut. He also noted the interpolated presence of the prologue 
in BL MS. Cotton Galba E.vii of the Eulogium Historiarum and a second 
translation of the prologue (from the Anglo-Norman Long Version), with 
an original preface, in BL MS. Harley 941. 

Kingsford, however, regarded the anonymous Latin chronicle rejected by 
Brie as the fully developed form of the Latin Brut, ending with the murder 
of James I of Scotland in 1437, and added a further eight texts to the three 
specifically mentioned by Brie. He noted frequent textual variations, perhaps 
"due in part to independent translations from the English original," but con- 
cluded from his comparison of three texts for the reign of Richard that "all 
three are obviously translated (though with much abbreviation) from the 
common English text."^^^ Kingsford accepted the three manuscripts de- 
scribed by Brie as the Latin Brut as representatives of the original work, to 
which, presumably, the material translated from the English Brut had subse- 
quently been appended. 

Kingsford assigned nine of his eleven texts to two main classes, according 
to whether they contain brief or full accounts of the reign of Henry V, and 
commented on the contents of the remaining two texts.^^'' 

Most recently, Kennedy has raised the possibility, at least for the texts 
discussed by Kingsford, that "they are not translations but original com- 
positions in Latin that drew upon the English Bruts and other works as 
sources," since there is material in Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.398 that 



^°^ Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 310, 311. 

^*^^ The text from 1399 to 1437, designated "The Common Version," is printed from 
manuscripts containing the brief account in Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 
312-23; the text of "The Longer Version for the Reign of Henry V" is printed on pp. 
323-37. Despite textual variations, Kingsford considered (presumably on account of 
content) that all the texts were very similar for the reigns of Henry IV and Henry VI (p. 
310). The narrative from 1422 to 1437 (and a continuation to 1471) in College of Arms 
Arundel 5 is printed in Gairdner, ed.. Chronicles, pp. 164-66 {Brut), 166-85 (continu- 
ation). The imperfect text of Bodleian Rawlinson C.234 is printed under the title 
"Chronicon (Anonymi) Godstovianum" as an appendix in Thomas Hearne, ed., William 
Roper's Vita Thomae More (Oxford, 1716), pp. 180-246. 



INTRODUCTION 39^ 

Kennedy did not find in the English texts ending in 1437.^^ 

It is almost certain that a number of texts remain unidentified in sketchily 
catalogued manuscripts. ^°^ It would, therefore, be premature to try to re- 
solve all outstanding problems connected with the Latin Bruts, the texts of 
which require a more detailed and extensive treatment than is either neces- 
sary or possible in the present context. The following comments attempt to 
address the opinions and concerns of the scholars noted above, especially 
insofar as they relate to the relationship between the Latin texts and the 
English Brut. 

As noted earlier, those texts that have been called Latin Bru^ fall into 
two major versions and a minor "version" represented by a single text. The 
two major versions are connected only by their use of a common form (with 
variations) of the Albina prologue. 

Tbe First Version of the Latin Brut 

The first version consists of the texts found in MSS. Magdalen College, 
Oxford, 200 and Lambeth Palace 99, with which can be associated the text 
of BL MS. Cotton Julius B.iii. 

Both Magdalen College, Oxford, 200 (fols. 40-56) and Lambeth Palace 
99 (fols. l-22v) contain a short prefatory passage, beginning "Adam & Eua 
in agro Damasceno formati virgines exierunt de paradiso" and ending "Com- 
putantur igitur ab Adam usque ad passionem anni quinque milia ducente- 
simo 8c viginti octo" (Lambeth Palace 99). 

The work that follows immediately is based on the Short Version of the 
Anglo-Norman Brut and is headed "Incipit Brute de gestis Anglorum" 
(Magdalen Coll. 200), "Incipit Bruto de gentes Anglorum 8c de omnibus 
regibus AngUe" (Lambeth Palace 99). The Albina prologue begins "Anno 
[a] creacione mundi M'M'M' DCCCC erat in Grecia quidem rex potentissi- 
mus super ceteros reges optinens principatum" and ends "8c sic gigantes ex- 
pulsi C X annis terram Anglie tenuere in pace" (Lambeth Palace 99); as Brie 



^°^ Manual, pp. 2638-39. 

*°^ The present discussion includes those manuscripts noted in Brie, Geschichte und 
Quellen, p. 5; Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 310-12; Carley and Crick, 
"Constructing Albion's Past," pp. 48-49 and n. 32 (CCCC 311 and Gonville and Caius 
Coll., Cambridge, 72); and Dutschke, Guide, 2: 618-19 (Huntington HM 19960). Brut- 
Uke texts such as those found in Lambeth Palace 386, BL Egerton 672, and Chicago 
224, fols. 7-24v (see Mary E. GifFm, "A Wigmore Manuscript at the University of 
Chicago," Tie National Library of Wales Journal 7 [1951-52]: 316-25) have not been 
included. 



40 INTRODUCTION 

noted, this text is a slightly shortened translation into Latin prose of the 
introductory poem found in many Anglo-Norman Short Version texts. 

The first chapter of the narrative proper is entitled "De ciuitate magne 
[noue Lambeth] Troie que est ciuitate London" and begins "In ciuitate magne 
[noue Lambeth] Troie erat quidam miles fortissimus nomine Eneas" (Mag- 
dalen Coll. 200). The succeeding text is a close translation of the Anglo- 
Norman Short Version and shares the features thereof, such as the omission 
of Merlin's prophecies and the Cadwallader episode and the inclusion of King 
Malgo (see pp. 32-35 above). The Brut text ends in 1066 with the death of 
Harold: "Et isto modo rex Haroldus perdidit regnum Anglie cum regnasset ab 
Epiphania dum vsque ad festum sancti Kalixti xl septimanas & mortuus est in 
bello vt predicatur 8c iacet humatus aput Waltham. Explicit Bruto [Brute 
Magdalen Coll.] de gestis Anglorum" (Lambeth Palace 99). 

Magdalen College 200 ends at this point, but Lambeth Palace 99 conti- 
nues with a chronicle entitled "Conquestus regni AngHe per WiUelmum 
ducem Normannorum" (fol. 22v), which begins by recounting William's rea- 
sons for the Conquest. This work ends in 1367 with a full list of those cap- 
tured at the battle of Najera: "& alij multi vsque ad numerum quinque M^ 
vel yj Mill, bonarum gencium armatarum exceptis lenetorijs Panisorijs 8c se- 
ruentibus sine numero" (fol. 56v). 

Besides the Brut text and its continuation, Lambeth Palace 99 contains a 
number of other works, all written by the same scribe, that bear on the de- 
velopment of this first version of the Latin Brut. The manuscript includes a 
chronicle of popes to Gregory XI (mistakenly called "Vrbanus"), elected in 
1370 and died 1378 (fols. 60-1 12v); a chronicle of Roman and Holy Roman 
emperors from JuUus Caesar to Charles IV, elected in 1355 and died 1378 
(fols. 113-127v); a chronicle of archbishops of Canterbury from Augustine 
to WilHam Whittesley, archbishop from 1368 to 1374 (fols. 129-150); a list 
of bishoprics (fols. 153-155v); a Cosmographia attributed to "Rogerum mo- 
nachum Cestrensis," extracted from Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon (fols. 
158-186); a catalogue of saints in England (fols. 187-196); a text on Scot- 
tish history from the time of IGng Westmer to 1368 (fols. 203-206); the 
Ymago mundi of Honorius of Autun (fols. 207-218, ending imperfectly); and 
a tractate and three epitaphs on William the Conqueror (fols. 219-224v). 
The dates associated with the various works suggest that the manuscript was 
compiled soon after 1377.^°^ 



^°* At some point the manuscript belonged to St. George's Chapel at Windsor; see 
Ker, Medieval Libraries, p. 203. 



INTRODUCTION 41 

Versions of several of the works found in Lambeth Palace 99 also occur 
in BL MS. Cotton Julius B.iii: the chronicles of the popes (fols. 3-25v), 
emperors (fols. 26-31), and archbishops of Canterbury (fols. 31v-42) and 
the list of bishoprics (fols. 42v^50v). Clearly, the two manuscripts are closely 
related. 

Nevertheless, the version of the Brut is not identical to that found in 
Lambeth Palace 99. The short preface from Adam is omitted, but the text 
of the Albina story is similar to that in Lambeth Palace 99; it begins "A 
principio mundi iij'^ ix^ erat in Grecia quidam rex potentissimus super [re- 
peated] ceteros reges optinens principatum" and ends "et sic gigantes sunt 
expulsi." The following narrative, however, is largely a selective adaptation 
of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britannie, the language of 
which is sometimes paraphrased, sometimes followed verbatim. Thus, Bru- 
tus's questions and Diana's reply are given in Geoffrey's verse form, and 
Merlin's prophecies are included, with the kings being identified in the mar- 
gins. Additions are also made, as, for example, in the inclusion of an ex- 
tended account of Sts. Alban and Amphiball. Considerable omissions fi"om 
Geoffrey are also made, and one principle of omission may have been the 
absence of corresponding material in the Brut so as to follow generally the 
narrative structure of that work. After Cadwallader occurs an extended ac- 
count of the kings of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. Thereafter, the text turns 
to the Brut for the remainder of the narrative to 1066; it then proceeds with 
the third chapter of the chronicle to 1367 found in Lambeth Palace 99, thus 
avoiding a overlap between the two works. The changeover (fol. lOlv) is as 
follows: 

Et isto modo rex Haroldus perdidit regnum Anglie cum regnasset ab 
Epiphania dum vsque ad festum sancti Kalixti per xl septimanas &c 
mortuus est in bello vt predicatur 6c iacet humatus apud Waltham. 

Explicit Bruto de gestis Anglorum. Conquestus regni AngUe per 
Willelmum ducem Normannie et de coronacione dicti Willelmi regis 
Anglie. 

Anno domini M bcyj dux Normannorum Willelmus vrbem London 
adiens in multo exultacione a clero & populo susceptus 

The succeeding text is abbreviated, especially in lists of names, and ends 
after a much truncated account of the captured at Najera: "& alij multi 
vsque ad numerum v Mill, bonarum gencium armatorum exceptis lenetorijs 
Panisorijs &, seruentibus sine numero" (fol. 115v). 



42 INTRODUCTION 

BL MS. Cotton Julius B.iii appears to have been directly based on Lam- 
beth Palace MS. 99 and contains a contemporary note in the lower margin 
of fol. 3 that reads: "Istum librum compilauit magister Willelmus Rede iij"* 
episcopus Cirestrensis." William Rede was indeed bishop of Chichester from 
1368 to his death in 1385; why the annotator designates him as "third" is 
mysterious (the see was first established in 1075 and only one of Rede's pre- 
decessors was named William). Emden accepts his authorship of the chroni- 
cle of the popes and emperors, the chronicle of the archbishops of Canter- 
bury, and the Brut and its continuation to 1367 in BL Cotton Julius 
B.iii. ^°^ Rede's dates fit, and he was certainly qualified to have compiled 
such a manuscript. He was a noted scholar of Merton College and the auth- 
or of several astronomical tables and works. He was also a collector who 
made major donations of books to Merton College and New College and 
lesser gifts to several other Oxford colleges and religious institutions outside 
Oxford. Numbered among his books were historical works, including Bede's 
De Gestis Anglorum, Henry of Huntingdon's De Historia Anglorum, and Ail- 
red of Rievaulx's Liber de Genealogia regum Anglorum, and several saints' 
lives, including two lives of Thomas Becket. But questions remain. Does the 
annotator refer to all or part of the particular compilation of works in BL 
Cotton Julius B.iii? Does he refer to authorship and revision as well as com- 
pilation? Does he include the much altered Brut text and its continuation? 
How should one account for Lambeth Palace 99, which was the source for 
BL Cotton Julius B.iii? Without corroborating evidence, the attribution to 
Bishop Rede must remain possible but not proven. 

The Second Version of the Latin Brut 

The second version includes the eleven texts listed by Kingsford but rejected 
by Brie and questioned by Kennedy, with the addition of two subsequently 
identified texts. Both Kennedy and Kingsford are partially correct: as the 
former suspected, this is not a simple translation from an English Brut but 
is a compilation; Kingsford, though, whose primary interest was in the later 
section of the text, is also correct in saying that that part is derived from an 
English Brut. Kingsford also noted that there was much textual variation in 



^°^ For Rede's career and books, see A. B. Emden, A Biographical Register of the 
University of Oxford to AD. 1500, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1957-1959), 3: 1556-60. Emden 
accepts the evidence of the note on pp. 1556 and 1560. 



INTRODUCTION 43 

the manuscripts and suggested that this might be due in part to independent 
translation from the English texts. 

In its complete form, the second version covers the period from Albina to 
the murder of James I of Scotland in 1437. As we have seen, Kingsford di- 
vides the texts of the second version into two main classes, depending on 
whether they contain a brief or a fiill account of the reign of Henry V. 
Manuscripts containing the brief account are Bodleian Rawlinson C.398 (ex- 
cept for the batde of Agincourt, which is of the full account type), BL 
Cotton Domitian iv, BL Harley 3906 (with a continuation to 1456), Col- 
lege of Arms Arundel 5 (with a continuation to 1471), and Bodleian Rawl- 
inson B.195 (sixteenth century). The full account is found in MSS. BL 
Lansdowne 212, St. John's College, Oxford, 78, Bodleian Rawlinson B.169, 
and BL Harley 3884 (the Brut narrative from 1415 to 1437, with a continu- 
ation from 1445 to 1455).^''^ The text found in Bodleian Rawlinson 
C.234 (the so-called Godstow Chronicle, imperfect at both beginning and 
end) is similar to that in BL Cotton Domitian iv but contains the full ac- 
count for 1415 to 1421. Kingsford notes distinctive peculiarities in the final 
part of the text of Bodleian Rawlinson B.147, but it appears to be a variant 
of the second version rather than a separate version. The text of Corpus 
Christi CoUege, Cambridge, 311 can be assigned to the longer class, while 
that of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 72 remains to be assigned 
to one or the other class. ^^ 

As mentioned above, the Albina prologue is interpolated from this version 
in BL MS. Cotton Galba E.vii, a text of the Eulogium Histortarum}^^ 
The historical compilation in Huntington MS. HM 19960 completes its 
narrative with material from the second version, ending in 1437 with the 
murder of James I.^^^ 

The second version of the Latin Brut appears to be a deliberate and so- 
phisticated compilation whose purpose was to improve upon the historical 
narrative presented in the English Brut to 1437 (the PV-1437:A and the 
corresponding part of the PV-1437/1461). The Latin text replaces, adopts. 



^°* See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 310-11. 

^^ See Montague Rhodes James, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the 
Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1912), 2: 111-12, and 
yf Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Gonville and Caius College, 2 
vols. (Cambridge, 1907, 1908), 1: 65-66. 

^^° Printed in Haydon, ed. Eulogium Historiarum, 2: 216-18. 

"^ See Dutschke, Guide, 2: 618-20. 



44 INTRODUCTION 

or supplements at will the material found in the English text, using a variety 
of sources while generally following the outline of the English Brut. A fuller 
and more detailed analysis than is possible here is required to establish the 
identities and range of the sources; what follows should be regarded as a 
preliminary and provisional account of the text. 

Some of the Latin texts have a heading similar to that found in the Eng- 
lish PV-1437:B, for example: 

Nova cronica de gestis regum Anglorum cum aliis incedenciis rerum 
notabilium et mirabilium eorum temporibus contingencium a primo 
rege Bruto usque ad annum XIIII regis Henrici sexti sub compendio 
congesta. [CCCC 311: James, Descriptive Catalogue. . . Corpus Christi 
College, 2: 111] 

Noua Cronica de gestis regum Anglorum a primo rege Bruto usque 
ad annum xiiij regis Henrici sexti sub quodam compendio compilata. 
[Bodl. Rawlinson C.398] 

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 311 and Bodleian MS. Rawlin- 
son B.169 continue with a short introduction, beginning "Britannia que 
nunc AngUa dicitur," again corresponding to the English PV-1437:B. 

The first section of the text proper is the Albina prologue, apparently 
taken from the corresponding text in the first version of the Latin Brut (or 
perhaps from a text of the Eulogium Historiarum in which it occurred as an 
interpolation), beginning "Anno a creacione Mundi III"" nongentesimo erat 
in grecia Rex potentissimus super ceteros Reges" (Gonville and Caius Coll. 
72: James, Descriptive Catalogue. . . Gonville and Caius College, 1: 65). 

The succeeding narrative opens with a short genealogy from Jupiter and 
Juno to Brutus (descended from the union of Jupiter and Electra); this cor- 
responds to part of the genealogy from Noah to Brutus represented in the 
EngHsh text of Bodleian MS. Lyell 34 {"Davies's" Chronicle) and National 
Library of Wales MS. 21608D but has been improved by comparison with 
some other text, possibly the Eulogium Historiarum}^^ 

The immediately following narrative, from Brutus to Cadwallader, is 
mainly based on Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britannie, with 
which there are frequent verbal correspondences. However, additional ma- 
terial shows that the compiler either supplemented Geoffrey from other 



See Haydon, ed. Eulogium Historiarum, 2: 203-205. 



INTRODUCTION 45 

sources (such as Higden's Polychronicon, itself indebted to Geoffrey for early 
British history), or used an intermediate chronicle that had already done so. 
Gildas and William of Malmesbury are cited by name. There are also cor- 
respondences with the English PV-1 437/61, such as the arrival in England 
of Joseph of Arimathea with two vials of Christ's blood and his estabhsh- 
ment of a church at Glastonbury, where he is buried. Considerable abbrevi- 
ation also occurs: for example, Merlin's prophecies are omitted and the reign 
of Arthur is recounted in one short chapter. 

As in the EngHsh PV-1422:A, the PV-1437:A, and the PV-1437/61 (as 
represented by Bodleian MS. Lyell 34), the Cadwallader episode is followed 
by a lengthy account of the kingdoms of the heptarchy. 

The following narrative, from Alfred to a point near the end of the reign 
of Edward III, is largely extracted from the corresponding narrative found 
in those texts of the AB version of the Polychronicon that append to Hig- 
den's work a continuation to 1377, combined with material from the Eng- 
lish PV-1437:A.^^-' The compiler appears to have also used other sources, 
including the Eulogium Hisforiarum, from which he probably took, for ex- 
ample, William the Conqueror's dream concerning the foundation of Battle 
Abbey, Becket's vision of the ampulla containing the consecration oil (re- 
lated under the reign of Henry II), and the poisoning of King John by a 
monk of Swineshead. The reigns of Henry III, Edward I, and Edward II 
are relatively brief, as they are in the English PV-1422:A and some texts of 
the PV-1437:A. The last recorded event taken from the Polychronicon con- 
tinuation is the creation of Richard of Bordeaux as prince of Wales, duke of 
Cornwall, and earl of Chester; unfortunately, the compiler has moved this 
notice forward to a point before the record of the death of Edward, prince 
of Wales. The reign of Edward III closes with a notice of Wyclif and his 
followers, taken from the continuation, an account of Edward's wife Phi- 
lippa and their children, and a note of the king's death. 



^^^ See John Taylor, The 'Universal Chronicle' of Ranulf Higden (Oxford, 1966), pp. 
98-100 (on the almost seventy copies of the AB version), 118-19 and 178-81 (on the 
compilation of the continuation). Two forms of the continuation are printed in Lumby, 
ed., Polychronicon, 8: 407-28 (from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, MS. 82), 
and Thomas Hog, ed., Adam Murimuthensis Chronica Sui Temporis . . . cum eorundem 
Continuatione (ad M.CCC.LXXX) a Quodam Anonymo (1846; rpt. Vaduz, 1964), pp. 174- 
227 (pp. 171-73 represent Higden's text). For an example of the combination of texts, 
see the passage quoted from the Enghsh translation of the Latin text on p. 306 below, 
where the account of the battle of Halidon Hill is based on the Brut while the following 
notice of the Holy Roman Emperor comes from the Polychronicon. 



46 INTRODUCTION 

The final section of narrative, fi-om the accession of Richard II to the 
death of James I in 1437, is closely associated with the English PV-1437:A, 
probably in some form that underlies the PV-1437/61 as exemplified by 
"Davies's" Chronicle}^^ The Latin text with the fiiller account of the reign 
of Henry V (the briefer account is seemingly a secondary development) is 
based on the English text but abbreviates it considerably to the year 1416, 
after which abbreviation decreases though it does not cease. In the reign of 
Richard II the abdication speeches and references to the coronation ampulla 
do not appear. Some minor additions are also made that are not always 
accurate; for example, the conclusion of the text names the murderer of 
James I as William (rather than the correct Robert) Graham. 

In Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.398, a Latin text, and Columbia MS. 
Plimpton 261, an English PV-1437:B text translated from the Latin (see 
below and item 174), the chronicle is attributed to a Richard Rede. Rede 
may have been either the compiler or just the scribe of the former manu- 
script, whose name was then taken to be that of the compiler by the English 
translator and thus introduced into the latter manuscript. The identity of the 
surname with that of William Rede, who is associated with the unrelated 
first version of the Latin Brut, is probably coincidental. 

The precise relationship of the second version of the Latin Brut to the 
English PV-1422:A, PV-1437:A, and PV-1437/61 remains problematical. 
The final portion of the Latin text seems to be clearly based on the English 
text to 1437. But the opening words of the Albina prologue and the pres- 
ence in the section abstracted from the Polychronicon of all the additional 
material from that work found in the English texts, together with the ex- 
tended account of the heptarchy, might suggest that the Latin text formed 
the source for those additions. It is more likely, however, that the compiler 
of the Latin text used an English text as a template to guide his selection of 
material from the Polychronicon and, when he came across passages borrowed 
from that source in the English text, he included them as a matter of course, 
as well as the account of the heptarchy. 

The English PV-1437:B is a translation of a text from the second class of 

the Latin Brut and thus includes the longer account of the reign of Henry 
y 115 



^*'' See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 127-28. 

^^^ For further comments on the source of the English translation, see pp. 305-306. 
Kennedy slips in saying that the translation is from the shorter type {Manual, p. 2639). 



INTRODUCTION 47 

The Third Version of the Latin Brut 

The final "version" consists of a short narrative in BL MS. Harley 941, 
which contains on fols. l-3v a unique translation into Latin of the prose 
adaptation of the Albina prologue from the Anglo-Norman Long Version 
of the Brut}^^ It seems quite likely that this was a one-time exercise, 
rather than an extract from some longer translation of the Brut into Latin. 



V. The Middle EngUsh Brut 

The preeminent translation into EngHsh of the Anglo-Norman Long Ver- 
sion with the long continuation was made at some point between 1333, the 
ending point of the basic text, and ca. 1400, the probable date of the earliest 
English manuscripts. Brie chose the middle years of 1350 to 1380 as the 
most likely period of translation, while Kingsford dated it "[tjowards the end 
of the fourteenth century," and the present writer has used the date "about 
1400.""^ A date late in the fourteenth century seems preferable for several 
reasons: (1) a number of the Anglo-Norman manuscripts of the Long Ver- 
sion belong to the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, suggesting 
that the French text remained popular at that time; (2) the earliest extant 
manuscripts in English were written ca. 1400 and are still very close to their 
French original (though it is clear that there were texts antedating those that 
survive); (3) the dialect of the earliest surviving texts is still relatively pure; 
(4) the work may be seen as analogous to what Ralph Hanna has character- 
ized as "the Ricardian translation project.""* Accordingly, some point be- 



"* See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 130; Carley and Crick, "Constructing Albion's 
Past," pp. 48, 49-50. 

"^ Geschichte und Quellen, p. 54; English Historical Literature, p. 114; and "Historical 
Prose," p. 210, respectively. A recent, general account of the English Brut and of selected 
episodes therein is found in Robert A. Albano, Middle English Historiography (New York, 
1993), pp. 37-89. Extracts of historical and social interest, often with commentary, are 
given passim in Basil Cottle, The Triumph of English 1350-1400 (London, 1969). 

See Ralph Hanna III, "Henry Daniel's Liber Uricrisiarum (Excerpt)," in Popular 
and Practical Science of Medieval England, ed. Lister M. Matheson (East Lansing, 1994), 
pp. 185-86. Beside the Liber Uricrisiarum, translated by Henry Daniel between 1376 and 
1379, Hanna notes the translation of Macer's De virtutibus herbarum by John Lelamour, 
a Hereford schoolmaster, in 1373 and also adduces Trevisa, Chaucer, and the Wydiflfite 
translators, all from the 1380s and 1390s. 



48 INTRODUCTION 

tween 1380 and 1400 would, perhaps, be a safe date for the original English 
translation of the Brut. 

The translator is anonymous, but the dialects of the earliest manuscripts 
and relict forms in later ones suggest that he came from Herefordshire.^^^ 
The ensuing fifteenth-century textual development of the work and the 
standardized language of many texts show increasing ties with London and 
its environs. The first continuation, to 1377, is associated with the work of 
Westminster chroniclers, and subsequent continuations are closely linked 
with the civic chronicles of London. Their contents often reveal a marked 
interest in metropolitan affairs, which would have appealed to an audience 
that expanded to include members of the merchant class. The major center 
of production for both texts and manuscripts was undoubtedly the London 
area, and the first printed edition, by William Caxton, was published at 
Westminster. 

As we have seen, the numerous surviving manuscripts and texts fall into 
four broad categories (here designated by the Roman numerals used in the 
Classification of Texts below) within which many smaller groups can be dis- 
tinguished: 

L The Common Version, which originally took the narrative to 1333 but 
to which numerous additions were made, eventually bringing one group 
(which includes the first of the early printed editions) to the year 1461. 

IL The Extended Version, which adds an exordium and includes details 
taken from the Short English Metrical Chronicle. 

III. The Abbreviated Version, which is a shortened cross between the 
Common and Extended Versions. 

IV. Peculiar Texts and Versions, which is an amorphous grouping of (1) 
reworked texts and versions of all or part of a Brut text, sometimes 
abbreviated or expanded by interpolations from other works and some- 
times containing continuations; (2) material of an individual nature 
forming a section of a longer Brut text that belongs to an otherwise 
distinct group; (3) appendages to some work other than the Brut, (4) 
very brief works that have used the Brut as a primary source; (5) the 
second translation of the Anglo-Norman Brut, made in 1435 by John 



^^' See, for example, Bodleian Rawlinson B.171, one of the earliest manuscripts 
(South-West Herefordshire), and the later Bodleian Rawlinson B.173 (West Here- 
fordshire), CUL Kk.1.12 (Central Herefordshire), and Bodleian Bodley 840 (Essex, with 
Herefordshire relicts). 



INTRODUCTION 49 

Mandeville, rector of Burnham Thorpe in Norfolk, contained in two 
manuscripts. 

A small number of incomplete or fragmentary texts have proved resistant 
to classification and are grouped below as "Unclassified Texts" (V). Addi- 
tions made subsequent to the first printed edition (derived from the Com- 
mon Version) allow the early printed editions to be identified as belonging 
to two types (VI). 

VI. Methods of Classification 

The system of classification employed in the present study is partially 
indebted to that used by Friedrich W. D. Brie in his Geschichte und Quellen 
der mittelenglischen Prosachronik The Brute of England oder The Chronicles of 
England (1905), but represents a considerable expansion and refinement of 
that work. Although a pioneering effort, Brie's study contains many flaws 
and errors. ^^^ He knew only a limited number of manuscripts and was un- 
able to examine all of these personally. His method of classifying manu- 
scripts almost exclusively by the type of continuations they contained, sel- 
dom taking account of textual differences, prevented him from identifying 
a number of groups and resulted in oversimplified views of the complex rela- 
tionships among the texts. Neither the intrusive Cadwallader episode nor 
Queen Isabella's letter are used as criteria for classification. Furthermore, 
Brie discounted the many manuscripts of the Extended and Abbreviated 
Versions of the Brut as worthless. 

The criteria and factors used in the present classification are several, and 
classification depends upon a combination of features. The most important 
are a formal examination of each text to determine its contents and continu- 
ations (reflected in the layout of each entry, with additional commentary, if 
necessary, in the Remarks). This formal analysis is combined with textual 
comparison of selected test passages that show consistent, definitional vari- 
ation in particular groups (that is, passages demonstrating that some process 
of conscious revision has taken place as opposed to simple scribal variation 
between texts). Textual comparison is also used extensively in the case of 
texts that are imperfect at either beginning or end. The starting point for all 
comparisons is the Anglo-Norman Long Version of the Brut and the initial 
translation thereof into English. 



For detailed criticism, see Matheson, "Historical Prose," pp. 210-12. 



50 INTRODUCTION 

The texts of the Middle EngHsh Common Version developed primarily 
through a process of accretion, through the acquisition of certain added 
sections of text and of continuations, though some groups (for example, the 
CV-1419 [Leyle]) are distinguished not only by their formal contents but 
also by their verbal changes. However, the process of accretion does conceal 
some potential complexities, since apparent additions need not always be 
later accretions. In theory at least, an early type of text might contain an 
extra feature which, in the normal course of scribal transmission, was omit- 
ted from a stage of the copying process and was then naturally absent from 
all texts descending from that stage. Conversely, as Dobson has remarked 
with regard to the texts of the Ancrene Wisse: 

When the case is one of additions to a basic text ... it must be 
apparent that the author of the additions may well have taken steps 
to circulate them to the known owners of copies; and scribes or 
owners who became aware that additions were in existence would be 
Hkely to seek to acquire copies. In the result the same additions 
might be inserted into manuscripts that were otherwise not at all 
closely related; and the affiliations of the manuscripts in the added 
portions may be quite different from those in the basic text.^^^ 

Given the large number of primary and related texts in circulation, the 
situation of the Brut is not quite as contained as in the case of the Ancrene 
Wisse. I have tried to exercise sufficient caution by regularly using the textual 
collation of selected portions of text as a control and double-check, especi- 
ally in the case of doubtful or complex relationships where scribal cross- 
coUation has apparently occurred. In general, however, in the case of the 
absence of a recognized later accretion to the basic text where there is no 
contrary or conflicting evidence, I have assumed that the additional matter 
was not present in the exemplar of a specified group of texts. 

The classification of texts of the Extended and Abbreviated Versions de- 
pends primarily on which of four recensions of the exordium is present, on 
distinctive verbal differences among the several textual groups, and, for some 
Abbreviated Version groups, on the handling of the chapter that includes 
the battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. 



^^^ E. J. Dobson, The Affiliations of the Manuscripts of Ancrene Wisse," in English 
and Medieval Studies Presented to J. R. R. Tolkien, ed. Norman Davis and C. L. Wrenn 



(London, 1962), p. 129. 



INTRODUCTION 51^ 

Texts included under "Peculiar Texts and Versions," whether singletons 
or members of groups, require detailed examination both of formal contents 
and continuations and of verbal treatment to determine their likely antece- 
dents and affiliations. 

That so many texts of a work that went out of fashion in the sixteenth 
century are extant implies that an even greater number have not survived, a 
conclusion that is borne out by textual comparisons. It is rare, though not 
unknown, that direct links between manuscripts can be established, and each 
manuscript remains its own cultural artifact and textual witness. In addition, 
the age of a manuscript cannot be used as an absolutely defining criterion, 
since a late but accurately copied manuscript may preserve well an early form 
of the text. Accordingly, assignment to a particular group does not imply 
total identity among the texts of that group, and some variation and differ- 
ences must be allowed. 

Test Factors and Passages 

The following principal test factors were regularly examined and, if appro- 
priate, recorded for texts of the Common Version to serve as the basis for 
classification of groups and subgroups within the version. Through factor 
13, they are listed in the order in which they would appear (if present) in 
the narrative. Combinations of these factors provide a set of criteria whereby 
texts have been classified. 

1. The heading (if any) and the opening words of the text, whether 
complete or imperfect. ^^^ 

2. A comparison of the Albina prologue and the Lear story (especially the 
form of the king's name — "Leyl(e)" instead of "Leir") with the lexically 
altered texts represented by Glasgow Hunterian 7A}^^ 



^^^ The beginning and ending of any table of contents, usually derived from the chap- 
ter headings, is also noted. Such tables appear randomly among the Anglo-Norman and 
English manuscripts and the printed editions. They are of limited classificatory use since 
they could be generated easily, naturally, and independently, and just as easily omitted. 
They are, however, of great use in determining or confirming the original ending point 
of texts that are now imperfect at the end or of texts to which continuations have been 
subsequently added. 

^^^ This is the only case in which the form of a proper name has been used as a 
major distinguishing feature. Especially in the earlier sections of the texts, the manuscript 
speUings of proper names are highly variable and often idiosyncratic. Standardized forms 
based either on the CV-1333 or on commonly found spellings are adopted conventionally 



52 INTRODUCTION 

3. The presence or absence of the Cadwallader episode, which does not 
occur in the Anglo-Norman Long Version or in the original English 
translation. See Appendix 1 below. 

4. The presence or absence of Queen Isabella's letter to the citizens of 
London, which does not occur in the Anglo-Norman Long Version or 
in the original English translation. See Appendix 2 below. 

5. The presence or absence of the intrusive heading to the fifth ward of 
the battle of Scotland — that is, the fifth division in the battle array of 
the Scottish army — in the chapter recounting the battle of Halidon 
Hill ("5w" heading; c£ Brie 284/28, and see pp. 86-87). Where the 
wording of the heading differs significantly from that of the standard 
heading, then it is recorded in the description of the text. 

6. The final words of the account of the battle of Halidon Hill, which is 
the conclusion of the Anglo-Norman Long Version and the original 
EngUsh translation (cf Brie 286/8-9). 

7. The changeover between the battle of Halidon Hill and any continu- 
ation to 1377, which can be of a long or a short type.^^'* 

8. The presence or absence of the poem on the battle of Halidon Hill, 
found only in John Mandeville's translation of the Anglo-Norman 
Long Version (Brie 287-89). 

9. The presence or absence of the chapter describing the character of 
Edward III, which occurs sporadically after the continuation to 1377 
(Brie 333-34; see p. 92). 

10. The presence (if any) of a continuation from 1377 to 1419 (Brie 335- 
91) and to which of two major types it belongs, depending on the clos- 
ing words of the continuation, whether "and manfiilly countered with 
our English men" or "in rule and governance." 

11. The presence (if any) of a continuation beyond 1419 that includes John 
Page's poem on the siege of Rouen (cf Brie 394-439) and to which of 
three recensions it belongs. 



below: thus, Coryn, Ebrak, Blegabred (one of the thirty-three kings), Lud, Engist (the 
modern Hengest or Hengist), Vortiger, Cadwallader — but (under Shakespeare's influence) 
Lear rather than "Leir." As noted above, the Latinized forms Albina and Brutus are 
generally adopted instead of the Anglo-Norman and Middle English "Albine" and 
"Brut(e)" respectively. The modern form Isabella (Edward II's queen) is used in 
preference to manuscript "Isabel," and other modern forms are used for names that 
remain current, e.g., Alfred for "Alurede," William the Conqueror for "William Bastard," 
Henry for "Harri," and so on. 

^^■^ The long continuation to 1377 is printed in Brie 291-332. 



INTRODUCTION 53^ 

12. The presence (if any) of a continuation from 1419 to 1461 (Brie 491- 
533). 

13. The concluding words of the text, whether complete or imperfect, and 
any colophon. 

14. Any unique contributions, continuations, or other distinguishing textual 
features. 

15. The comparison of selected passages of text, as deemed appropriate, 
both within and outside putative groups. 

16. Any changes of hand or ink at potentially significant points in the text, 
for example, at the onset of a continuation. 

17. Any spaces or blank leaves at potentially significant points in the text, 
especially at the onset of a continuation. 

Many of the factors significant for the Common Version are not usefiil 
for the Extended and Abbreviated Versions; for example, the Cadwallader 
episode and Queen Isabella's letter are consistentiy present in complete texts 
of the Extended and Abbreviated Versions. Nevertheless, as a matter of 
course, the seventeen factors above should be checked in the preliminary 
examination of any unclassified Brut text. The main additional test factors 
for the identification and classification of the Extended and Abbreviated 
Versions and their groups are: 

1. The presence of one of several distinctive headings to the whole work. 

2. The presence of one of four distinctive recensions of the added exor- 
dium and prologue heading that characterize these versions. See Ap- 
pendix 3 below for the most common of these recensions. 

3. The opening words of the text proper, whether complete or imperfect. 

4. The distinctive treatments of the description of the giants in the Albina 
narrative, which incorporates details derived from the Short English 
Metrical Chronicle^ especially the inclusion of extra named giants and 
the giants' sizes ("first giants passage"; see pp. 184-85, 237-38). 

5. The distinctive treatments of the description of the giants' mode of 
existence in Diana's prophecy to Brutus ("second giants passage"; see 
pp. 185-86). 

6. The designation of Coryn's beloved as his "paramour" or his "leman," 
and whether her name is given ("Coryn's paramour passage"; see pp. 
186-87). 

7. The omission of the names of King Ebrak's numerous sons and daugh- 
ters (Brie 15/15-24). 



54 INTRODUCTION 

8. The treatment of the chapter recounting the reigns of thirty- three 
kings of Britain (Brie 30/20-31/13), specifically (a) the type of linkage 
("after him" type, enumeration, or simple listing); (b) abbreviation, in- 
cluding the loss of some names; and (c) the presence or absence of an 
intrusive Latin tag after King Blegabred (see p. 176). 

9. The distinctive wording of the chapter on King Lud's building projects 
in London and the change of the city's name ("Lud passage"; cf Brie 
31/18-24, and see pp. 238-40). 

10. The wording of the passage recounting the establishment of Engist's 
heptarchy (Brie 54/33-55/14), including confiisions between "Winches- 
ter"/"Worcester" and "Derbyshire"/"Devonshire." 

11. The substitution (if any) of a single chapter for the four chapters 
recounting the reign of King Arthur's successor, Constantine. 

12. The omission of material after the death of King Arthur, whereby he 
is succeeded by Conan rather than Constantine. 

13. An examination of the chapter on the battle of Halidon Hill and of the 
surrounding chapters, specifically to determine (a) the number of wards 
of the Scottish army that are listed and (b) the omission or reworking 
of material around the battle of Halidon Hill, including loss of the en- 
tire narrative on the battle. 

14. The end of the continuation to 1419, such as the concluding words "in 
rule and good governance. (Deo gracias.)," or some variation thereof 
that includes "good." 

15. The presence (if any) and type of a continuation beyond 1419. 

16. The concluding words of the text, whether complete or imperfect, and 
any colophon. 

17. Any unique contributions, continuations, or other distinguishing textual 
features. 

18. The comparison of selected passages of text, as deemed appropriate, 
both within and outside putative groups. 

19. Any changes of hand or ink at potentially significant points in the text, 
for example, at the onset of a continuation. 

20. Any spaces or blank leaves at potentially significant points in the text, 
especially at the onset of a continuation. 

The two sets of test factors listed above were also applied to texts that 
have been classified as Peculiar Texts and Versions, though by their nature 
such texts usually require additional individualized criteria and commentary. 



INTRODUCTION 55 

Layout and Style of Entries 

Although there are 181 manuscripts and thirteen early printed editions, the 
Classification of Texts contains 215 items due to the not uncommon scribal 
practice of combining texts. At its simplest level, such combination consisted 
of the addition to an existing text of a continuation taken from another 
exemplar by a different scribe. The resulting text could then be copied as a 
whole by a single scribe. At more complex levels, texts from several exem- 
plars could be combined to form a unified text, or additions from another 
Brut text or from some unrelated historical work could be made to or in- 
terpolated into a copy as it was being compiled. Where a manuscript can be 
subdivided into distinct textual items — for example, from the evidence of the 
hands or the cobbling together of texts from otherwise distinct groups — such 
items have been distinguished by (1), (2), etc., immediately following the 
manuscript shelfmarks in the Classification of Texts below. Accordingly, dif- 
ferent sections of one manuscript can appear as independent entries (with 
appropriate cross-references to the other items) in different groups. 

Typically, the description of each group begins with a list of its manu- 
scripts and any subgroups, usually accompanied by some contextual com- 
ments on the group's place in the general scheme of development. Individual 
entries on each of the items then record the formal features — heading, open- 
ing words, contents, omissions, changeovers between continuations, conclud- 
ing words — that form the essential basis for classification. Where appropri- 
ate, an optional Remarks section comments on these textual features and on 
physical aspects of the manuscript that bear on classification, including ex- 
planations of details marked in the formal description by a parenthetical 
"(but) see below." In some instances, these Remarks quote sections of text 
that support the classification. Also included under Remarks (or notes there- 
to) is information on other contents of the manuscript, early ownership and 
names, the dialect of the text, and further points of interest specific to the 
item under discussion. Where no Remarks are given for an individual item, 
the omission reflects a judgment on my part that further available evidence, 
if any, is not illuminating for the immediate purposes of this study. 

Again where appropriate or necessary, groups and subgroups of individual 
entries are followed by a Remarks section on the group or subgroup, which 
contains comments on the textual character and contents of the group as a 
whole and on its internal and external affiliations and relationships, some- 
times supported by textual comparisons. (For minor modifications in this 



56 INTRODUCTION 

general procedure for the Extended and Abbreviated Versions, see pp. 173- 
74.) In the case of unique texts included under Peculiar Texts and Versions, 
commentary on the wider affiliations of the texts has been placed under the 
item-specific Remarks. 

For ease of reference in a system as complex and lengthy as that which 
follows, notes to each of the entries (including the entry-specific Remarks) 
are placed at the end of the entry; similarly, notes to the group-specific 
Remarks are placed directly after those Remarks. Readers who are not speci- 
alists in manuscript or medieval chronicle studies may wish to glance 
through the introductory and Remarks sections where they exist (that is, for 
the majority of versions, groups, and subgroups, and many of the individual 
items) before plunging into the more formal textual descriptions, especially 
when there are more than three or four descriptions in a row. 

Page and line references to Erie's standard edition of the Brut (and occa- 
sionally to other relevant editions) occur liberally throughout this study to 
aid comparison with the modern edition. Accordingly, those readers who 
wish to pursue textual details and comparisons in depth should, if possible, 
use Brie as a vade mecum. 

In all quotations from manuscripts and texts (except those cited from 
modern editions), word division, capitalization, and (light) punctuation are 
editorial. Abbreviations and contractions have been silently expanded accord- 
ing to conventional or manuscript-local use; when in doubt, possibly otiose 
marks and curls have been ignored. Word-initial^ has been capitalized as 
i^in proper names and at the beginning of sentences; j has been resolved as 
J or as z as etymologically necessary. Chapter headings have been set off 
from their surrounding text. Editorial emendations, comments, and notes of 
scribal alterations and insertions are enclosed in square brackets. Missing or 
illegible letters or words are similarly noted; if one or two letters only are 
concerned, this is indicated by [.] or [ . . ], while anything longer is indicated 
by[...]. 



Appendix 1: 
The Text of the Cadwallader Episode 

The intrusive Cadwallader episode regularly appears in texts other than 
those representing or directly derived from the original translation from the 
Anglo-Norman Long Version. When present, it occurs between two chap- 
ters. The first recounts how King Oswold of Northumberland was killed by 
King Cadwalyn of Leicester and his brother-in-law Peanda and how Oswy, 
Oswold's brother, killed Peanda, became king of Northumberland, and then 
killed Oswyn, Peanda's cousin, who was buried at Tynemouth (Brie 101/4- 
102/20). The next chapter in the CV-1333 (and directly derivative texts) 
describes how King Offa (or "Ossa"), Oswold's brother, conquered the con- 
tinually warring minor kings of England and thus became their overlord; it 
ends by recording how certain monastic chronicles were written that later 
came into the possession of King Alfred (Brie 102/21-103/8). 

The following text of the Cadwallader episode is edited from Staats- und 
Universitatsbibliothek Hamburg MS. 98 in serin (designated H below), a 
text of the Common Version to 1377 with full continuation. Stage 2, which 
is possibly the earliest group to include the interpolated material (see pp. 
92-93). However, a comparison with the source in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 
Historia and with other Brut texts shows that the Hamburg text contains 
some small modifications in wording that must be subsequent to the original 
form of the episode. Thus the date of Cadwallader's death has fallen away, 
and some phrases from the beginning of the following chapter are antici- 
pated in the opening lines (cf. Brie 102/26-28) and then reworked slightiy 
for their reappearance. Accordingly, the text has been compared with that 
found in Columbia University Library MS. Plimpton 262 (designated P 
below), which belongs to one group of the mainstream Common Version 
that ends in 1419 (see pp. 98-100). It represents well forms of the heading 
and text that are commonly found in the extant manuscripts, and selected 
variant readings of significant or interesting material difference are recorded 
below. Significantly, the Hamburg and Plimpton texts (like a number of 
other texts) do not accord separate chapter numbers to the intrusive episode; 



58 APPENDIX 1 

the first, preceding chapter described above is numbered "Capitulo Cente- 
simo Primo" while the second, succeeding chapter is numbered "Capitulo 
Centesimo ij°" or "Capitulo C ij"." In later texts, the episode is more fully 
assimilated by according its chapters separate numbers. 

[p. Ill] How Cadwaladre regned after his fader Cadwaleyn and how for Ipe 
grete pestylence derthe of vitaylles and hunger he wente to the kyng of Litel 
Britaigne 8c after to Rome 8c J)ere deide. 

[How l^'^ng Cadwaladre pat was Cadwaleyns sone regnede aftere his fadere 
8c was J)e last kyng of Brittons. P] 

After Ipe deth of Cadwaleyn regned his sone Cadwaladre wel 8c nobly and 
his moder was [p. 112] the suster of J)e kyng Peanda 8c whan he had regned 
xij 3eer he fel in a grete sykenesse 8c {)an was jjere so grete discord bytwene 
the lordes of Jje londe pat euery werred vpon other and he pat was pc 
strenger 8c more myghty toke pt londe 8c kyngdome fro hym J)at was pt 
more feble [and . . . feble om. P]. 

And 3it in J)at tyme ^er felle so grette derthe [and scarcete add. P] of 
corne and of other vitailles in J)is lond J)at a man myghte wel gone thre or 
foure dayes fro toun to toun [)at he shulde not fynde to bigge of vitaille for 
gold [ne for gold de/. H] ne for siluer breed wyne ne none other vitaille 
wherwith man myght lyuen but only [pe peple leuede add. P] by rootes of 
herbes ffor other lyvynge hadde {)ei none so moche was the londe bareyne 
and failled al aboute and of fysshe 8c wylde bestes and of all oJ)er thinges so 
{)at of |)is mysauenture come so grete mortalite and pestilence among pt 
peple by pc corrupcioun of pe. eyre [)at pe peple lyvinge sufficed not to burye 
the dede ffor pel deyed so sodenly bothe olde 8c 3onge [olde 8c 3onge om. 
P] grete 8c smale lord and servaunt etynge goynge and spekynge so J)at 
neuere was herd of more sodeyn deth among pe peple ffor he J)at wende to 
burye pe dede body with pe same dede body was buryed. 

Thei [)at myghte fleen fledden 8c leften her londes houses and tenementz 
[fledden and hire londes and houses P] as wel for pe grete hunger and 
derthe [hunger derth and scarcete P] of corn as for the horrible mortalite 8c 
pestilence in the londe and wenten into othre landes forto sauen her lyues 
and lefte pe londe al deserte and waast so {)at [)er was not left eny man to 
trauayle and tilye pe londe ne to eren ne sowen so J)at pe londe was bareyne 
of tyliers and of comes. 



CADWALLADER EPISODE 59 

And |)is mysauenture durede xj 3eer and more |)at [p. 113] no man 
myghte eren ne sowe. 

How Cadwaladre wente out of Engelond [jjis lond P] into Litel Brytaigne. 

Cadwaladre sawh the grete hunger and mortalite [hunger mortalite and 
pestilence P] and \>e lande al pouere 8c failynge comes 8c other vitailles 8c 
his folk perisshed and sawh J)e moste partye of his land al wasted 8c voyde 
of peple. He apparaylled him and his folk J)at were lefte on lyue and passed 
ouer into Britaygne with a litel navye vnto kyng Aleyn J)at was his cosyn 
whom his fader had moche loued [in his tyme add. P]. 

And as J)ey seyled in the see he made grete lamentacioun and alle they Jjat 
were with hym sayenge "Dedisti nos domine tanquam oues escarum et in 
gentibus dispersisti nos." And f)an bygan Cadwaladre to compleyne him to 
his folk pitously and saide "Alias" seide he "to vs wrecches or caytyues 
fforwhy for oure grete synnes of J)e whiche we wolden not amenden vs while 
we hadde space of repentaunce is now comen vpon vs J)is mysauenture 
whiche chasith vs out of oure reawme and propir londe [soyle P]. Fro and 
out of whiche londe somtyme Romayns Scottes ne Saxons ne Danes ne 
myght not exilen vs. But what availlej) it now to vs J)at byfore tymes ofte- 
sithes haue geten 8c wonne manye oJ)ere regiouns and londes sithen it is not 
the wille of God ^at we abide 8c dwelle in oure owne lond. God {)at is ver- 
ray iuge put alle thynges knoweth byfore J)ey be done or made he seeth Jjat 
we wolde not cessen of oure synnes and Jjat oure enemyes myght not vs ne 
oure lynage out of oure rewme exilen he wolde f)at we amende vs of oure 
folyes and |)at we seen oure owne propre defautes. Perfore [p. 114] ha{) he 
shewed to vs his wratthe and wole chasticen vs of oure mysdedes sithen J)at 
he dooth vs withoute bataille 8c strengthe of oure enemyes by grete com- 
panyes 8ccopyouse multitude of peple [8ccopyouse . . . peple om. P] wrecch- 
edly to leuen oure rewme and propre soyle [londe P]. 

"Turne ageyn 3e [\>e P] Romaynes [phrase repeated V\, turne ageyn 3e [{)e 
P] Scottes; turne ageyn 3e [f)e P] Saxons; turne ageyn 36 Frensshe men [{)e 
Frauncoys P] — now shewej) to 30W Brytaigne al deserte the whiche 30ure 
power myght neuere make deserte [the . . . deserte om. P]. Ne 30ure power 
now haj) not putte vs in exile but only jje power of \>t Igmg almyghti whom 
we haue ofte offended by oure folyes |)e whiche we wolde not leuen til he 
had chasticed vs by his dyvyne power." 

Among |)e wordes 8c lamentaciouns |)at kyng Cadwaladre made to his 
folk they arryued in Lytel Britaigne and come to kyng Aleyn byforesaid and 



60 APPENDIX 1 

J)e kyng recyued hym wij) grete ioye and dide hym be serued wonder nobly 
and J)ere he dwellid longe tyme after. 

Pe Englisshe peple J)at were lefte alyue and were escaped J)e grete hunger 
and pestilence [mortalite P] lyueden in J)e beste wise {)at J)ei myghten and 
moche peple sprong of hem and pei senten to Saxoun where ^ey were born 
to here frendes forto haue men wommen & children to restore pe citees and 
oJ)re townes |3at were al desolate 8c [desolate 8c om. P] voyde of peple and 
forto laboren and [trauaylen and add. P] tilyen Jje erthe. 

Whan J)e Saxons hadde herde J)at they come wonder thikke with many 
companyes and grete multitude of peple hadde J)is tithinge J)ei comen into 
J)is lande wonder thik in grete companyes and laggede [sic] and herberwed 
hem in Ipt cuntree al aboute where pey wolde ffor J)ei fond no man hem to 
lette [ne withstonde add. P] and so thei [woxen and add. P] multiplyed 
gretly and vsed \>e customes [p. 115] of J)e cuntrees wherof J)ei were comen 
and pt lawes and |5e langages of her owne land and J)ei chaunged \>e names 
of citees townes castelles and borghes and 3aue hem names 8c called hem as 
f)ei be now called and pti helden the countees baronages lordshipes and 
cuntrees in manere as pt Britouns byfore tyme hadden compased hem. 

And am[on]g oJ)er companyes grete jDat come fro Germanye into {)is lond 
cam pe noble queene |)at was called Sexburga with men and wommen wi{)- 
oute noumbre and she arryued in pe counte of Northumberlond and toke pe 
lond of [fro P] Albanye into Cornewayle for hir and for hir folk ffor jjere 
was noon p2it myght lette hem for al was desolate 8c voyde of folk but it 
were a fewe pouere Brytouns J)at leften [were lefte P] in mountaynes 8c 
wodes [8c wodes om. P] vnto J)at tyme. 

And fro J)at tyme forth losten Brytouns J)is lond [reame P] for alle dayes 
and pe Englisshe bygonne to regne and departed pe land bytwene hem and 
they maden many kynges aboute by dyuers parties in pe londe as here ben 
dyvised: J)at is to say the [deuysede and P] ferste of Westsex; the secounde 
of Merchenriche; thridde of Estangle; the iiij*^ of Kent; the v*^ of Southsex 
and alle thise l^^nges regnede [regnedne H] in this londe after J)at Cadwala- 
dre passed out of J)is lande 8c dwelled in Lytel Brytaigne with kyng Aleyn 
his cosyn and trewe frend. 

And whan he had longe dwelled {)ere and hadde knowynge J)at pe morta- 
lite [and pestilence add. P] was ouerpassed and J)at pe land was replenysshed 
8c ful [8c fill om. P] of alien peple he J)oughte forto turne ageyn into his 
owne lande and prayed l^^ng Aleyn of socour and helpe J)at he myghte 
be restored to his propre rewme and his firste dignyte. And kyng Aleyn 
graunted [p. 116] him his prayer. 

Than dede he apparaillen hym to take his way and viage into Engelond 



CADWALLADER EPISODE 61^ 

[this lande P] & prayed God devoutly |3at he wolde make to [him (to him 
P)] demonstacioun 3if his repeyre into Engelond [his lande P] were ple- 
saunce to him or noght for ageyn pt wille of God he wolde no J)ing done. 

Whan he in J)is wise had made devoutly his prayer a voyce fro heuene to 
him saide J)at he [saide and bade him P] leue f)at iournay &. way into Enge- 
lond and J)at he goo to J)e pope of Rome and counsail pere with him [and 
counsail . . . him om. P] for it was not J)e wille of God J)at Brytouns regne 
more in Engelond [Brutaigne P] [ne (ne P)] neuere recouere pt londe vnto 
\>e tyme Jjat J)e prophecie J)at Merlyn saide [saide before P] be fiilfilled & 
{)at shulde neuere be vnto J)e tyme were come ^at ^e relykes of his body 
shulde be broght fro Rome and translated in Brytaigne. And J)an whan J)e 
relikes of of)re seintes J)at were [haue bene P] hidde for pt persecucioun of 
J)e paynymes shal be founden and openly schewed Jjan shal pel recouere ferst 
[recouere add. H] her londe pat J)ei shal haue so longe tyme by pe deserte 
of her good feith [haue so longe tyme loste thurgh hire desertes P]. 

Whan Cadwaladre had herd J)is answere he meruailled greetly 8c tolde it 
to kyng Aleyn al J)at he hadde iherd [al . . . iherd om. P]. Than kyng Aleyn 
sent after p& clergie of his land and diden bryngen forth pt bookes of [and 
made ham to bringe pt P] stories [and prophecies add. P] 8c serchen forto 
preuen 3if it were so as Cadwaladre had seid to him; so J)ei acorded wi|) the 
prophecies |)at Merlyn 8c Sibille had seide in her prophecies. And whan 
kyng Aleyn had knowynge |)at the prophecie J)at Fescome had prophecied 
of pe egle and the othere prophecies accorde [acordede P] to pc dyvine an- 
swere |)at Cadwaladre had herd he counseilled hym [p. 117] to leue his folk 
and his navie and submitten him to pe disposicioun of God 8c done all J)at 
the aungel had comaunded hym. 

Than Cadwaladre called Ynor [or Yuor] his sone and Ynory [or Yuory] 
his cosyn JDat was his suster sone and saide to him: "Taketh" seide he "my 
folk and my navie J)at is here al redy and passith into Walys and beth 3e 
lordes of Britouns J)at no dishonour come to hem by irrupcioun of J3e pay- 
nyme folk for defaute of lordes." 

And so he himself lefte his rewme of Britaigne and his folk for euermore 
and toke his way to Rome and come [and come om. P] to pe pope Surgius 
whiche dede hym moche worship and so he dede him be confessed of his 
synnes [Sergious JDe whiche worshiped him moche and so he was confessede 
P] and toke penaunce for his synnes. And he ne hadde not longe tyme so- 
iourned pert ^at he ne fil into grete sikenesse and sithen deide and his soule 
passed to God. Amen, [and he hadde nought longe dwellede J)ere {)at he ne 
deide pe xij kalendes of May the yere of grace yjC bodx. P] 



Appendix 2: 
The Text of Queen Isabellas Letter 

The intrusive text of a letter by Queen Isabella to the citizens of London in 
1326, with a short narrative frame, is again regularly found in texts other 
than those representing or descended from the original form of the trans- 
lation of the Anglo-Norman Long Version, in which it is not found. When 
it occurs, the letter appears regularly after Brie 236/28 (following Isabella's 
landing at Harwich), although in Folger Shakespeare Library MS. V.b.l06 
it appears exceptionally in the following chapter. ^^^ The text is here 
printed from Columbia University Library MS. Plimpton 262. 

[fol. 83] And J)e quene and sire Edwarde here sone sente lettres to J)e meyre 
and the cominalte of London requiryng hem [fol. 83v] jjat {)ey shulde bene 
helpyng in J)e quarel and cause Jjat J)ey had begonne Jjat is to seye to de- 
stroye J)e traytours of J)e reame but none answer was sente ayene. Wherfore 
{)e quene and sire Edwarde hire sone senten ano{)er patente letter vndere 
here seales hangyng the tenure of whiche lettre here folowith in this maner: 
"Isabell by the grace of God quene of Engelond ladie of Ireland and 
countesse of Pountiff and we Edwarde |)e eldest sone of J)e kyng of Enge- 
lond duke of Guyen erle of Chestre and of Pountif and of Monsterell to J>e 
mayer and to alle J)e cominalte of J)e cite of London senden gretyng. For as 
moche as we haue before this tyme sente to yow by oure lettres how we be 
come into this lande with good aray and in good maner for the honoure and 
profite of holi churche and of our right dere lorde J)e l^oige and alle J)e 
reame with alle oure myght and poer to kepe and mayntene as we and alle 
J)e good folk of J)e saide reame are halden to do and vppon |)at we prayed 
yow J)at ye wolde bene helpyng to vs in as moche as ye coulde now in this 
querell J)at is for |)e comon profite of alle [the] reame and we haue had into 
J)is tyme non answere of J)e saide lettres ne knowe nou3t your wille in J)at 
partie. Wherfore we sende to yow agayne and praye and charge yow but J)at 



^^^ See item 60 below. 



QUEEN ISABELLA'S LETTER 63 

ye bene to vs helpyng by alle the wayes that ye may or shall knowen or 
mowen. For weteth well in certeyn J)at we and alle \>o J)at beth comen with 
vs into this reame ne thenke not to done if hit like God eny thynge but that 
shal be for the comon profite of al \>e reavme but onely to distroye Hugh 
Spencer oure enemy ande enemy to alle Ipe reame as ye wel knowe. Wher- 
fore we prey yow and charge yow in J)e feith that ye owith vnto oure lorde 
jje kyng and to vs and vppon alle that ye shullen forfete ayenste vs that if \>t 
seide Hugh Spencer oure enemye come within youre power J)at ye done 
hym hastely be taken and saufly kept vnto we haue ordeyned of him oure 
wille and J)at ye leue hit not in no maner as ye desire honour and profite of 
vs alle and of alle \>t reavme. Vnderstondyng well jDat if ye done our preyer 
and maundemente we shul \>e more be holden to yow and also ye shal gete 
yow worshep and profite if ye sende vs hastely answer of alle your wille. 
Yeuen atte Baldok J)e yj day of Octobre." 

Whiche lettre erly in Ipc dawnyng of \>e. day of Seint Denys was takked 
vppon the nywe crosse in the Chepe and mony copies of J)e same lettre were 
takked vppon wyndowys and dores and vppon other places in the citee that 
alle men passyng by the way myght seen and reden. 

The original letter sent by Isabella to the city of London was written in 
French. ^^^ It appears, with introductory material, in the Short Version of 
the Anglo-Norman Brut, which probably used a copy of the original let- 
ter,^^'' The English translation was made from this source for incorpora- 
tion in the English Brut and the introductory material was reordered to form 
the narrative frame. ^-^^ At the same time, the interpolator of the letter 
took the opportunity to correct the date of Isabella's landing at Harwich to 
September 24, 1326, as reported in the Anglo-Norman Short Version, from 
the erroneous date of October 10 given in the Long Version and its 
immediate Middle English descendants (see Brie 236/27-28). 



^^^ A copy of the original is found in Guildhall, London, Roll A lb, membrane 
10(12), and is calendared in Arthur H. Thomas, ed.. Calendar of Plea and Memoranda 
Rolls Preserved among the Archives of the Corporation of the City of London at the Guildhall, 
A.D. 1323-64, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1926), pp. 41-42; a further letter and reply are also 
found in the Guildhall roll (p. 42). 

^^^ The text is printed, with translation, in Childs and Taylor, eds., Anonimalle 
Chronicle, pp. 124-27. 

'^^ Copies of the letter in the London civic chronicles are derived from the EngUsh 
Brut, see Cox, "The French Chronicle of London," p. 204. A Latin translation from the 
Anglo-Norman Brut appears in the Historia Aurea and is printed in Galbraith, "Extracts 
from the Historia Aurea and a French 'Brut' (1317-47)," pp. 211-12. 



Appendix 3: 
The Text of an Extended Version Exordium 

(Group B) 

The most immediately distinctive feature of the Extended and Abbreviated 
Versions, in texts that are complete at the beginning, is an exordium de- 
scribing the genesis and scope of the Brut. This exordium survives in three 
recensions in the Extended Version and in four in the Abbreviated Version, 
three of which match those of the Extended Version. Printed here are a rep- 
resentative exordium text, the Albina prologue heading, and the first words 
of the prologue itself from the most common EV group, the EV-1419:B, 
whose corresponding AV group is likewise the most numerous group within 
its version. It should be noted that even within the distinct recensions there 
are minor variations in layout and wording, details of which will be found in 
the description of individual texts in the Classification of Texts. 

The base text is that of BL MS. Harley 4827, collated selectively with 
NLW MS. Addit. 442D (EV-1419:B; designated N) and with Bodl. MS. 
Hatton 50 (AV-1419:B; designated H). 

[fol. 1] Here bigynneth a book whiche is callid Brute [of add. H] the 
Cronicles of Englond. Capitulo primo. [Capitulo primo om. H] 

This boke treteth and tellej) of [all add. H] \)t kynges &. principal lordes J)at 
euer were in J)is londe &, of auentures 8c wondreful [singes and [of add. H] 
batailles 8c \pi add. H] o[)er notable actes werres conquestes [)at bifelle in {)is 
[{)at N] same [ow. H] londe. And this lande is [was N, H] callid Bretaigne 
aftir him [)at first enhabited it whos name was callid [om. H] Brute; 8c [)is 
same [om. H] Brute biganne first [)e citee of Londoun |)e whiche he lete 
calle J)at tyme [London 8c lete call it H] Newe Troye in [)e [om. N, H] re- 
membraunce of jDe olde Troye ffrom whens he 8c all his lynage weren come. 
And |)is boke made 8c compiled men of religioun 8c ojjer good clerkes [)at 
wreten [weren N] {)at [what N, H] bifell in her tymes [tyme H] and made 
[jerof grete bokes and remembraunce [remembraunsis H] to men {)at comen 



EXTENDED VERSION EXORDIUM 65 

aftir hem to heere [rede H] and to see what bifell in J)e londe afore tyme 
[tofore hem H] and callid hem Cronycles. And in Jjis londe haue been from 
Brute to [vnto N, onto H] kynge Edward pc thridde aftir pe [om. N] con- 
quest C xxxij kynges whos lyues and actes ben compiled shortly in J)is boke 
J)e whiche conteyneth CC xxxviij [CC xxxxiiij N] chapiters wi{)oute J)e 
prothogoll or prolog [pt whiche . . . prolog om. H; The Prologg add. H]. 

The prolog of J)is book declareth hou this lande was callid Albioun aftre pc 
eldest doughtre of pe riall kyng [emperoure H] Dioclisian of Surry the 
which doughtre was callid Albyne and she wij) hir xxxij sustres weren exiled 
oute of her owne londe for grete trespaces ^at J)ei had doon and [thei add. 
H] arrived in this londe casuelly where-in [wher H] was no lyuyng creature 
but [save H] wilde beestes and hou vnclene spirites lay bi hem and J)ei 
brou3t forth horrible geauntz and Brute killed hem. [Here begynnyth the 
first chaptir of this book of Croniculis add. H] 

Somtyme in pt noble land of Surry J)er was a man of grete [grete man of H] 
renoun callid Dioclisian whiche wele and worthily reulid him 8c all his 
realme [8c. . . realme om. H] so J)at almooste [om. H] all pe l^oiges not 
Cristen to him weren [l^oigis abowt hym wer to hym H] contributours and 
obedient. 



Classification of the Texts 
of the Middle English Brut 

Synoptic Inventory of Versions 

The following list of versions, groups within versions, and manuscripts of 
the Middle English prose Brut summarizes the findings reported in more 
detail in the descriptions and classification laid out in the remaining sections 
of this book. The texts are listed in the order in which they appear in the 
detailed classification and are prefaced by the item number that they bear 
there. Where texts have been separated into different items for purposes of 
classification, the items are indicated by (1), (2), etc., immediately following 
the shelfmark. Texts that are incomplete at beginning or end are sometimes 
difficult to classify, such "doubtfiil" texts are listed immediately after the 
main group (with associated subgroups) to which they most correspond and 
thus might belong. Those texts that have proved resistant to classification 
are listed as Unclassified Texts. 

THE COMMON VERSION 

CV-1333 The Common Version to 1333 

1. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.171(l) 

2. Bodleian MS. Douce 323 

3. Mrs. J. D. Gordan MS. 63 

4. Rylands MS. Eng. 103(1) 

5. Yale University, Beinecke MS. 494 



68 SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 

6. Society of Antiquaries MS. 93 

7. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.155 

8. BL MS. Harley 3945 

9. Rylands MS. Eng. 206 

10. NLW MS. Peniarth 398D 

CV-1377 The Common Version to 1377 

CV-1377 f.c. Stage 1 The Common Version to 1377 with fiill continuation, 
Stage 1 

11. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 174 

12. Rylands MS. Eng. 102 

13. Free Library of Philadelphia MS. Lewis 238 

14. Rylands MS. Eng. 103(2) 

15. BL MS. Harley 2279 

16. BL MS. Stowe 68 

CV-1377 s.c. The Common Version to 1377 with shortened continuation 

17. Bodleian MS. RawHnson B. 171(2) 

18. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 491 

CV-1377 f.c. Stage 2 The Common Version to 1377 with full continuation. 
Stage 2 

19. Staats- und UniversitatsbibUothek Hamburg MS. 98 in 
serin 

CV-1377 f.c. Stage 3 The Common Version to 1377 with full continuation. 
Stage 3 

20. Princeton University Library, Taylor Medieval MS. 3(1) 

21. National Library of Scotland MS. 6128 

22. BL MS. Harley 266(1) 

23. University of Chicago MS. 253 

CV-1419 The Common Version to 1419 

CV-1419(men) The Common Version to 1419, ending "and manfully 
countered with our English men" 

CV-1419(men):A The Common Version to 1419, ending "and manfully 
countered with our English men": Group A 

Subgroup (a) 

24. Peterhouse, Cambridge, MS. 190(1) 



SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 69^ 

25. Sion CoUege MS. L40.2/E 42 

26. Columbia University Library MS. Plimpton 262 

27. Takamiya MS. 29 

28. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 264(1) 

Subgroup (b) 

29. BL MS. Egerton 650(1) 

30. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.173(l) 

31. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.166 

32. Pennsylvania State University MS. PS. V-3A(1) 

Subgroup (c) 

33. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 738 

CV-1419(men):B The Common Version to 1419, ending "and manfully 
countered with our English men": Group B 

34. BL MS. Stowe 69 

35. BL MS. Additional 33242 

CV-1419fr&gJ The Common Version to 1419, ending "in rule and gover- 
nance" 

CV-1419(r^g):A The Common Version to 1419, ending "in rule and gov- 
ernance": Group A 

36. Cambridge University Library MS. Kk.1.12 

37. Longleat House MS. 183A 

38. Trinity CoUege, Cambridge, MS. 0. 10.34 

39. BL MS. Harley 2248 

40. BL MS. Royal 17.D.xxi 

41. Yale University, Beinecke MS. 323 

42. Fitzwilliam Museum MS. McClean 186 

43. College of Arms MS. Vincent 421 

44. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.216 

45. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 228(1) 

46. Harvard University MS. Eng. 587 

47. Takamiya MS. 67 

Doubtful Manuscripts 

48. Bodleian MS. Bodley 231 

49. BL MS. Royal 18.B.iii 

50. University of California at Berkeley MS. 152 

51. BL MS. Additional 26746 



70 SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 

52. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 61 

53. Rylands MS. Eng. 104 

54. Bodleian MS. Douce 290 

55. BibUotheque Royale MS. IV.461 

CV-1419(r&g):B The Common Version to 1419, ending "in rule and gov- 
ernance": Group B 

Subgroup (a) 

56. Bodleian MS. Bodley 840 

57. Trinity CoUege, DubUn, MS. 490 

Subgroup (b) 

58. Heyneman MS. 

59. BL MS. Harley 1568 

60. Folger Shakespeare Library MS. V.b.l06 (725.2) 

Subgroup (c) 

61. Huntington MS. HM 136(1) 

Doubtful Manuscripts 

62. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.205 

63. Cambridge University Library MS. Ee.4.32 

64. Trinity CoUege, Cambridge, MS. R.5.43, Part II 

65. University of Leicester MS. 47 

66. University of Sydney, MS. Nicholson 13 

67. Huntington MS. HM 113 

CV-1419 (Leyle) The Common Version to 1419, with "Leyle" for Lear 

68. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 74(1) 

69. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.196 

70. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 259 

71. BL MS. Harley 4930 

CV-1419 (men/fr^g) The Common Version to 1419, ending in "men" or 
(?) "in rule and governance" 

72. University of Chicago MS. 254(1) 

Continuation to a CV-1377 fc. Stage 3 text from a Common 
Version text ending in 1419(r&g) 

73. Princeton University Library, Taylor Medieval MS. 3(2) 



SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 71^ 

CV-JP The Common Version beyond 1419, including John Page's poem 
"The Siege of Rouen" 

CV-1430JP:A The Common Version to 1430, including John Page's poem 
"The Siege of Rouen": Group A 

74. BL MS. Cotton Galba E.viii 

75. BL MS. Harley 2256 

76. Holkham HaU MS. 670 

77. Cambridge University Library MS. Ee.4.31 

78. BL MS. Harley 266(2) 

CV-1430 JP.B The Common Version to 1430, including John Page's 
poem "The Siege of Rouen": Group B 

79. BL MS. Harley 753 

80. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 331 

81. University of Illinois MS. 116(2) 

JP:C Manuscripts containing John Page's poem "The Siege of Rouen": 
Group C 

82. Cambridge University Library MS. Hh.6.9(2) 

83. Trinity College, Cambridge MS. 0.9.1(2) 

84. University of Chicago MS. 254(2) 

CV-1461 The Common Version to 1461 

85. "The Cronicles of Englond" (Caxton, 1480) 

86. BL MS. Additional 10099 

87. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 74(2) 

88. BL MS. Cotton Claudius A.viii 

89. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 228(2) 

90. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson poet. 32(3) 

91. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 264(2) 

92. Huntington MS. HM 136(2) 

93. Harvard University MS. Eng. 530(2) 

Poly. 1461 W.C. Manuscripts containing the Polychronicon 1461 continua- 
tion and associated with "Warkworth's" Chronicle 

94. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 83(2) 

95. Peterhouse, Cambridge, MS. 190(2) 

96. BL MS. Harley 3730(2) 



72 SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 

THE EXTENDED VERSION 

EV-1377 The Extended Version to 1377 

No extant manuscripts; inferred from exordia of surviving texts of 
the Extended and Abbreviated Versions ending in 1419. 

EV-1419 The Extended Version to 1419 

EV-1419:A The Extended Version to 1419: Group A 

97. Rylands MS. Eng. 105 

98. Harvard University MS. Richardson 35 

99. BL MS. Harley 24 

100. BL MS. Additional 12030 

101. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.187 

102. Takamiya MS. 12 

103. Bodleian MS. Tanner 188 

EV-1419:B The Extended Version to 1419: Group B 

104. BL MS. Harley 4827 

105. BL MS. Harley 2182 

106. Edinburgh University Library MS. 185 

107. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 230 

108. Cambridge University Library MS. Additional 2775 

109. Cambridge University Library MS. Ff 2.26 

110. Trinity College, Oxford, MS. 5 

111. BL MS. Additional 24859 

1 12. University of Virginia MS. 38-173 

113. Lincoln Cathedral MS. 98 

114. National Library of Wales MS. Additional 442D 

115. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson poet. 32(1) 

EV-1419:C The Extended Version to 1419: Group C 

116. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 182 

117. Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. 0.9.1(1) 

118. Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 571 

119. Princeton University Library, Garrett MS. 150 

120. University of Illinois MS. 116(1) 

121. Society of Antiquaries MS. 223 

122. Huntington MS. HM 133 



SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 73 

THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 
AV-1419 The Abbreviated Version to 1419 
AV-1419.A The Abbreviated Version to 1419: Group A 

Subgroup (a) 

123. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 83(1) 

124. BL MS. Harley 3730(1) 

125. Bodleian MS. Digby 185 

Subgroup (b) 

126. BL MS. Royal 18.B.iv 

Subgroup (c) 

127. BL MS. Royal 18.A.ix 

128. Huntington MS. HM 131 

AV-1419:B The Abbreviated Version to 1419: Group B 

129. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 443 

130. BL MS. Harley 1337 

131. Bodleian MS. Hatton 50 

132. BL MS. Harley 6251 

133. BL MS. Stowe 71 

134. Jesus College, Oxford, MS. 5 

135. Bodleian MS. Tanner 11 

136. University of Michigan MS. 225 

137. Alnwick Castle MS. 457A 

138. NLW MS. Peniarth 396D(2) 

139. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.901 

140. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.190 

AV-1419:C The Abbreviated Version to 1419: Group C 

141. Bodleian MS. Ashmole 793 

142. University of Illinois MS. 82(1) 

AV-1419:D The Abbreviated Version to 1419: Group D 

143. BL MS. Stowe 70 

144. University College, Oxford, MS. 154 

145. Cambridge University Library MS. Hh.6.9(l) 



74 SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 

PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 
Reworked Texts and Versions 

PV-1377/1419(r^g) The Peculiar Version to 1377, with a continuation to 
1419 ending "in rule and governance" 

146. Harvard University MS. Eng. 530(1) 

PV-1419:A and PV-1451/1460 The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group A 
and the Peculiar Version to 1451/1460 

147. Cleveland Public Library MS. John G. White Collection 
W q091.92-C468 

148. Trinity College, DubUn, MS. 489 

PV-1419:B The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group B 

149. Rylands MS. Eng. 207 

PV-1419:C The PecuHar Version to 1419: Group C 

150. BL MS. Additional 70514 

PV-1419(r&gJ:A The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and gover- 
nance": Group A 

151. Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 733 

PV-1419(ri^g):B The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and gover- 
nance": Group B 

152. Bodleian MS. e Musaeo 39 

PV-1419(r&g):C The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and gover- 
nance": Group C 

153. Lincoln College, Oxford, MS. Lat. 151 

PV-1419(r&g):D The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and gover- 
nance": Group D 

154. Trinity CoUege, Dublin, MS. 5895 

155. BL MS. Harley 7333 

PV-1422:A The Peculiar Version to 1422: Group A 

156. Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 550 

157. Collegeof Arms MS. Arundel 8 

158. Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 506 

159. BL MS. Sloane 2027 

160. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson poet. 32(2) 



SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 75 

PV-1437:A and PV-1437/1461 The Peculiar Version to 1437: Group A 
and the Peculiar Version to 1437, with a continuation to 1461 

161. Nottingham County Council MS. DDKS 3/1 

162. Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. O.ll.ll 

163. Takamiya MS. 18 

164. Harvard University MS. Eng. 750 (first text) 

165. Harvard University MS. Eng. 750 (second text) 

166. University of Illinois MS. 82(2) 

167. Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 505 

168. Bodleian MS. Lyell 34 {'DaviesY Chronicle) 

169. National Library of Wales MS. 21608D 

PV-1422:B The Peculiar Version to 1422: Group B 

170. NLW MS. Peniarth 397C 

171. Bodleian MS. Bodley 754 

PV-1436:A The Peculiar Version to 1436: Group A 

172. BL MS. Harley 53 

173. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 6 

PV-1437:B The Peculiar Version to 1437: Group B 

174. Columbia University Library MS. Plimpton 261 

175. Holkham HaU MS. 669 

176. Bodleian MS. Ashmole 791 

PV-1437:C The PecuUar Version to 1437: Group C 

177. Inner Temple Library, Petyt MS. 511, Vol. XI 

PV-1479/82 The Peculiar Version to 1479/82 

178. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 84 

Sections of Longer Brut Texts 

PV-1431 and PV-1422:C The PecuHar Version to 1431 and the Peculiar 
Version to 1422: Group C 

179. BL MS. Egerton 650(2) 

180. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.173(2) 

181. Pennsylvania State University MS. PS. V-3A(2) 



76 SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 

Very Brief Works Based on the Brut 

PV-1307 The Peculiar Version to 1307 

182. NLW MS. Peniarth 343A 

PV-1400 The Peculiar Version to 1400 

183. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 306 

PV-1427 The PecuHar Version to 1427 

184. BL MS. Harley 63 

185. Edinburgh University Library MS. 184 

186. Bibliotheque Nationale MS. fonds anglais 30 

Texts Containing Brief King- Lists 

PV-1396/1422 The Peculiar Version to 1396, with a further text to 1422 

187. Bodleian MS. Digby 196 

PV-1436:B and PV-1475 The Peculiar Version to 1436: Group B and the 
Peculiar Version to 1475 

188. Cambridge University Library MS. Ff 1.6 (The Findern 
Manuscript) 

189. Folger Shakespeare Library MS. V.a.l98 (1232.3) 

Appendages to Other Works 

PV-1066 The PecuHar Version to 1066 

190. Mayor's Calendar, City of Bristol Record Office, no. 
04720(1) 

PV-1419:D The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group D 

191. Cambridge University Library MS. Ll.2.14 

PV-1419:E The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group E 

192. Harvard University MS. Eng. 938 

PV-1419:F The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group F 

193. Woburn Abbey MS. 181 

The Translation Attributed to John Mandeville 

JM-1333 Mandeville's Translation of the Anglo-Norman Long Version, 
with a CV-1419(men) continuation 

194. BL MS. Harley 4690 



SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 77 

Mandeville's Translation of the Anglo-Norman Long Version 
(excerpts) 

195. Collegeof Arms MS. Arundel 58 

UNCLASSinED TEXTS 

196. Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, cod. Bodmer 43 

197. Lincoln Cathedral MS. 70 (C.5.12) 

198. Cambridge University Library MS. Kk.1.3 

199. NLW MS. Peniarth 396D(1) 

200. Brogyntyn MS. 8 (Lord Harlech; on deposit at NLW) 

201. BLMS. Royal ll.B.ix 

202. Lehigh University (3 fragments) 

203. Geelong Church of England Grammar School MS. 

THE EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 

The following list is chronological by date of publication. The texts can, 
however, be divided into two types; for further discussion see pages 339, 341 
below. 

[85.] "The Cronicles of Englond." William Caxton, Westmin- 
ster, June 10, 1480 (STC 9991). Type 1. 

204. "The Cronycles of Englond." William Caxton, Westmin- 
ster, October 8, 1482 (STC 9992). Type 1. 

205. "The Croniclis of Englonde with the Frute of Timis." 
[Schoolmaster-Printer,] St. Albans, [?1483] (STC 9995). 
Type 2. 

206. ["Chronicles of England."] [William de Machlinia, Lon- 
don, ?1486] (STC 9993). Type 1. 

207. "Cronycles of the londe of Englond." Gerard de Leew, 
Antwerp, 1493 (STC 9994). Type 1. 

208. "Cronycle of Englonde wyth the Frute of Tymes." Wynkyn 
de Worde, Westminster, 1497 (STC 9996). Type 2. 

209. "Cronycle of Englonde wyth pe Fruyte of Tymes." Wynkyn 
de Worde, London, May, 1502 (STC 9997). Type 2. 

210. "Cronycle of Englonde wyth \>e Fruyte of Tymes." Julyan 
Notary, London, August, 1504 (STC 9998). Type 2. 

211. "Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte of Tymes." Richard 
Pynson, London, December 19, 1510 (STC 9999). Type 2. 



78 SYNOPTIC INVENTORY 

212. "Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte of Tymes." Julyan 
Notary, London, 1515 (STC 10000). Type 2. 

213. "Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte of Tymes." Wyn- 
kyn de Worde, London, 1515 (STC 10000.5). Type 2. 

214. "Cronycle of Englande with the Fruyte of Tymes." 
Wynlgm de Worde, London, 1520 (STC 10001). Type 2. 

215. "The Cronycles of Englonde with the dedes of popes and 
emperours and also the descripcyon of Englonde." Wynl^n 
de Worde, London, April 9, 1528 (STC 10002). Type 2. 



I. The Common Version 



The Common Version to 1333 (CV-1333) 

The earliest stage in the development of the English Brut, containing the 
basic text to 1333, is represented by MSS. Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1), Bodl. 
Douce 323, Gordan 63, Rylands Eng. 103(1), Yale Beinecke 494, Soc. of 
Antiquaries 93, and probably by the imperfect MSS. BL Harley 3945, Ry- 
lands Eng. 206, and NLW Peniarth 398D. Bodl. MS. Rawlinson C.155 
contains early seventeenth-century extracts from a manuscript of this group. 
The first sections (to 1333) of MSS. Bodl. Bodley 840 (item 56) and 
TCD 490 (item 57) should also be considered as witnesses to this group. 
These manuscripts contain continuations beyond 1333, to 1419, apparently 
added by the same scribes who wrote the earlier sections but at a later date 
and from new exemplars. These composite texts are classified below as the 
CV-1419(r&g):B, subgroup (a). 



1. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.l7l(l)^ 

First scribe begins imperfectly: disport. And J)o come Lotryn and Camber 

[Brie 13/4] 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
First scribe ends onfol 17 Iv: wi|)out eny chalange of eny man. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: The writing of the first part of the manuscript is early, possibly ca. 
1400. The text corresponds closely to the Anglo-Norman source (see below) 
and forms the base text to 1333 of Brie's edition. The dialect is that of 
South-West Herefordshire.^ 

After the continuation from 1333 to 1377, added by a second scribe in a 
mid-fifteenth-century secretary hand, occur three shields with clear but 
unidentified coats of arms on fol. 201v and a largely illegible name, "Sere 
I[.]h[.] T[ . . . ]1 (?)," presumably that of an early owner (but cf. the name in 
the next manuscript). 



80 THE COMMON VERSION 



^ For (2), see item 17. 
2 LALME, 1: 150, 3: 167. 



2. Bodleian MS. Douce 323^ 

Begins: In the noble lande of Surrye 

Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Ends onfol lOlv: withoute eny chalange of eny man. Amen. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: Brie uses this manuscript for the beginning of his text to 1333 
(Brie 1/5-14/16) and for collation thereafter (designated O). 

At the end of the text, on fol. lOlv, the late-fifteenth-century scribe has 
written the name "Ihannes Tubantisville" (cf the preceding manuscript) and 
has drawn a shield with an unidentified coat of arms. 



* See George Kane, ed., Piers Plowman: The A Version^ rev. ed. (London and Berkeley, 
1988), p. 3, for a description of the manuscript. Other contents are an A text of Piers 
Ploiuman (fols. 102-140); The Charter of the Abbey of the Holy Ghost (fols. 140\^159v); 
Ipotis (fols. 160-167v, imperfect at end). Watermarks date the paper to after 1410. 



3. Mrs. J. D. GORDAN MS. 63 

Heading^. Her may a man here how Engelond was first callede Albion and 

J)oru3 whome it hade J)e name. 
Begins: In the noble lande of Syrrie J)er was a noble l^nig and my3ty and a 

man of grete renoun jjat me callede Dyoclician 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: withouten eny chalange of eny man. Deo gracias. [Deo gracias erased\ 

Remarks: The manuscript is early, perhaps written ca. 1400. The heading 
occurs in a number of the Anglo-Norman texts, such as BL Royal 20.A.iii: 
"Ci poet hom oir coment Engletere fust primes nome Albion 6c par qi la 
tere receust eel noun." The text does not correspond exactly to any other 
CV-1333 text but shows individual agreements in its readings. In the 
Halidon Hill passage the names of those in the second part of the Scottish 
army are omitted (Brie 284/9-12). In the same passage there is an agree- 
ment in error with Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1) in misnumbering the fourth 
ward of the Scottish army: "In |)e first warde . . ." (Brie 284/20 and n.). 



THE COMMON VERSION 



A second, later hand has added a line at the end of the text: "after kyng 
E [ins.] pe iij*^* reynyd l^nig Richard ij*^' amd [sic] in his." 



4. RYLANDS MS. ENG. 103(1)^ 

Tad/e of contents by first scribe begins'. Here may a man hure Engelonde was 
ferst called Albyon and thorugh wham it hadde {)e name. 

Table of contents ends on fol. 7 v. How king Edwarde gette a3en vnto him 
graciousliche J)e feautees and Jje homages of Scotlande whereof he was 
pulte out J)orugh J)e false counceil of Isabelle his mooder and of ser Roger 
Mortymer Jjat was made erl of J)e March. Capitulo CC"" xxiij°. 

Heading on fol. 9: Here may a man hure Engeland was first called Albyon 
and J)oru3 wham it hadde J)e name. 

Text begins: In the nobele lande of Syrrye 

Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

First scribe ends on fol. 12 6v: withoute eny chalaunge of eny man. 



Remarks: As in TCD 490 (item 57), there is a table of contents to 1333 
(fols. 1-7). Although the "5w" heading is absent, a space was left in the text; 
the heading has been supplied by a modern hand from "MS B." 



1 For (2), see item 14. See Ker, MMBL UI, p. 417; Geoffrey A. Lester, The Index of 
Middle English Prose, Handlist II: A Handlist of Manuscripts Containing Middle English 
Prose in the John Rylands and Chetham's Libraries, Manchester (Cambridge, 1985), p. 38; 
Moses Tyson, "Hand-List of the Collection of English Manuscripts in the John Rylands 
Library, 1928," Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 13 (1929): 172. 



5. Yale University, Beinecke MS. 494^ 

Heading on fol 3: Here may a man hure hov Engelonde was ferst callede 

Albyon and after wham hit hadde that name. 
Begins: In J)e noble lande of Syrrie J)er was a noble king a stronge man 6c a 

mi3ty of body and of gret name {)at me called Dioclician 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: wijjoute eny chalange. 

Remarks: The text is further removed from the Anglo-Norman source than 
that of Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1), but the verbal changes made in the early 
chapters can be partially paralleled in the CV-1419 (Leyle).^ The Yale text 



82 THE COMMON VERSION 

cannot, however, underlie the later group, which shows agreements with the 
CV-1333 texts of Bodl. Rawlinson B.171(l) and Bodl. Douce 323 not 
paralleled in the Yale text, thus indicating that yet other texts of the same 
type existed. 

The manuscript was written in the first quarter of the fifteenth century.^ 
Fol. Ir-v is a bifolium of an obituary calendar of a Dominican convent, pro- 
bably in Suffolk or Chelmsford. Among many notes and scribbles are two 
early notes of purchase: on the last leaf is a note of purchase from S. Bela- 
my, dated 33 Henry VI (1455); on fol. Iv is recorded that William Nasby, 
skinner of London, bought the book for 150s. on April 12, 3 Edward IV 
(1464). "Robard Naysbe" was apparently a subsequent owner in the late fif- 
teenth or early sixteenth century. 



^ For a full description, see Shailor, Catalogue, 2: 478-80. 

2 See pp. 128-31. 

^ See Shailor, Catalogue, 2: 479-80, for this information and for post-medieval names and 

modern autographs in the manuscript. 



6. Society of Antiquaries MS. 93 

Heading: Here may a man here how Engelonde was ferst callede Albyon 

and {)oru3 wham hit had ferste J)at name. 
Begins: In J)e noble lande of Surrie 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: wijjoute chalange of eny maner man. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: Although containing the normal contents, the text must be re- 
garded as secondary, for in phraseology it shows numerous differences from 
the other manuscripts of the group. The "5w" heading is not present; how- 
ever, the three words ("I>e erl of") that immediately follow are written in 
red. 



7. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.155 

Heading on fol. 89: Extracts from an old English Chronicle MS. coming 

down to 6 Ed. Ill 1332. 
Begins: And this bataile, between K. Harold and Wm the bastard [cf Brie 

136, ca. line 26] 



THE COMMON VERSION 83^ 

Ends onfol. 93v: in the yer of Incarnacioun of oure lord Jesus Crist mccc & 
xxx^ [Brie 272/5-6] 

Remarks: The copiest dates the transcription and names himself at the end 
of the extracts: "A.D. 1606 ab Henrico Spelmanno conscriptus."^ 



^ Sir Henry Spelman (P1564-1641), the historian and antiquary, see DNB, 53: 328. 



8. BL MS. PiARLEY 3945 
Begins: In the noble lande of Surre 
Omits: Cad, QIL 

Fragmentary last folio ends during the chapter recounting the deposition of 
Edward II. 

Remarks: The text is of normal CV type. Many foUos are missing through- 
out. 



9. RYLANDS MS. EnG. 206^ 

Heading: [H]ere may a man heren howe that Englonde was first called Al- 
bion and thurgh whom it had the name. 

Begins: [I]n the noble londe of Surrey 

Omits: Cad, QIL 

Ends imperfectly: the goote shuld lese moch of his londe til that shame shuld 
hym ouercome. And then shuld he cloo[then hym in a catchwords] [Brie 
244/16-18] 



^ See Ker, MMBL UI, pp. 421-22; Lester, Handlist, p. 39; Tyson, "Hand-List," p. 185. 



10. NLW MS. Peniarth 398D1 

Begins imperfectly: lete call hyt Loundres [Brie 1>\I27>-1A'\ 

Omits: Cad (see below), QIL 

Ends imperfectly: Tho was the quene so wroth towarde sir Edmunde erle of 

Kente 6c cessed never to praye vnto hur sone that he scholde [Brie 

265/33-266/1] 



84 THE COMMON VERSION 

Remarks'. Among other missing folios are the folios that might have 
contained the Cadwallader episode. 



^ See Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 369-71, for a description and an analysis 
of the missing folios. 



Remarks on the CV-1333 

Like the Anglo-Norman text, the CV-1333 does not contain the Cadwal- 
lader episode (see Introduction, Appendix 1) or Queen Isabella's letter (see 
Introduction, Appendix 2). The heading found in some texts and the prac- 
tice of prefixing a table of contents are paralleled in certain of the Anglo- 
Norman texts. 

None of the English manuscripts preserves the original translation, for, 
like the majority of extant manuscripts of the Brut, they represent copies 
written some time after the presumed date of composition of any portion of 
text. None of the three manuscripts that form the basis of Erie's edition pre- 
serves an exact copy of the original translation, as a comparison of readings 
with the Anglo-Norman text shows, although Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1) 
preserves the original readings most faithfully. However, no one text has a 
monopoly of readings that correspond exactly to those found in the Anglo- 
Norman, as the textual variants printed by Brie indicate. 

The following extract from Brie serves the double purpose of showing the 
closeness of the translation to the original Anglo-Norman as well as the 
variant readings that show that none of the English manuscripts contains 
the original translation. The base text is that of Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1), 
collated with Bodl. Douce 323 (designated O) and TCD 490 (designated 
D): 

How Engist and xj M^ men come Coment Engist 8c xj Mille 

into J)is lande, to whom Vortiger hommes viendrent en ceste terre 

3af a place {)at is callede [Called a Vortiger as queux Vortiger dona 

is O] Thongecastell. Capitulo vn place nosme Thowgcastell 

Wf. [sic]. Capitulo lvj'°. 

And sone after J)is sorw, tidynges En toute ceste anguise nouel luy 

[sorwe tydyng D, tydynge O] vient qe graunt navie de estran- 



THE COMMON VERSION 



85 



come to Vortiger, J)at a grete 
nauye [meny D, meyne O] of 
straungers were arryuede in [in 
the centre of D, in Ipt Cuntre of 
O] Kent; but pai wist nou3t 
whens [what D] \>a.i were, ne 
wherfore J)ai were comen. The 
Kyng sent anone messagers [a 
messanger DO] [)ider, put somme 
of ham shulde come and speke 
wij) him, forto wete what folc J)ai 
werne, and what J)ai axede, and 
into what centre pzi wolde gone. 
I>ere were ij bre|5erne, Prynces 
and maistres of |)at straunge com- 
pany: [)at on me callede Engist, 
and J)at o{)ere Horn. Engist went 
J)o to J)e kyng, 8c tolde to him 
encheson wher-fore pai were J)ere 
arryuede in his [[)is O] lande, and 
saide: "sire! we beth of a contre 
J)at is callede Saxoyne, [)at is, JDe 
Lande of Germayn, wherin is so 
[om. O] miche sorw, ^at [pay yf 
O] pe peple is [be O] so myche 
^at pe lande may nou3t ham 
[hem not O] sustene ne suffice. 
The maystres 8c Prynces J)at 
hauej) pe lande to gouerne and 
rewele, shul done come bifore 
ham men and wymmen, pt [that 
bene D] boldest f)at bene a- 
monges ham and best mowen 
[boldest amonges ham forto fi3t 
J)at best mow D, boldest |)at ben 
among hem for-to fight {)at best 
mow O] trauaille into diuerse3 
[diuerse D, diuers O] londes; and 
so |)ai shal ham 3eue Horse and 



gers fiirent ariuez en la pais de 
Kent mais ne sauoit qils flirent ne 
pur quoi ils flirent venuz. Le roi 
maunda illoeqes vn messanger qe 
ascun de eux venist a luy parler 
pur sauoir qe la gent ceo furent 8c 
quoi ils demandassent 8c en quele 
parte ils vousissent aler. Ils y auo- 
ient deux freres maistre 8c prince 
de eux gentz estrangers lun out 
noun Engest 8c lauter Home. 
Engist ala al roy 8c luy dist len- 
chesoun pur quele ils fiirent ariues 
en sa terre. "Sire" fait il "nous 
sumez de vne pais qest appellee 
Saxsoine qest en le terre de Ger- 
maine ou il y ad vne tiel custume 
qe si le poeple soit si graunt que 
la terre ne poet suffrir a eux sus- 
tenir les princes qe ount la seig- 
nurie 8c le pais a gouernir fer- 
roit venir deuaunt eux hommes 8c 
femmes les plus hardiz a com- 
batre qe meux purrount trauailler 
en diuerses terres. Si lour dor- 
rount chiuaux armes 8c quanque 
mistere lour serra et puis dirrount 
a eux qils se augent purchacer 
terre en autre pais ou ils purrount 
viure si come lour auncestres fi- 
rent deuaunt." [BL Cotton Cleo- 
patra D.iii, fol. 92v] 



86 THE COMMON VERSION 

harneyse, armure, and al f)ing {)at 
ham nedej); and after J)ai [|)ai 
shul D, J)ay schul O] say to ham 
J)at \>ai go into ano{)er contre, 
wher J)at [om. D] [jai mowen 
leue, as here auncestres deden bi- 
forne ham." [Brie 50/7-29] 

A specific point in chapter 223 (the battle of Halidon Hill) provides some 
physical evidence of the genesis of a reading which can be used as a supple- 
mentary factor in determining the group to which a text belongs. 

During the description of the Scottish army, Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1), 
Bodl. Douce 323, Gordan, Rylands Eng. 103(1), Yale Beinecke 494, Soc. of 
Antiquaries 93, and Bodl. Bodley 840 (item 56; a witness to the CV-1333 
in its first part) agree with the Anglo-Norman text in prefacing the first four 
divisions ("wards") of the Scottish army by a heading, e.g., "In \>t Jjridde 
ward of J)e bataile of Scotland were J)ise Lordes" (Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1): 
Brie 284/13-14). After the names of the lords in the fourth ward (mis- 
numbered as "first" in Bodl. Rawlinson B.171[l] and Gordan) and the num- 
bers of the soldiery, the CV-1333 manuscripts continue the text of the 
chapter without break, whereas TCD 490 (item 57; a witness to the CV- 
1333 in its first part) introduces a subheading: 

. . . William Landy, Thomas de Boys, Rogere de Mortymer, with xxx 
bachilers, ix C men of Armes, and [om. O] xviij M* communes [and 
iiij C of communes D, 6c iiij C of Comune O]. [In J)e v*^ warde of 
Ipe bataile of Scotlond were those lordis add. D] 1| The Erl of Dun- 
barre, keper of \)e castel of Berwik, halpe J)e Scottis wij) 1. men of 
Armes . . . [Bodl. Rawlinson B.171(l): Brie 284/26-30] 

Rylands Eng. 103(1) perhaps represents an intermediate stage; it has no 
heading, but leaves a space. The % of Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1) is omitted 
in Soc. of Antiquaries 93, but "P>e erl of" is written in red ink. The reason 
for the introduction of the subheading (here designated the "5w" heading) 
can be seen by looking at the visual presentation of the passage in the 
Anglo-Norman text of BL Cotton Cleopatra D.iii. The layout takes the 
form of three contiguous rectangles; the left one contains the appropriate 
ward heading, the central one contains the names of the lords arranged as a 
list, and the right hand one contains the phrase enumerating the lesser 
soldiery: 



THE COMMON VERSION 



87 



En le quarte garde 
del batailes dEscoce 
fiirent ceux sirs 



Robert de Lawether 
William de Vipount 
William de Lonstoun 

William Landy 
Thomas de Boys 
Roger de Mortimer 



ouesque xxx bachi- 
lers ix C hommes 
darmes xviij Mille 
&. iiij C des com- 
unes Luy counte de 
Dunbarre gardein 
del chastel de Ber- 
wik aida les Escotz 
oue 1 hommes dar- 
mes . . . [BL Cotton 
Cleopatra D.iii, fol. 
182] 



A similar layout may have been employed in the original manuscript of 
the English translation (cf. the layout in BL Harley 4690, a text of John 
Mandeville's translation to 1333 [item 193]). 

If the original translation reproduced the Anglo-Norman layout, then it 
is clear that the wards would be distinctly differentiated from the body of 
the text. In Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(1), Bodl. Douce 323, and Soc. of Anti- 
quaries 93 the layout has merged the wards into the body of the text; in an 
attempt to mark off the resumption of the narrative, first a space was left, 
as in Rylands Eng. 103(1), in order to insert a heading, and a heading was 
subsequently inserted, as in TCD 490. The heading is actually erroneous, 
for there were originally only four wards, and the new layout of Bodl. Rawl- 
inson B. 171(1) and other CV-1333 texts, integrating the previous wards 
into the body of the narrative, probably confused the correct reading of the 
text. 

Reflecting the complex textual tradition, later manuscripts include all the 
types exemplified in the CV-1333 — the absence of any heading; the leaving 
of a space; the presence of the "5w" heading; or (as a new solution) the in- 
troduction of a substitute heading, either because an examplar possessed a 
space or because it was noticed that the "5w" heading is wrong. 



The Common Version to 1377 (CV-1377) 

To the text ending in 1333 a continuation was added that brings to a close 
the reign of Edward III and ends with his death in 1377. The continuation 
appears in two versions, the longer of which forms the basis of the majority 



THE COMMON VERSION 



of succeeding texts; manuscripts to 1377 containing this full continuation 
can be further subdivided into two definite stages and probably another. The 
first of these stages contains neither the Cadwallader episode nor Queen Isa- 
bella's letter; a probable second stage contains the Cadwallader episode, 
while the third stage includes both the episode and the letter. 



The Common Version to 1377 with full continuation, 
Stage 1 (CV-1377f.c. Stage 1) 
The full continuation is found in its entirety in MSS. CCCC 174 and 
Rylands Eng. 102. Free Library of Philadelphia MS. Lewis 238 is imperfect 
at the beginning of the continuation, while MSS. Rylands Eng. 103(2), BL 
Harley 2279, and BL Stowe 68 are imperfect at the end but probably belong 
to this group. The majority of the manuscripts that carry the text beyond 
1377 also contain or are based on this continuation. 



11. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 174 

Heading: Here may a man hure Engelande was fferst callede Albyon and 

J)oru3 wham hit had J)e name. 
Begins: In the noble lande of Syrrie 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: wijDoute eny chalaunge of eny man. Ande so after 

|)is gracious victorye J)e king turnyd him a3en vnto J)e same seege of 

Berwyk 
Ends: the xj kalend of luyn he deide att Shene and is beried worshipfiilly at 

Westmynster on whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. 

Remarks: Brie prints this as his base text for the 1333 to 1377 continuation 
(Brie 291-332). 



12. Rylands MS. Eng. 102^ 

Begins imperfectly: and our soueraiegne his doughter Gennogen to his wifF 

[Brie 7/24-25] 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoute calenge of any man. Deo gracias dica- 

mus omnes. Amen. And so after this gracious victorie 
Ends: ^e xj kalendes of lune he deyde at Shene and is buryed wirschipfully 

at Westminster vppon whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. 



THE COMMON VERSION 89 

Remarks: Leaves have been lost after fols. 38, 43, and 57; three inserted 
leaves, written in a hand of the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century, sum- 
marize some of the missing text. 



* See Ker, MMBL UI, pp. 416-17; Lester, Handlist, pp. 37-38; Tyson, "Hand-List," p. 
171. 



13. Free Library of Philadelphia MS. Lewis 238 

Heading: Here may a man hure Engelande was first callede Albyon & J)oru3 

wham hit hadde the name. 
Begins: In pe noble lande of Syrrie 
Omits: Cad, QIL, ("5w" heading) 
Ends: he deide at Shene 8c is beried worschepftilly at Westmester whos 

soule God haue merq^. Explicit. 

Remarks: Some leaves are lost that would have contained the end of the 
1333 text, including the Halidon Hill material, and the beginning of the 
1377 continuation. 

A mid-sixteenth-century note on the second from last leaf records that 
"William Vmnor of Sharryngton [Norfolk] gentleman owyth this cronycle." 
The note is in the same hand as a memorandum on the same page that re- 
counts the betrayal in 1557 of Calais into French hands. 

14. Rylands MS. EnG. 103(2)^ 

Second scribe begins onfol 126v: And so after thys gracius victorye 
Ends imperfectly: Therfor JDe xxvj day of August kyng Edeward in a feld fast 
by Crescy [Brie 298/23-24] 

Remarks: As the table of contents for the text to 1333 indicates, the continu- 
ation from 1333 to 1377 represents an independent, later addition to the 
manuscript. 



^ For (1), see item 4. 



15. BL MS. Harley 2279 

Headings. Here may a man here how Engelond was first called Albyon and 
thurgh whom hit had the name. 



90 THE COMMON VERSION 

Begins: [I]n the noble lande of Syrrye 
Omits: Cad, QIL 

Ends imperfectly: wherfore if I shal knoweliche |)e verrey treuth [Brie 
293/33-34] 

Remarks: The text ends just over two-thirds down fol. 146r, which suggests 
that the scribe did not complete his task. A sixteenth-century hand (which 
also writes the verses ascribing the second translation of the Brut to "John 
Maundevyle"; see pp. 333-34) has added several Unes to complete the 
sentence, ending "the comen people weare strongeley igreued 8cc." 



16. BL MS. Stowe 68 

Heading. Here may a man here hou Engelond was ferst called Albioun and 

thurgh wham hit hadde the name. 
Begins: In the noble lond of Sirrie 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: hit was told and certified to the king [Brie 305/12-13] 



Remarks on the CV-1377 f.c. Stage 1 

The method by which many of the Brut manuscripts developed is shown in 
this first group that possesses a continuation. The continuation was probably 
added to a manuscript of the CV-1333, as in Rylands Eng. 103, and the re- 
sulting text to 1377 was then copied, with the result that manuscripts in a 
single hand were produced. No significant changes have been made to the 
CV-1333 text. 



The Common Version to 1377 
with shortened continuation (CV-1377 s.c.) 
The shortened continuation is based on the longer continuation described 
above, and is found in MSS. Bodl. Rawlinson B. 171(2) and Lambeth 491; 
it also occurs in MSS. BL Harley 753 and Lambeth 331 of the CV-1430 
JP:B.i Lambeth MS. 491 ends with "The Description of Edward III." 



^ See pp. 145-50. 



THE COMMON VERSION 91^ 

17. Bodleian MS. Rawunson B. 171(2)^ 

Second scribe begins on fol. 171 v. [A]nd eftre f)is gracius victorie J)e kyng 

turnyd ageyn to Jje siege of Berwyk 
Ends: and was rially and worthely buryed at Westmynstre on whos soule 

Gode haue mercy. Amen. 



^ For (1), sec item 1. 



18. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 491^ 

Begins imperfectly on fol. 1: the qwene anone toke gold and sylvir grete plente 

[Brie 19/29-30] 
Omits: Cad (see below), QIL, "5w" heading 
Contains: Description of Edward III 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: wiJ)out eny chalangyng of any man. Aftir which 

wyctorie {)e l<yng turnyd a3en into Englond and ordeynid ser Edward 

Bayllol with othir worthy lordis forto kepe Scotland. 

How kyng Edward went a3en into Scotland. Of Jje bataill of Scluys and 
Seynt Omers and of the turnament of Dunstaple and of Seynt Georges 
feest at Wyndesore. Capitulo CC xxiiij". 

The sevenej)e 3eer of l^nig Edward in the wyntir tyme he went into Scot- 
land 8c reparaillid the castell of Kylbrig a3ens J)e Scottis 
Changeover, 1377 to Description of Edward III: deyd at his manere of Shene 
xj kalend of luyn and is buried atte Westminster. 

I*e descripcion of l^mg Edward. Capitulo CCxxix°. 
Ends on fol. 205v: and vnprofitable harmes with meny evelis bygan forto 

spring and J)e more harme is continuyd longe tyme aftir. 
Colophon: Explicit quidam tractatus Anglicus de gestis Anglorum Brute vul- 

gariter nuncupatus. 

Remarks: Despite the later textual evidence of the CV-1430 JP:B, to which 
the text of Lambeth 491 is related (see pp. 149-50), it is unlikely that the 
Cadwallader episode was originally present. Although the relevant leaf is 
missing, the amount of text which is omitted would probably fit into one 
folio if the episode were not included and there is no indication from the 
chapter numbering that any extra chapters were originally present. 



92 THE COMMON VERSION 

Textually, this is the earliest group in which "The Description of Edward 
III" (printed in Brie 333-34), a short chapter assessing the character of the 
late king, appears. It is a translation of a Latin eulogy that is found in the 
misnamed "Continuation of Murimuth," one of the continuations to the 
Polychronicon} This section of text also appears in Lambeth 738, BL Harley 
266(1), Huntington HM 136(1), BL Harley 753, Lambeth 331, and in 
Caxton's Chronicles of England and BL Addit. 10099.^ 

The sixteenth-century signatures of John and Thomas Pat(t)sall occur 
several times, together with numerous notes by them. They may have been 
members of a merchant family that acquired land in Essex.'* 



^ See Montague Rhodes James, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library 
of Lambeth Palace: The Mediaeval Manuscripts (Cambridge, 1932), pp. 681-84. See also 
Karl D. Biilbring, "Uber die Handschrift Nr. 491 der Lambeth-Bibliothek," Jrchiv 86 
(1891): 383-92; A. G. Hooper, 'The Lambeth Palace MS. of the Awntyrs off Arthure'," 
Leeds Studies in English 3 (1934): 37-43; Robert J. Gates, ed., The Awntyrs off Arthure at 
the Terne Wathelyne (Philadelphia, 1969), pp. 15-16; Ralph Hanna III, ed., The Awntyrs 
off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyn (Manchester, 1974), pp. 4-6; Ralph Hanna III, Pursuing 
History: Middle English Manuscripts and Their Texts (Stanford, 1996), pp. 27-29. The first 
part of the manuscript also includes texts of The Awntyrs off Arthure, The Siege of Jerusa- 
lem, The Three Kings of Cologne, and a poem on hunting; Hanna, Pursuing History, pp. 99, 
128, and 304 n. 3, notes that the scribe also wrote Huntington MS. HM 114 and was 
the first scribe in BL MS. Harley 3943, both of which contain copies of Chaucer's Troilus 
and Criseyde. 

^ The continuation is reprinted from an edition of Queen's College, Oxford, MS. 304 by 
Anthony Hall (Oxford, 1722) in Thomas Hog, ed., Adam Murimuthensis Chronica Sui 
Temporis. . . cum eorundem Continuatione (ad M.CCC.LXXX) a Quodam Anonymo (1846; 
rpt. Vaduz, 1964); the eulogy is contained in pp. 225-27. On further texts of the con- 
tinuation, unknown to its earlier editors, see Taylor, 716^ 'Universal Chronicle' of Ranulf 
Higden, pp. 118-19, 180-81. 
3 See items 22, 33, 61, 79, 80, 85, and 86. 

^ See JuHa BofFey and Carol M. Meale, "Selecting the Text: Rawlinson C.86 and Some 
Other Books for London Readers," in Regionalism in Late Medieval Manuscripts and 
Texts, ed. FeUcity Riddy (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 161-62 and n. 63. 



The Common Version to 1377 with full continuation. 

Stage 2 (CV-1377fc. Stage 2) 

A group that used the full continuation to 1377 and that first included the 

Cadwallader episode can be posited from the evidence of Hamburg MS. 98, 



THE COMMON VERSION 93^ 

although the manuscript is unfortunately imperfect at both beginning and 
end. 



19. Staats- und UniversitAtsbibliothek Hamburg MS. 98 in 

SCRIN^ 

Begins imperfectly on damaged fol. 1: tolen [ . . . ] queene of J)at land [Brie 

14/10] 
Contains: Cad 
Omits: QIL, "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: wijjoute any chalynginge of eny man. And so 

after J)is gracious victorie J)e l^oig turned hym a3en vnto J)e same sege of 

Berwyk 
Ends imperfectly: the chaunceler 6c J)e tresorer J)at were bysshopes 8c \>& clerk 

of the pryve seel were remeued 8c put out of her office 8c in here stede 

were [Brie 324/23-25] 

Remarks: Although the manuscript is now incomplete at the end, it is proba- 
ble that little has been lost and that in its original state the text ended in 
1377. The omission of the "Sw" heading in the Halidon Hill passage is nor- 
mally suggestive of a textually early group, and the text to 1333 agrees well 
with the texts of the CV-1333 that are closest to the Anglo-Norman text. 
If the text did indeed originally end in 1377, then it is a representative of 
the earliest Common Version group to include the Cadwallader episode, 
which appears on fols. 111-117, and suggests that the additions of the Cad- 
wallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter were independent of each other 
in the Common Version. 



^ See Tilo Brandis, Die Codices in scrinio der Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek Hamburg, 
1-110 (Hamburg, 1972), pp. 167-68. The text of the Cadwallader episode is printed 
from this manuscript as Appendix 1 of the Introduction. 



The Common Version to 1377 with full continuation. 

Stage 3 (CV-1377fc. Stage 3) 

If the preceding text does in fact indicate a valid group that ended in 1377, 

then a succeeding stage in the development of the CV (though based on a 

text closer to the original CV-1333 wording) is exemplified by Princeton 



94 THE COMMON VERSION 

MS. Taylor Medieval 3(1) and by NLS MS. 6128. Both use the full con- 
tinuation to 1377 and include both the Cadwallader episode (Cad) and the 
text of a letter from Queen Isabella to the citizens of London (QIL), though 
the two manuscripts cannot be directly related (see Remarks on the CV- 
1377 f c. Stage 3 below). BL MS. Harley 266(1) seems to be related to NLS 
6128, although the former also includes "The Description of Edward IIL" 
Although at some textual remove, the unfinished Chicago MS. 253 may also 
be an offshoot of this rather fragmented group and is thus included here. 

20. Princeton University Library, Taylor Medieval MS. 3(1)* 

Table of contents by first scribe begins on fol. 40: This is the kalender of this 

boke of cronyclys clepid Brute mal^^ng mencyon of the kyngis that haue 

regnyd in this londe now callid Englond. And the prolog stondith in the 

begynnyng and aftirward folowen the chapiters by order as they stondyn 

here. 

Prologus. 

How Brute was bigeten and how he slough fiirst his modre and aftirward 

his fadir . . . Capitulo primo. 
Table of contents ends on fol 43v: Of the dethe of kyng Edward and how sir 

lohn Mynstreworth knyght was drawen and hongid for his treson. 
Heading on fol 44: Here may a man hyre how Englonde was ffiirst callyd 

Albyon and thorow whom hit had the name. 
Begins: In the noble lande of Surrye there was a nobill kyng and a myghty 

and a man of grete renowne that men called Dioclysian 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoute any chalange of any man. Deo gracias. 

And so aftir this gracious victory the kyng turnyd hym ayen to the same 

sege of Berwyk 
First scribe ends on fol. 118v: he deide at Shene and is buryed worshipfiiUy at 

Westminster on whos sowle God haue mercy. Amen. 

Remarks: Besides the change of hand, the ending point of the table of con- 
tents, written by the first scribe, shows that the original text ended in 1377, 
to which a continuation to 1419 was subsequently added. 

The Brut table of contents is preceded by an incomplete text of Sidrak 
and Bokkus (fols. l-39v), also written by the first scribe.^ 

The signature of William Cecil, Baron Burghley (1520-1598) appears on 
the first page of the Brut text. 



THE COMMON VERSION 95 



* For (2), see item 73. See Adelaide Bennett, Jean F. Preston, and William P. Stoneman, 
A Summary Guide to Western Manuscripts at Princeton University (Princeton, 1991), p. 55. 
^ See Karl D. Biilbring, "Sidrac in England," Beitrdge zur romanischen und englischen Philo- 
logie: Festgabefur Wendelin Foerster (Halle, 1902), pp. 457-58; R. E. Nichols Jr., "Sidrak 
and Bokkus, Now First Edited from Manuscript Lansdowne 793," Ph.D. diss.. University 
of Washington, 1965. 

21. National Library of Scotland MS. 6128 

Original text begins imperfectly on fol. 1: but heo and hire sustres yfere; ^o 

sayde Jjis Albyne "My fair sustres fill wel we knowej) . . ." [Brie 3/14-15] 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: wi{)oute eny chalaunge of eny man. And so after 

J)is gracious victorye ^e kyng turnede hym a3en vnto J)e same sege of 

Berwyk 
Ends: he deide atte Shene and is beried worchipftilly at Westmynestre on 

whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. 

Remarks: A space has been left where the "5w" heading might appear. Un- 
usually, the subheading on the array of the Scottish army at Halidon Hill 
has been accorded a separate chapter number: "How J)e Scottis comen in iij 
batailles a3ens |)e too kynges of Engelonde and of Scotlande. In {)e vaunt- 
warde of Scotlande were J)ese lordes. Capitulo CC*"" xxiiij'"." [cf Brie 
283/24-26] 

The missing first leaf of the original text has been supplied at a later date, 
presumably from another text. It begins with the heading: "Here begynneth 
^e crounycks of this lande Engelonde J)at first was callede Albyon J)orug 
whom hit hadde the name." The text begins: "In J)e noble lande of Syrrie." 

22. BL MS. Harley 266(1)^ 

Begins imperfectly (see below): After J)e death of kyng Henre regned his sone 
Edward \>t worthiest knyght of al J)e honour [cf Brie 179/3-4] 

Contains: (^L, Description of Edward III 

Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: without ony chalaunge of any man. Deo gracias. 
And so after {)is gracious victory the kynge turned him a3en vnto the sege 
of Berwike 



96 THE COMMON VERSION 

End of text to 1377 and beginning of "The Description of Edward III": the xj 
kalend of luyn he deid at Shene and is buiyed worshipflilly at West- 
minster on whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. 
This kyng Edward was passyng gode and full gracious 

"The Description of Edward III" ends onfol. 91: and J)e more harme is it J)at 
hit contynued so longe tyme after. 

Remarks: Judging from the quire signatures, the text may be as finished as 
it ever was, though the evidence is not conclusive.^ 

At the conclusion of "The Description of Edward III" a couple of lines 
are left blank at the foot of fol. 91 and fols. 91v and 92 are also left blank, 
indicating a change of exemplar at this point. The same scribe then proceeds 
on fol. 93 with a CV-1430 JP:A continuation, in the course of which a 
change of scribe occurs. 

As in the previous manuscript, a space (approximately half a line) occurs 
in lieu of a "5w" heading. Similarly, a chapter number was originally ac- 
corded the subheading on the array of the Scottish army, which is partially 
visible despite erasure:'' "This was the arrey of the Scottis how |)at thei come 
in batailles a3ens the kynge of Engelond and of Scotlond; in {)e vauntward 
of Scotland were J)e lordes. Capitulo [Cap. 61 in modern hand over erasure 
ending simo xxiiij°]." 



^ For (2), see item 78. 

^ Many of the signatures have been fully or partially cropped. However, it appears that 

the existing text began with quire "a" and continued beyond the break marking the 

change of exemplars. A new series from "a" starts on fol. 128, the leaf on which a change 

in hand in the CV-1430 JP:A continuation occurs. 

^ An early modern hand has erased the original chapter numbers (though missed that for 

chapter 168) and replaced them from unity, the same hand also added a title, "A verie 

large chronicle from the beginning of E. i. perfect to a°. 9°. H. 6.," and foUo numbers. 



23. University of Chicago MS. 253 

Heading^. Here may a man he[ . . . ] Engelond was fyrst calle Albion and of 

whom it [ . . ]d his first name. Capitulo Primo. 
Begins: In the noble lond of Surrye J^er was a noble kyng of myght and a 

man of grete renoun J)at men called Dioclysian 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Omits: "5w" heading 



THE COMMON VERSION 97 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: and euery man caught what he myght take with- 
out chalenge. Deo gracias. And after J)is gracious victorie J)e kyng turned 
agein to J)e seege of Berwyk 

Ends imperfectly: And in J)e xlix^^ yere of kyng Edwarde J)e vj'** day of luyn 
deide ser William Witelesy erchebisshop of Canterbury wherfore |)e 
monkes of the same chyrche desirede a cardynall of Engelonde to be 
erchebisshoppe [Brie 327/18-21] 

Remarks: The manuscript is probably complete as we have it, for the scribe 
ends about one-third down the last page. 

In the Halidon HiU passage, the heading for the array of the Scottish 
army (Brie 283/24-26) is given a separate (though confused) chapter num- 
ber: "Off \)t aray and names of {)e lordes of Scotlond f)at came enbatailed in 
iiij wynges ayenst {)e l^^ng of Engelond and |)e kyng of Scotlond. Capitulo 
CC xxix*"" XXX." 

The manuscript contains the early signatures of Edmund, Alexander, and 
Robert Trayfort. 



Remarks on the CV-1377 f.c. Stage 3 

None of the four texts assigned to the present group can be directly derived 
one from another. They fall into two general types, in which NLS 6128, BL 
Harley 266(1), and Chicago 253 stand against Princeton Taylor 3(1), which 
contains the "5w" heading and does not have the secondary development of 
the additional chapter heading in the Halidon Hill narrative. BL Harley 
266(1) shows a further development in that "The Description of Edward 
III" occurs as the conclusion of this first section of the text. Chicago 253 is 
distinguished by verbal changes, as in the wording of the conclusion of the 
narrative to 1333 and of the additional chapter heading (quoted above). 
Both BL Harley 266(1) and Chicago 253 present incomplete texts: the 
former may have begun with the accession of Edward I, while the latter was 
left unfinished by its scribe. 



The Common Version to 1419, ending 

"and manfully countered with our English men" 

(CV-1419[men]) 

The main line of development is through the CV-1377 f c. Stage 3, which 



98 THE COMMON VERSION 

is the first group to use the Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter; 
more specifically, the development was probably through texts of the type of 
Princeton Taylor MS. 3, which also includes the "Sw" heading. To a text of 
this type, ending in 1377 with the death of Edward III, a fiirther continu- 
ation was added taking the narrative to the siege of Rouen in 1419, during 
which it ends with the words "and manfiiUy countered with our English 
men" (Brie 390/28-29). 

Among texts ending at this point two main groups can be distinguished, 
designated A (with three subgroups) and B. The key features of these 
groups are as follows. Subgroup A(a) carries on the main tradition, contain- 
ing the same formal features as the CV-1377 f c. Stage 3 — the Cadwallader 
episode. Queen Isabella's letter, and the "5w" heading. Subgroup A(b) is dis- 
tinguished by a rewritten and more accurate narrative for the years 1399 to 
1401 and by the appearance of a substitute heading in place of the "Sw" 
heading in the Halidon Hill passage. The single manuscript witness to sub- 
group A(c) omits the "5w" heading (but does not substitute the heading 
found in A[b]), and includes "The Description of Edward III," found in 
texts from a number of different groups. Group B omits the Cadwallader 
episode but includes Queen Isabella's letter. 

A text of the continuations from 1333 to 1377 and 1377 to 1419(men) is 
also found in BL MS. Harley 4690, appended to John Mandeville's trans- 
lation of the basic Brut text (see item 194). The Heyneman MS. (item 58) 
also combines texts copied from three exemplars by three scribes to form a 
skilftilly assembled, composite text that now ends in 1419(men), the final 
section having been added to supply leaves that must have been lost at an 
early point in the manuscript's history. 



The Common Version to 1419, ending "and manfully 
countered with our English men": Group A (CV-1419[men]:A) 
The texts of the manuscripts that comprise this general group can be fiirther 
differentiated into three secondary subgroups: subgroup (a) exemplifies the 
main line of subsequent development of the Common Version and is repre- 
sented by Peterhouse 190(1), Sion Coll. L40.2/E 42, Columbia Plimpton 
262, Takamiya 29, and Lambeth 264(1); subgroup (b) comprises the first 
sections of BL Egerton 650, Bodl. Rawlinson B.173, and Pennsylvania State 
PS. V-3A, together with Bodl. Rawlinson B.166, and is in part used in the 
composite text of TCD 505 (see item 167); subgroup (c) designates the text 
of Lambeth 738. 



THE COMMON VERSION 99 

Subgroup (a) 

24. Peterhouse, Cambridge, MS. 190(1)* 

Heading. Here may a man here how Engelonde was first callid Albyon and 

thorough whame hit hade J)e name. 
First scribe begins: In the noble londe of Syrrie there was a noble kynge and 

myghti and a man of grete renoun that men callyd Dyoclician 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
First scribe ends onfol. 19 6v: and manfully countred with our Englyssh men. 



^ For (2), see item 95. 



25. Sign College MS. L40.2/E 42* 

Heading^. Here may a man hure hou Englonde was ferst called Albion and 

thurgh wham hit hadde that name. 
Begins: In the noble lande of Surrye 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends on fragmentary fol. 184: oure En[glischmen]. 



• See Ker, MMBL I, pp. 289-90. 



26. Columbia University Library MS. Plimpton 262 

Headings. [HJere a man may hure hou Engelond was first callede Albion and 

thurgh wham hit hadde {)at name. 
Begins: In the noble lande of Surrye ther was a noble kynge and myghty and 

a man of grete renoune that me callede Dioclician 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: and manfully countred with oure Englissh men. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: Fols. 59, 105, 108, and 131 are supplied by a late-fifteenth- or 
sixteenth-century hand. 

On an end flyleaf occurs a note of ownership: "Iste liber constat Ricardo 
Wolston" (possibly fifteenth century). A later owner, "Fraunces Button," 
adds his name in a pious colophon to the text. 

27. Takamiya MS. 29 

Original text begins imperfectly on fr>l. 2: the lordes and the ladies wente to 



100 THE COMMON VERSION 

bedde and anon as hire lordes were in slepe they cutten alle hir husbonde 

throtes [Brie 3/28-30] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: and manfully countrede with oure Englissh men. 

Remarks: The missing first folio has been expertly supplied by a modern leaf 
copied from Caxton's Chronicles of England and written in a style similar to 
that of the original text. It is headed "How the lande of Englonde was first 
named Albyon and by what encheson yt was so named"; the text begins "In 
the noble lande of Sirrie there was a noble king and myhty and a man of 
grete renowne that men called Dioclisian." The verso ends "And when night 
was come." 



28. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 264(1)^ 

Begins imperfectly: vj yer. And after hym regnyd Bledhaghe iij yere [Brie 

31/5-6] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Text to 1419 ends onfol. 142v: and manly countrid wdth our Englisshmen. 

Remarks: This first part of the manuscript is written in a number of hands 
of varying degrees of carefulness. Transitions between hands are awkward, 
sometimes with overlapping material cancelled and sometimes requiring 
blank spaces on pages that precede a new hand. (It is possible that an origi- 
nal manuscript that had lost leaves has been extensively supplied at a later 
date.) 

Fols. 169v-170 contain fifteenth-century copies of deeds, dated 49 Ed- 
ward III, 11 Henry VI, 34 Henry VI, and 38 Henry VI, that deal with 
Berkshire properties in Cookham, Bray, and Winkfield and with persons 
from these places and from Maidenhead ("Maydenhithe"). On fol. 170v 
occurs an early note of ownership: "Iste liber constat Johanni Willeys." 



^ For (2), see item 91. See James, Descriptive Catalogue . . . Lambeth Palace, pp. 410-11. 



Subgroup (b) 

29. BL MS. Egerton 650(1)^ 

Begins imperfectly: ^at Mordered had begoten [Brie 91/10] 

Contains: Cad 



THE COMMON VERSION 101 

Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 

Ends onfol. Ill: and manfully countered with our Englysh men. 

Colophon: Here is no more of the sege of Rone and J)at is be cause we 
wanted f)e trewe copy J)erof bot who so euer owys J)is boke may wryte it 
oute in |)e henderend of J)is boke or in J)e for{)er end of it whene he 
gettes J)e trew copy when it is wryttyn wryte in J)eis iij voyde lyns wher it 
may be foundyn. 

Remarks: The foUos that would have contained Queen Isabella's letter are 
missing. 

A substitute heading for the "5w" heading occurs in the Halidon Hill ac- 
count: "How erle of Dunbare help J)e Scottes." 

The Brut text to 1419 has occasional improvements in historical content, 
as seen, for example, in the history of Owen Glendower's rebellion (see Re- 
marks on the CV-1419[men]:A[b] below). There are also some minor addi- 
tions to the account of the battle of Agincourt. 

One cannot tell whether in his colophon the scribe meant a Brut continu- 
ation or some other work to be "{)e trewe copy," for no subsequent owner 
has added to the text. On the following leaf the original scribe adds a short 
London chronicle continuation to 1431 (see item 179). 



^ For (2), see item 179. A facsimile of fol. Ill, showing the colophon, is printed in 
Mary- Rose McLaren, "The Textual Transmission of the London Chronicles," in English 
Manuscript Studies 1100-1700, ed. Peter Beal and Jeremy Griffiths, 3 (London and 
Toronto, 1992), p. 61. As McLaren notes (p. 60), the plural "we" in the colophon sug- 
gests commercial production; the comparison to "Ashmole 73" [read Ashmoie 793] is, 
however, misleading (see item 141). 



30. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B. 173(1)^ 

Partially illegible heading ends: [ . . . ] throw whom hit had his name. 
Begins: In the noble lond of Surre [ . . . ] a noble kynge of myght and a man 

of greete renowne that men called [ . . . ] 
Omits: Cad (but see below), "Sw" heading (see below) 
Contains: QIL 
Text to 1419 ends imperfectly onfol 221v: withouten tho that were slayne in 

the felde. And so they redyn forth [{)roughoute Fraunce catchwords] [Brie 

372/6-7] 



102 THE COMMON VERSION 

Remarks: Although it is poorly made, the text is apparently based either on 
that of BL Egerton 650 or on a common exemplar, as a comparison of read- 
ings and the inclusion of similar continuations (see pp. 313-14) show. Many 
chapters and passages have been omitted throughout, and thus the lack of 
the Cadwallader episode is not necessarily significant. Spaces are left for 
headings in the Halidon Hill chapter, including one where the substitute 
subheading might have occurred. 

The text originally continued further than its present ending but some 
leaves have been lost at the end of the text to 1419 (including the account 
of Agincourt) and the beginning of the continuation to 1431, which now 
begins in 1421 on the folio immediately following the imperfect 1419 text. 

The dialect of the two hands of the manuscript is that of West Hereford- 
shire, near the Welsh border. Memoranda and notes refer to Bucklersbury, 
Ewyas-Lacy, the foundation of the monastery of Dore, Weobley, Snowdell, 
Breknor, Clifford, Kington, Caldicot, etc., which are all in Herefordshire.^ 



^ For (2), see item 180. 

2 LALME, 1: 150, 3: 172-73. 



31. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.166 

Begins imperfectly, hom scomfited and kylled. And kynge Leyre hade th[e]n 

his lond a3ayne in pees [Brie 20/17-18] 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 
Ends imperfectly: bytturly and manly fo3ten a3ayne the duke of [Burgoyne 

catchword] [Brie 295/11-12] 

Remarks: The text corresponds with that of BL Egerton 650; for example, 
in the passage on the battle of Halidon Hill the substitute heading occurs: 
"How the erle of Dunbarr holp the Skottes." 
The dialect is that of Staffordshire.^ 



^ LALME, 1: 150, 3: 457. 



32. Pennsylvania State University MS. PS. V-3A(l)^ 

Heading: He [sic] may a man here how Englond was first called Albyon and 
thorogh whom it had is name. 



THE COMMON VERSION 103 

Begins (first page rubbed): In the noble lond of Surre ther was [a] nob[le 
k]ing [ . . . ] and a man of gret renowne jjat men called [Dioclijcion 

Contains: Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 

Text to 1419 ends onfol. 196: And so thei preved hem when thei issuet oute 
of the cite bothe on hors bak and on fote for thei come neuer oute at one 
gate allone but thei come oute at iij or iiij; and at euery gate iij or iiij M* 
of goode mennes bodies wel armed and manfully countred with oure 
Englissh men. 

Remarks: Although the continuation beyond 1419, to 1422, is written with- 
out break by the same scribe, the text as a whole is based on a text of the 
type of BL Egerton 650 and Bodl. Rawlinson B.173, including the continu- 
ation to 1431 found in those manuscripts. Accordingly, the continuation has 
been included with those found in the latter manuscripts. 

As in the other texts of the group, the substitute heading "How pe erle of 
Dunbar holp the Scottes" occurs in place of the "5w" heading. 

An omission (of one folio?) occurs in the Arthurian material: "for pt 
Saxons in J)at cite and thei have dispended all oure vitailes" (cf. Brie 77/6- 
79/9-10). Some omissions are also found in the later parts of the text, for 
example, in the narrative on Richard II. 

The dialect is possibly that of Northamptonshire, "with markedly central 
W[est] Midland elements."^ A coat of arms has been erased on fol. 1, and 
there are erased notes on fols. 10, lOv, and 11 that record the births of 
children to John Shirley (1535-1570) of Staunton Harold and Rakedale in 
Leicestershire.-' 

A text in a very similar hand, possibly from the same scriptorium, is the 
EngUsh commentary on the prophecies of MerUn in Pennsylvania State PS. 
V-3, which is highly indebted to the Brut for its content and to which the 
commentary makes references."* The Brut text in PS. V-3A ends with the 
quire signature "N iij," while PS. V-3 begins with the signature "p."^ It is 
possible that the two texts were once bound in the same volume. The dialect 
of the commentary is that of Northamptonshire.^ 



^ For (2), see item 181. 

2 LALME, 1: 154. 

^ See Kate Harris, The Origins and Make-Up of Cambridge University Library MS. 

Ff.1.6," Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 8 (1983): 306 and n. 47. 

* See Caroline D. Eckhardt, ed., The 'Prophetia Merlini' of Geoffrey of Monmouth: A Fif- 



104 THE COMMON VERSION 



teenth-Century English Commentary, Speculum Anniversary Monographs 8 (Cambridge, 

Mass., 1982), pp. 34-38. 

^ Eckhardt, 'Prophet'ta Merlini', p. 20. 

* LALME, 1: 154, 3: 370. 



Remarks on the CV-1419(men):A(b) 

Since BL Egerton 650 is closely related to Bodl. Rawlinson B.173, there is 
agreement in the section of text printed by Brie as Appendix C (Brie 392- 
93), which gives a slightly fuller version of the time from 1399 to 1401, in- 
cluding a more accurate account of Owen Glendower's rising, which Brie 
thought to be unique to Bodl. Rawlinson B.173.^ A text of this subgroup 
underlies the CV-1419 (Leyle), which also agrees with this section of text.^ 
Pennsylvania State PS. V-3A must have been copied from a manuscript that 
was closely related to BL Egerton 650, since it includes an adaptation of the 
London chronicle material found as a continuation in that manuscript (see 
item 181). 



^ See Brie 1: vii. 
2 See pp. 128-31. 



Subgroup (c) 

33. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 738 

Begins imperfectly: geaunte |)at was mayster off ham all J)at men called Gog- 

magog [Brie 11/7] 
Contains: Cad, C^L, Description of Edward III 
Omits: "5w" heading 
Ends onfol. 228v: & manfully countred with our Englesh men. 

Remarks: The manuscript stands apart in that it contains "The Description 
of Edward III," found also in Lambeth 491, BL Harley 266(1), Huntington 
HM 136(1), BL Harley 753, Lambeth 331, and, at a later textual stage, in 
Caxton's Chronicles of England 2ind BL Addit. 10099.^ Although of different 
groups, these manuscripts (and Caxton's print) must be connected. The sim- 
plest explanation is that an attentive scribe was aware of, and had access to, 
the extra material in some other manuscript that contained the "Description" 
and incorporated it into the copy that he was executing, either Lambeth 738 
or a lost precursor. 



THE COMMON VERSION 105 

Two scribes have written the Brut text; the changeover between them 
occurs at a point of no particular textual significance, but the combination 
of features (especially the omission of the "5w" heading) suggests that a 
change of exemplar may have occurred at some point. 

After a break of three blank folios, the scribe who completed the Brut text 
recommences on fol. 232 with a copy of the English "Deposition of Richard 
II," ending on fol. 243v.2 



* See items 18, 22, 61, 79, 80, 85, and 86. 

^ See Kennedy, Manual, 2714-15, 2939-40. A copy is also appended in Woburn Abbey 
181 (item 193). The copy inserted into the London chronicle found in BL Cotton Julius 
B.ii is printed in Charles L. Kingsford, ed.. Chronicles of London (Oxford, 1905), pp. 19- 
62. The Latin version, with additions by Thomas Walsingham, is printed in Chris 
Given-Wilson, trans, and ed.. Chronicles of the Revolution, 1397-1400 (Manchester and 
New York, 1993), pp. 168-89. 



The Common Version to 1419, ending "and manfully 

countered with our English men": Group B (CV-1419[men]:B) 

This small group, which omits the Cadwallader episode but includes Queen 

Isabella's letter, contains MSS. BL Stowe 69 and BL Addit. 33242, though 

the two texts are not close and may be unrelated. 



34. BL MS. Stowe 69 

Heading: Here may a man here howe thatt England was fyrst callydd Al- 

byon and thorough whom hytt hadd the name. 
Begins: In the noble londe of Sirrie ther was a noble and a myghty and a 

man of grete renoun that men callyd Dioclicion 
Omits: Cad, "5w" heading (but see below) 
Contains: QIL 
Ends: 6c manfiilly countred with oure Englisch men. 

Remarks: A blank line is left for what would presumably have been the "5w" 
heading. (Chapter headings cease after chapter 20, though spaces are left for 
them.) 

After a blank folio at the end of the Brut text, the same hand writes a 
short series of historical notes in typical London chronicle form, from 
1189/90 to 1272. On fol. 196r^v (now fragmentary) the scribe has written 



106 THE COMMON VERSION 



Lydgate's popular verses on the kings of England,^ 



^ See Henry N. MacCracken, ed., The Minor Poems of John Lydgate, Part 2, EETS o.s. 
192 (1934), pp. 710-16; Linne R. Mooney, "Lydgate's 'Kings of England' and Another 
Verse Chronicle of the Kings," Viator 20 (1989): 256-63, 278-79. 



35. BL MS. Additional 33242 

Begins imperfectly: Gracyan was aryved and all hys oste [Brie 45/14-15] 
Omits: Cad 

Contains: (^L, "5w" heading 

Ends on rubbed leaf a few lines into the chapter on the Ratcote Bridge rising: 
[Brie 342/8] 

Remarks: The "5w" heading is given in slightly truncated form: "In the v*' 
bateille of Scotlond were thes lordes." 



Remarks on the CV-1419(men):B 

Neither of the manuscripts presents a good text when compared to early CV 
texts. One must assume that the original of this group was a text of either 
the CV-1333 or the CV-1377 f c. Stage 1, which do not contain the Cad- 
wallader episode, to which the 1419(men) continuation was added, probably 
from the CV-1419(men):A. To explain the presence of (^een Isabella's 
letter one must suppose that the compiler of the original text noticed its 
presence in the CV-1419(men):A text with which he was working or that 
there was an earlier change of exemplar to a text containing it. It seems 
unlikely that the compiler would have consciously omitted the popular Cad- 
wallader episode had it been present in the exemplar, especially as this tale 
was considered historical. 



The Common Version to 1419, 
ending "in rule and governance" (CV-1419[r&g]) 

A substantial number of manuscripts (some eighteen described in this sec- 
tion) take the narrative a few Hnes further than the CV-1419(men) to the 
successful conclusion of the siege of Rouen, ending with the words "in rule 
and governance." There are also fourteen manuscripts, now incomplete, that 



THE COMMON VERSION 107 

may belong to groups of this type (classified below in two sets of "doubtful" 
manuscripts immediately following the main groups they most closely 
resemble and to which, in their complete state, they may have belonged). 
This particular conclusion, ending in 1419 with the words "in rule and 
governance," was a major point of closure across the whole corpus of Brut 
texts, as can be seen by its regular occurrence in the Extended and Abbre- 
viated Versions and in several Peculiar Version texts. 

Among these CV-1419(r&g) texts, two main groups can be dis- 
tinguished, designated A and B, the latter with three subgroups. Group A 
is characterized by the presence of the Cadwallader episode. Queen Isabella's 
letter, and the "5w" heading; this group represents the main line of develop- 
ment for the CV tradition. Group B consists of a set of texts that, like 
Group A, conclude in 1419 with the "rule and governance" ending; however, 
their narratives to 1333 or to 1377 derive from different, usually earlier, 
forms of the Brut than that contained in Group A. More specifically, the 
three subgroups in Group B draw their texts to 1333 or 1377 from, 
respectively, the CV-1333, the CV-1377 f c. Stage 1, and a form of the 
CV-1377 f c. Stage 3 containing "The Description of Edward III" (not 
present in Group A). 



The Common Version to 1419, ending 'in rule and governance": 
Group A (CV-1419[r&g]:A) 
The main tradition is carried on in those manuscripts that possess both the 
Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter. This group contains MSS. 
CUL Kk.1.12, Longleat House 183A, TCC O.10.34, BL Harley 2248, BL 
Royal 17.Djod, Yale Beinecke 323, Fitzwilliam Museum McClean 186, 
Coll. of Arms Vincent 421, Bodl. Rawlinson B.216, Glasgow Hunterian 
228(1), Harvard Eng. 587, and Takamiya 67. (The last six manuscripts are 
imperfect at the beginning, but enough of the opening text remains to show 
that they do not belong to the Extended Version [EV].^) 



^ For signs that indicate the EV, see p. 173. 



36. Cambridge University Library MS. Kk.1.12 

Table of contents begins onfoL 1: How Englonde was firste callid Albyon and 
through whom hit hade the name in the prologe. 



108 THE COMMON VERSION 

Table of contents ends on fol. 5: And how king Henry the v'**"^ went J)e sec- 
unde tyme ynto Normandye and of the sege of Roone. Capitulo CC xlv*°. 

Heading on fol. 6: Here may a man here how Engelonde was callid first Al- 
byon and through whom it had the name. 

Begins: In the noble lande of Sirie 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Ends: And Jeanne \>e king entred ynto \>e toun 8c restyd hym in the castell 
tyll Ipe toun were sette yn rewle and gouernawnce. 

Remarks: Brie prints this as his base text for the 1377 to 1419(r&g) continu- 
ation (Brie 335-91). The dialect is that of Central Herefordshire, which 
may indicate that there was a continuing interest in that area in the produc- 
tion of Brut manuscripts.^ 



1 LALME, 1: 68, 3: 170. 



37. LONGLEAT House MS. 183A 

Heading on fol. 6: Here may a man here how England was furst callyd Al- 
bion and throgh whom it had the name. 

Begins: In the noble lande of Surre ther was a noble l^^ng and a myghty and 
a man of grete renoun that men called Dioclician that wele and worthely 
hym gouerned and reuled thorgh his noble chiualrie 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading (in red) 

Ends: And the kyng entred into the towne and restyd hym in the castell till 
the towne was sett in reulle and gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The first item (fols. 3-4v) in the manuscript is a copy in French of 
the Battle Abbey Roll, headed "Ces sont les facciounes les linages des grans 
qui vindrent ou William le Conqueroure en Angleterre"; it ends "Explicit 
quod R D." 

The manuscript belonged in the fifteenth century to Alice Brice ("Constat 
Aligus[?] Brice" [fol. 2v]; "Iste liber constat Domina Alicia Brice" [fol. 
136v]). The name of Francis Thynne (died 1611) also appears on fol. 136v. 



38. Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. 0.10.34^ 

Heading. Here may a man here Engelande was first callede Albyon and 
thoru3 whom it had the name. 



THE COMMON VERSION 109 

Begins: In the noble land of Syreie 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: in rewle and in gouernaunce. 



^ See Linne R. Mooney, Tbe Index of Middle English Prose, Handlist XI: Manuscripts in 
the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge (Cambridge, 1995), p. 150. 



39. BL MS. Harley 2248 

Table of contents begins onfol. 1: The ffirst how Brute was getten & howe he 
slow ffirst his moder and afterward his fader and how he conquered Al- 
bion that after he nempned Bretayne after his owne name that now ys 
called Englonde after the name of Engyst of Saxoyne. 

Table of contents ends onfol 17: The CCxlij wher as begynneth the cronicle 
of kyng Henry the fyfte. 

Heading on fol. 19: Here may a man here how Englonde was ffirst called 
Albion and through whom hit hadde that name. 

Begins: In the noble land of Surrye 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "Sw" heading 

Ends: in good rule 8c good gouernance. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: On fol. 1 appears a note of ownership: "Iste lyber constat Wyllyam 
Thomas." Other early names include "Edmunde Knyvet," "John Symons," 
and "WyUyam Frost" (fol. 17). 



40. BL MS. Royal 17.D.xxi 

Heading^. Here may a man here how Engelonde was first callede Albion and 

thorowgh wham yt hadde J)e name. 
Begins: In J)e noble land of Sirie 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: in rewle and gouernaunce. 

Remarks: N. R. Ker ascribes the early ownership of the manuscript to the 
Augustinian Priory of St. Bartholomew, Smithfield, London, presumably 
from the evidence of the following addition, which suggests that the manu- 
script was written in the priory.^ It is written in the same hand as the text 
in a lower margin and is marked for insertion in the Brut text at a point 
corresponding to Brie 369, between lines 10 and 11: 



110 THE COMMON VERSION 

And in J)e same x 3eer of kyng Henries regne J)e iiij* on Candilmasse 
Day ser Raynold Colyer priour of J^e priorye of Seynt Bartymewes in 
Westsmythfeld of London was schorn chanon beeng of aage xviij 3er 
full on Shrofe Sonday next foloenge. And ^e xxx day of lanvere J)an 
Monday |3e xiiij' 3er of kynges Henry Ipe v'f^ pe said ser Raynold was 
chosen priour of J)e saide pryorye and vpon Shrofe Sonday next 
foloenge ^e xix' day of Feuer3ere \>e said ser Raynold was stalled and 
so conteneweth pryour vnto \>e 



^ Ker, Medieval Libraries, p. 123. 



41. Yale University, Beinecke MS. 323^ 

Heading onfol. 3: Her may a man hure Engelande was ferst callede Albyon 

and |)oru3 wham hit had J)e na[me.] 
Begins: In the noble lande of Syrrie 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly on fragmentary fol 158v: [ . . . ]ne J)e Ig^ng [ . . . ] toun was 

[Brie 391/14-15] 

Remarks: The last leaf is a mere fragment, but the few words left show that 
the text ended in 1419(r&g). 

The Brut text was perhaps written ca. 1440,^ and the manuscript can be 
associated in the later fifteenth century with some Yorkist adherent who was 
particularly interested in the Clare family, the direct male line of which 
ended with Gilbert at Bannockburn (1314). 

Fol. 1 contains a series of notes on Richard, earl of Gloucester (died 
1217) and his wife Amice, countess of Gloucester, down to the Clare heir- 
esses, Eleanor, Margaret, and Elizabeth, the sisters of Gilbert, earl of Glou- 
cester (killed at "hello de Polles," that is, Bannockburn), and their respective 
husbands, Hugh le Despenser the younger; Hugh d'Audeley the younger; 
and Theobald de Verdun (first husband), Roger d'Amory (second), and John 
de Burgh (third). 

In response to references in the text, marginal notes in several early hands 
mention Robert, first earl of Gloucester (ca. 1090-1147; fols. 60, 61v); Gil- 
bert of Clare (ca. 1180-1230; fols. 72, 73v); the death of Gilbert of Clare 
(1291-1314) at Bannockburn (fol. 85); Roger d'Amory, Hugh d'Audeley, 
the late Gilbert de Clare (fol. 87v); and the death of Roger d'Amory (fol. 



THE COMMON VERSION 111 

88v). The primary focus is on the Clare family rather than the earldom of 
Gloucester, for there are no sidenotes for Thomas of Woodstock, duke of 
Gloucester, or for Thomas le Despenser, earl of Gloucester. 

In the mid-fifteenth century, Richard Plantagenet, duke of York (1411- 
1460), the father of Edward IV, possessed extensive properties, especially in 
East Anglia, of the honour of Clare.^ The strong Yorkist connections of the 
manuscript are further exhibited on fol. 2, which contains a set of genealogi- 
cal roundels showing the claim of Edward IV to the crowns of England and 
France, whereas "Henricus Derby" and his successors are said to have 
usurped the throne. 



^ See Shailor, Catalogue, 2: 135-36. 

^ So dated by Kathleen L. Scott on the basis of the style of illumination (reported in 

Shailor, Catalogue, 2: 136). 

^ See Joel T. Rosenthal, "The Estates and Finances of Richard, Duke of York (1411- 

1460)," Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 2, ed. W. M. Bowsl^ (Lincoln, 1965), 

p. 194. I am indebted to Professor Rosenthal for this reference. 



42. FiTZWILLIAM MUSEUM MS. McCLEAN 186 

Begins imperfectly on fol. 2: and vnto hem he seide that if thei wolde not be 

chastised thei shulde his loue lese for euermore [Brie 3/7-9] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: and than f)e kyng entred the towne and restyd hym yn the castell tyll 

J)e towne was sett yn rewle and gode gouernance. 



43. College of Arms MS. Vincent 421 

Begins imperfectly on fol 2 (misbound after fol !)•} to hem for half a yer and 
whan thys was doon alle the sustrys wenten ynto the shyp and saylid forth 
into the see [Brie 4/2-3] 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "Sw" heading 

Ends: And thanne the l^oig entryd ynto the toun and restid hym yn the 
castel tyl the toun was set yn rewle and yn governaunce. 

Remarks: There are no EV signs. 

That the manuscript was written before 1461 is clear, since Henry VI is 
called the current sovereign in a mnemonic poem on the kings of England 



112 THE COMMON VERSION 

that the scribe added in the bottom margin at the beginning of William the 
Conqueror's reign. 



^ Several folios have been bound in the vi^rong order at the beginning of the text. 



44. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.216^ 

Begins imperfectly: scomfited thise geauntes aboueseid. [Brie 4/33-34] 

Contains: Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (but see below) 

Ends on fol. 125: in rewle and in governaunce. 

Remarks: The text shows no EV signs at the beginning. 

Instead of the "5w" heading occurs a chapter heading: "The batayle. Capi- 
tulo xxiiij'°," suggesting that a space had been left in the exemplar at this 
point for a rubricated heading. 



^ Described in M. C. Seymour, "The English Manuscripts of Mandeville's Travels" 
Edinburgh Bibliographical Society Transactions 4 (1966): 191-92. The Brut text is followed 
by an EngUsh copy of the Treaty of Troyes (1420) between Henry V and Charles VI of 
France (fols. 125-127v). The manuscript also contains texts of Mandeville's Travels, The 
Proverbs of Solomon, and Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund. 



45. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterl\n 228(1)^ 

First scribe begins imperfectly: done moche harme and sorow in many diuerse 

places [Brie 6/2-3] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
First scribe ends on fol. 149v: in rewle and in gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The text shows no EV signs at the beginning. 



^ For (2), see item 89. 



46. Harvard University MS. Eng. 587^ 

Begins imperfectly: Brute had the victory; neuertheles Brute made great sorow 
for his cosyn Turyn [Brie 10/17-18] 



THE COMMON VERSION 113 

Contains: Cad (imperfect at start), QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: in rule and gouernaunce. 

Colophon: Ita vita est hominum quasi cum ladas tesseris, si id quod maxime 
opus casu(?) non cadet: tunc idem quod cecidit forte, id arte ut coregas. 

Remarks: There are no EV signs at the beginning. 

The name "Ryther [^also Rither] scriptor" occurs in several of the chapter 
headings when there remains room to add it. The early (possibly fifteenth- 
century) name "Edmond Goodwyn" appears in the top margin of fol. 96. 



* See Linda Ehrsam Voigts, "A Handlist of Middle English in Harvard Manuscripts," 
Harvard Library Bulletin 33, no. 1 (Winter, 1985): 22-24. 



47. TAKAMIYA MS. 67 

Begins imperfectly on fragmentary foL 203v (bound in at end)'} for half 3eer &, 

whane J)is was al i-done alle J)e sustres wenten into a shippe [Brie 4/2-3] 
Fol. 1 begins imperfectly: Newe Troye xx 3eer aftir tyme J)at Jje cite was made 

and there he made {)e lawes f)at f)e Bretouns helden [Brie 12/5-7] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: Thane anon |)ey sente vnto J)e kyng bisekynge him of grace 

& mercye & brou3te [Brie 391/8-9] 

Remarks: There are no EV signs. 

The present ending-point occurs after the 1419(men) conclusion; probably 
one leaf, containing the few remaining lines to the 1419(r&g) ending, has 
been lost at the end. 



* The original recto and verso have been reversed in the present numbering and binding. 
The fragmentary fol. 203 contains 6 lines of text: "Here endij) the prolog of Albyon . . . 
aftir the name of Engest of Saxoyne. Capitulo primo." [Brie 4/35-5/4]. At some point, 
the present verso lay against the present fol. 202v, on to which it bled considerably. Some 
of the opening words given here have been read from fol. 202v with the aid of a mirror. 



Doubtful Manuscripts 

Manuscripts wdth texts that are incomplete at either beginning or end, yet 
contain the Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter, can be difficult 
to classify with certainty depending on how much text has been lost.^ 



114 THE COMMON VERSION 

Some that are incomplete at the end — for example, MSS. Bodl. Bodley 
231, BL Royal 18.B.iii, California-Berkeley 152, BL Addit. 26746, and 
Glasgow Hunterian 61 — could belong to either the CV-1419(men):A or the 
CV-1419(r&g):A. Three texts, sufficiently incomplete at the beginning as 
to remove any possible EV signs, could belong to the CV or EV: Rylands 
Eng. 104 could belong to the CV-1419(men):A, the CV-1419(r&g):A, or 
the EV; Bodl. Douce 290 (which begins after the Cadwallader episode) be- 
longs to either the CV or the EV; Bibliotheque Royale IV.461 (which is 
missing the relevant folios for the Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's 
letter) could belong to the CV-1419(men):A, the CV-1419(men):C, the 
CV-1419(r&g):A, the CV-1419(r&g):B, or the EV. 



' See pp. 124-28 for further incomplete manuscripts that do not contain the Cadwallader 
episode or Queen Isabella's letter and that are similarly doubtful in classification. 



48. Bodleian MS. Bodley 231 

Heading^. Here may a man here howe Engelond was first callid Albyon and 

thorough whame hit hade J)e name. 
Begins: In the noble londe of Syrrie 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" 
Ends imperfectly: the l<yng of Fraunce 8c the dolphyn and the duke of Bur- 

goyne wolde come adoun to rescue the citee of Rone with a [Brie 

389/28-30] 

Remarks: The text ends imperfectly before the 1419(men) or 1419(r&g) 
endings. 



49. BL MS. Royal I8.B.111 

Begins onfol. 5 (misbound after fols. 1-4): was alle wyldernesse. And whanne 

dame Al[ . , . ] comyn to that londe and all hyr susters [Brie 4/5-7] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: And with him laye the erle of Southfolke and the lorde of 

Burgevenye wyth all here retenue [Brie 389/20-21] 

Remarks: There are no EV signs, such as the extra giants, in the chapter on 
the thirty- three kings of Britain and in the description of Engist's heptarchy. 
The text ends imperfectly before the 1419(men) or 1419(r8cg) endings. 



THE COMMON VERSION 115 

The manuscript belonged to the Gaynesford family of Carshalton, Surrey, 
members of which can be connected with the ownership of a number of 
books. ^ Gaynesford names that appear are those of John, Mary, Erasmus, 
George, Ralph, and Thomas. Also in the sixteenth century, the manuscript 
belonged to Christopher Watson, whose note of ownership appears on fol. 
160; a note on fol. 189 reads "To my louyd frynd Crystofer Wetson" and 
the name of Thomas Watson also occurs. 



' See Julia BofFey, Manuscripts of English Courtly Love Lyrics in the Later Middle Ages 
(Woodbridge, 1985), p. 126 n. 42 (misnumbered as Royal IS.B.ii); BofFey and Meale, 
"Selecting the Text," p. 158 and n. 45. 



50. University of California at Berkeley MS. 152 

Begins imperfectly: spousen Corynus doughter that men caUid Guentolen. 

[Brie 13/22-23] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: And anon J)e kinge sente his heraudes to J)e capteyne of 

Took to delyuer to J)e kinge his castell and his toune and [.]llys he 

schulde [Brie 383/10-12] 

Remarks: The leaves are missing that would have contained the chapter on 
the thirty-three kings of Britain and Lud's naming of London; there are, 
however, no EV signs in the passage on Engist's heptarchy. The text ends 
imperfectly before the 1419(men) or 1419(r&g) endings. 

The manuscript belonged to Thomas London of Teberton, Suffolk, in 
1627, as a note on fol. 1 attests. Other sixteenth-century names are those of 
Mary Whinkop and Timothy Thornborough. 



51. BL MS. Additional 26746 

Begins imperfectly: them he saide thatt if thei wolde nought be chastisede 

thei schulde lese his loue for euermore [Brie 3/7-9] 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Omits: "Sw" heading (but see below) 
Ends imperfectly: forto entere on the north side [Brie 389/31-32] 

Remarks: There are no EV signs. The leaves are missing that would have 
contained the array of the Scottish army at Halidon Hill. The text ends im- 



116 THE COMMON VERSION 

perfectly before the 1419(men) or 1419(r&g) endings. 

The manuscript is a late (probably sixteenth-century), but handsome and 
careful, copy of the text. Some labor has gone into its production; proper 
names are written in different colors, chapter headings and initial letters of 
chapters are in red, and initials and numbers are tinged with yellow. 



52. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 61 

Heading: Here begynneth |)e cronnycles of |)is lande Engelonde that first 

was callede Albyon {)oru3 whom hit hadde J)e name.^ 
Begins: In the noble lande of Syrrie 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: And Graunt lackes a worJ)y [Brie 390/17] 

Remarks: The text ends imperfectly before the 1419(men) or 1419(r8cg) 
endings. 



^ Cf. BL Royal 19.C.ix, a text of the Anglo-Norman Long Version: "Cy commencent les 
croniqez d'Angleterre et premierement comment elle eut nom Albe et dont lui vint ce 
nom." The heading is also similar to the heading of certain EV texts. 



53. Rylands MS. Eng. 104^ 

Fol. Iv begins (fol. Ir is illegible): Thanne kyng Aleyn did sende for the cler- 

gie of his londe [Cadwallader episode; see p. 61] 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: our king and his lordis atte {)e dise 8c an [Brie 378/13-14] 

Remarks: The text ends imperfectly before the 1419(men) or 1419(r&g) 
endings. 



^ See Ker, MMBL III, pp. 417-18; Lester, Handlist, p. 39; Tyson, "Hand-List," p. 172. 



54. Bodleian MS. Douce 290 

Begins imperfectly on fol 157: Howe William Bastarde duke of Normandye 
come into Englonde and quelled kynge Harolde. Capitulo yj'°' iijd. [Brie 
136/6-7] 



THE COMMON VERSION 117 

Contains: QIL, "5w" heading 

Ends imperfectly on fol. 280v: her londes & lordshypes {)at J)ay helde in J)e 
reame of [Brie 291/17-18] 

Remarks: The incomplete text begins after the Cadwallader episode and ends 
at a point soon after the beginning of the 1377 to 1419 narrative. 



55. BlBLIOTHfiQUE ROYALE MS. IV.461 

Begins imperfectly: Afftre {)e dethe of J)is Eldrede Knoght J)at was a Danoys 

bigan |)o forto regne [Brie 119/5-6] 
Omits: QIL (see below), "5w" heading (see below) 
Ends imperfectly, many tovnes and poortes in Englonde [up]on |)[e] [Brie 

365/18-19] 

Remarks: The text begins after the point at which the Cadwallader episode 
would have appeared, and, among many others, the folios are missing that 
might have contained Queen Isabella's letter and the "5w" heading. Accord- 
ingly, the text could belong either to the CV-1419(men):A, the CV- 
1419(r&g):A, or the EV (if both features were originally present), or to the 
CV-1419(r&g):B (if both features were originally absent). 



The Common Version to 1419, ending "in rule and governance': 
Group B fCV-1419[r&gJ:B) 
Six manuscripts contain the complete 1419(r&g) continuation but reflect in 
their texts to 1333 or 1377 a different, usually earlier, form of the Brut than 
that found in manuscripts of Group A. Such composite texts are treated 
here if there are indications that they were deliberately conceived of as uni- 
fied narratives by the scribes or their supervisors. Within the general type 
three subgroups can be distinguished, though the texts within each are not 
necessarily directly related and in most instances simply reflect similar 
methods of combination. 

Subgroup (a) contains MSS. Bodl. Bodley 840 and TCD 490, unrelated 
composites of CV-1333 and CV-1419(r6cg) texts. Subgroup (b) includes 
the Heyneman MS. and BL MS. Harley 1568, a combination of CV-1377 
f.c. Stage 1 and CV-1419(r&g) texts, and Folger Shakespeare Library MS. 
V.b.l06 (725.2), which was probably produced in the same way. 

Subgroup (c) consists of Huntington MS. HM 136(1), apparently a com- 
bination of a CV-1377 f.c. Stage 3 text containing "The Description of 



118 THE COMMON VERSION 

Edward III" and the CV-1419(r&g) text. Although only a single manuscript 
of subgroup (c) has survived, it is important in that a text of this type 
formed the basis for William Caxton's Chronicles of England. If Caxton's 
printed edition is seen as the culmination of the main tradition of the 
Common Version of the Brut, then its development is through this collateral 
subgroup of Group B rather than through the CV-1419(r&g):A, which can 
be regarded as the classic state of the pre-print manuscript tradition of the 
Common Version. 



Subgroup (a) 

56. Bodleian MS. Bodley 840 

Heading-. Here may a man hure Engelande was fyrst callid Albyon and 

thorw wham hit hadde the name. 
Begins: In the noble land of Syrrie 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Text to 1333 ends on fol. 11 7: wythoute any chalange of any man. Deo 

gracias. 
Text from 1333 to 1419 begins on fol 117: And so aftyr {)is gracius victorye 
Ends: in revle and gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The text beyond 1333 continues in the same hand immediately 
after the narrative ending in that year. However, the ink used for the con- 
tinuation is blacker, suggesting, in conjunction with the internal textual fea- 
tures, that a change of exemplar took place at this point and that the first 
part of the text was copied from a CV-1333, to which the 1419(r&g) con- 
tinuation was added from another manuscript. Since it is possible that the 
scribe conceived of the complete narrative to 1419 as a unified text, it has 
been classified here rather than under the type represented by the second 
section of Princeton Taylor MS. 3 (item 73). 

The dialect is that of Essex, with some Herefordshire relicts "probably to 
represent the flavour of the Brut original."^ 



^ LALME, 1: 146, 3: 117. 



57. Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 490 

Table of contents begins on fol 3: Here may a man here Engeland was first 
callede Albyon j3orow3 wham hit hadde J)e name. 



THE COMMON VERSION 119 

Table of contents ends onfol. 12: In J)e fer|)e warde of {)e batayle of Scotland 

were Jjese lordes. 
Heading onfol. 13: Here may a man hure how Engelande was ferst callede 

Albyon and through whome it hade the name. 
Text begins: In the noble lande of Syrrie ther was a noble I^nig and mi3ty 

and a man of gret renoun that me callede Dyoclician 
Omits: Cad, QIL 
Contains: "5w" heading 
Text to 1333 ends on fol. 132: withouten any chalange of any man. Deo 

gracias. 
Text to 1419 begins on fol 132: And so after {)is gra[ . . . ] victorie king 

Edwarde turned hym a3en toward f)e same [ . . . ] [BJerewike 
Text ends: And than the kinge entrid the toun and rested hym in the castelle 

tyll the tovne was sette in reule and goode gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The inclusion of a table of contents is paralleled in several Anglo- 
Norman texts (for example, Bibl. Nat. fonds franfais 12155, BL Royal 
19.C.ix, BL Addit. 18462a). The table shows that the original ending point, 
at least of the exemplar, was 1333, to which the continuation to 1419 was 
added. Brie seems to be mistaken in identifying a new hand as having con- 
tinued the text beyond the 1333 ending; the continuation looks to be in the 
same hand but perhaps begun after some space of time with a new pen.^ 

The manuscript belonged to the Dominican priory of the Virgin Mary 
and St. Margaret at Dartford in Kent ("Iste liber constat religiosis sororibus 
de Dertfford," with an heraldic achievement of the Arma Christi drawn 
below [fol. Iv]; "IHC" and interlocked "Ave" and "Maria" appear on fol. 2.)^ 



* Geschichte und Quellen, p. 53. If there is indeed a second scribe, then the first section of 
the text should be reclassified under the CV-1333, to which the continuation to 
1419(r8cg) has been added. 
^ See Ker, Medieval Libraries, p. 57. 



Subgroup (b) 

58. Heyneman MS. 

Heading by first scribe: Here may a man heren how Engelande was first 

called Albyon and thorough whom it hadde the name. 
Begins: In the noble londe of Syrrie 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading (see below) 



120 THE COMMON VERSION 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoute ony chalenge of ony man. Deo gracias. 

And so after this gracious victorie Jje kynge turnede hym a3en vnto {)e 

same sege of Berwyke 
First scribe ends text to 1377 on fol. 142r. he deyde at Shene and is entered 

worshipflilly at Westmynstre on whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. 
Second scribe begins continuation to 1419 on fol. 143r. And aftir J)e king 

Eduuard ^e thridde {)at was born atte Wyndesore regned Richard of 

Burdeux 
Second scribe ends imperfectly on fol. 165 v. and there he kepte him longe tyme 

and at the last my [lord Powes catchwords] [Brie 386/16-17] 
Third scribe begins on fol 166: lorde Powes met with him and toke him [Brie 

386/17-18] 
Third scribe ends: and manfully countred with oure Englisshmen. 

Remarks: The evidence of the following manuscript (see below) shows that, 
despite the present ending in 1419(men), the Heyneman MS. originally 
ended in 1419(r&g). It was designed as a composite text copied from a CV- 
1377 f.c. Stage 1 text with a continuation taken from a CV-1419(r&g). In 
addition to the change in hand, the blank page between the text to 1377 
and the 1419 continuation indicates the change in exemplars. The illustra- 
tions, however, show that the text was treated as a whole. Its concluding 
leaves to 1419(r&g) must have been lost early in its history but were then 
supplied from a text ending in 1419(men). 

The "5w" heading is not present, but a space of almost two flill lines at 
the foot of the second column of a leaf occurs before the narrative continues. 

This is a finely executed manuscript. There are decorated initials through- 
out; those at the beginnings of reigns contain portraits of rulers.^ 

There is evidence of care in the treatment of the continuation beyond 
1377 in order to preserve the illustration program. In the chapter recounting 
the deposition of Richard II and the election of Henry Bolingbroke as king, 
a rubricated subheading (without separate chapter number) is introduced 
after Richard's death and burial for the first year of Henry's reign: "Here 
endeth the lief of king Richard with the materialle noticeon of his deposing. 
And now beginnej) the lief of kinge Henric' the iiij and the actes of his 
reign that folowen in this wise" (between Brie 360/26 and 360/27). This 
allows for a portrait of Henry IV within the following initial^. The chapter 
heading for the accession of Henry V is adapted to this model; Henry re- 
ceives the largest portrait in the manuscript, ten lines high and extending 
across a full column. 



THE COMMON VERSION 121 



* Dioclician is portrayed with his thirty-three daughters; Cordeill, Lear's daughter, is the 
sole woman ruler; Morwith's portrait includes the "grete beste that was blak & horrible 
6c hidous" that devoured him; Hesidur is crowned by a cleric; multiple kings (Athelbright 
and Edelf, Cadwallader and Elfrid; seven kings for the heptarchy) are so portrayed, except 
for chapter 33, in which the reigns of thirty-three kings are listed but where the portrait 
of one stands for all; the baptism of Athelbright by St. Austin is included. A number of 
leaves are missing, presumably removed for their illustrations. 



59. BL MS. Harley 1568 

Heading. Here may a man here how Engelande was first callide Albion and 

thorow wham it had the name. 
Begins: In the noble londe of Syrrie 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading (see below) 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoute any chalangynge of any man. Deo gra- 

cias. And so after this gracius victori J)e kyng turnede ageyne vnto J)e 

same sege of Barwyke 
Changeover, 1377 to 1419: he diede at Shene & is enterede worschipflilly at 

Westmynstre one whos saule God haue mercy. Amen. 

And after the l^nig Edwarde |)e thyrde J)at was borne at Wyndesore 
regnede Richard of Burdeux 

Ends: And thene J)e kynge enturede into the toun and restede him in the 
castell till |)e towne was sett in rewle & gud gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The manuscript, which is written in a single hand, is an inferior 
copy of the Heyneman MS. (see above), made before the latter lost its final 
leaves to 1419(r&g), or a poor copy from a common model. It is illustrated 
with rather crude imitations of the portraits in the Heyneman MS. (though 
that of Henry V is only of regular size) and includes occasional Latin 
sidenotes found therein. 

Where the Heyneman MS. leaves almost two blank lines instead of a 
"5w" heading, a substitute heading occurs: "How the felde of Barwyke was 
discomfetede & J)e toun delyuerd." 

The adapted headings for the reigns of Henry IV and Henry V occur in 
corrupt form; that for the former reads: "Her endith J)e hf of kyng Richarde 
with |)e moriallite [sic] noticione of his deposicione. And now begynneth the 
lif of kyng Henry |)e iiij' 8c \>c actes of his reigne J)at folows in these wise." 



122 THE COMMON VERSION 

60. FOLGER Shakespeare Library MS. V.b.106 (725.2) 

Headings. Here may a man heren how Englonde was ffyrst callid Albyon and 
thurgh whom it hadde the name. 

Begins: [I]n the noble lande of Surre ther was a noble kyng and a myghty 
and a man of grete renowne that menne callid Dyoclysian 

Omits: Cad, "5w" heading 

Contains: QIL (see below) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoute eny chalange of eny man. Deo gracias. 
And so aftre this gracyous victorye the l^^ng turned hym ayen onto the 
same sege of Berewike 

Ends: tylle the towne was sette in rewle and good governaunce. Deo gracias. 

Colophon: Quod Cogman. Si mea penna valet melior mea litera fiet. {^Re- 
peated in a later hand] 

Remarks: Queen Isabella's letter is found in the chapter following that into 
which it is usually inserted: 

Howe Maystyr Walter of Stapulton bisshop of Excestre was byheued 
at London atte Standard in Chepe. Capitulo CC viij°. 

[A]nd in the same tyme ky^ng Edwarde was sore adredde leste menne 
of London wolde yelde hem vnto the qwene Issabelle and of the 
lettre that the qwene Issabelle sente to the mayre and to the aldremen 
of London which l[ett]re here foloweth in this manere: Issabelle by 
the grace of God qwene of Englonde . . . 

. . . that alle menne passyng in the waie myghte se and redyn. And 
that same tyme kyng Edwarde sente Maystyr Walter Stapulton [cf. 
Brie 237/27-28] 

It seems likely that the basic exemplar that the scribe was following was 
one that ended in 1377 and did not include this section of text. The supple- 
mentary text, however, that the scribe ("Cogman") used for the continuation 
to 1419 did include it (he must have had both exemplars open before him), 
though he noticed it a fraction too late to include in its normal CV posi- 
tion — and so he improvised by including it in the next chapter. 

In the Halidon Hill passage only four wards of the Scottish army are 
given, which is usually an indication that a text is early in the CV tradition. 

There is a list of chapter headings at the end of the text, added in 1604. 



THE COMMON VERSION 123 

Subgroup (c) 

61. Huntington MS. HM 136(1)^ 

Heading: Here may a man here that England was furst called Albion and 

thurgh whom it had the name. 
First scribe begins: In the noble lande of Sirrie 
Contains: Cad, QIL, Description of Edward III 
Omits: "5w" heading 
End of text to 1377 and beginning of "The Description of Edward IIF: the xj 

kalend of luyn he deid at Shene and is buried wurshipflilly at West- 

mynster on whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. 

This l^Tig Edwa[r]d was for sothe of a passyng goodnesse 
First scribe ends onfol. 156v: in rewle and in gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The text seems to be a combination of a CV-1377 f c. Stage 3 text 
of the type found in BL Harley 266(1) with the continuation to 1419(r&g). 
They possess the same combination of features in the earlier part of the text, 
and, like BL Harley 266(1) (and NLS 6128), Huntington HM 136 accords 
a chapter number to the subheading on the array of the Scottish army at 
Halidon Hill:2 

This was the array of the Scottes howe J)at |)ey comen in batailles 
ayens the ij kynges of Englond and Scotland. In the vauntward of 
Scotland were thees lordes. Capitulo CC xxiiij*". 

Like BL Harley 266(1), the text contains "The Description of Edward 
III," which follows immediately, with no heading (as in Harley 266 and 
Lambeth 738), after the death of that king.-' 

The Brut text is preceded by some Latin verses on historical subjects on 
the front flyleaves, and between fols. 83v-130 occurs a copy of the "Brid- 
lington Prophecy," written in a fifteenth-century hand chiefly in the lower 
margins and starting at the beginning of the reign of Edward II. 

Late- fifteenth- or early-sixteenth-century owners of the manuscript were 
John Leche of Nantwich, Cheshire, and Dorothy Helbarton, whose name 
appears throughout the volume in a series of marginal notes.'* 



^ For (2), see item 92. See Dutschke, Guide, 1: 181-83; Ralph Hanna III, The Index of 
Middle English Prose, Handlist I: A Handlist of Manuscripts Containing Middle English 
Prose in the Henry E. Huntington Library (Cambridge, 1984), p. 15. 
2 See pp. 95-96. 



124 THE COMMON VERSION 

^ See items 22 and 23. 

" See Dutschke, Guide, 1: 183, and Josephine Koster Tarvers, "English Women as 
Readers and Writers," in Tie Uses of Manuscripts in Literary Studies: Essays in Memory of 
Judson Boy ce Allen, ed. Charlotte Cook Morse, Penelope Reed Doob, and Marjorie Curry 
Woods, Studies in Medieval Culture 31 (Kalamazoo, 1992), pp. 319-20. 



Doubtful Manuscripts 

MSS. Bodl. Rawlinson B.205, CUL Ee.4.32, TCC R.5.43, Leicester 47, 
and Sydney Nicholson 13 do not contain the Cadwallader episode, Queen 
Isabella's letter, or the "5w" heading (though the relevant leaf is missing in 
TCC R.5.43). They all present some or most of the standard 1419 continu- 
ation but are imperfect at the end; they could therefore belong to the CV- 
1419(r&g):B, although it is also possible, but less likely, that they ended in 
1419(men). Like several manuscripts of the CV-1419(r&g):B, these may 
represent independent combinations of texts from different groups. 

Although Huntington MS. HM 113 contains the Cadwallader episode 
and (^een Isabella's letter, it does not contain the "Sw" heading; since the 
text is imperfect at the end it is included here. 



62. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.205 

Heading. Here men may hiren how Engelond first was called Albioun and 

thurgh whome it hadde the name. 
Begins: In the noble land of Sirrie 
Omits: Cad (see below), QIL (see below), "5w'' heading 
Text to 1333 ends: Deo gracias dicamus omnes. 
Ends imperfectly: and sir John [Cheyny knyght weren brou3t catchwords^ 

[Brie 354/25-26] 

Remarks: The text of the Cadwallader episode is not present, and the folios 
that might have contained Queen Isabella's letter are missing. Assuming that 
the latter was not present, then the first part of the text appears to be a copy 
of a CV-1377 fc. Stage 1 text (cf the ending words of the text to 1333 in 
Rylands Eng. 102 [item 12]: "Deo gracias dicamus omnes. Amen."; cf also 
the following manuscript). To this, the scribe has added a continuation from 
a text ending in 1419. 

Although the Cadwallader episode is not present, the manuscript contains 
the heading of the first chapter of the episode, written in the same hand as 
the main text: "How king Cadwaladre that was Cadwaleynes sone regned 



THE COMMON VERSION 125 

after his fader and was the laste kynge of the Britouns." The scribe then 
stroked this out and wrote the heading of the first chapter after the episode: 
"How kyng Offa was soueraigne aboue all the kynges of Engelond 6c how 
euery kyng werred vpon ojjer. Capitulum Centesimum ij*"" [the . . . ij"" writ- 
fen in margin]. 

It is probable that this curious situation arose because the scribe originally 
left blank lines for the chapter headings. At the conclusion of writing the 
main narrative, including the continuation to 1419 from a second exemplar, 
he inserted the chapter headings, taken, however, from his second exemplar, 
which contained the Cadwallader episode. Only after he had mechanically 
written the heading did he realize that his text did not in fact include the 
episode, and so he cancelled the heading and wrote the correct one, though 
he had to use the margin to get it all in. 



63. Cambridge University Library MS. Ee.4.32^ 

Heading on fol. 24: Here may a man hure how Engelonde was ferst callede 
Albyon 8c J)orwe wham hit hadde J)e name. 

Begins: In the noble land of Surrie 

Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoutyn any chalengyng of any maner man. 
Deo gracias dicamus omnes. Amen. And so aftir this gracious victorie the 
kyng turned a3en to the sege of Berwyk. And whan they of the towne 
saugh and herd how kyng Edward had sped they 3olde to hym the town 
with the castell on the morne after the batayle 

Ends imperfectly: And on the xij*^ evyn come the duke of Almayn vnto |)e 
[Brie 360/28-29] 

Remarks: The combination of features and the ending of the narrative to 
1333 suggest that the text to 1377 is based on a CV-1377 f c. Stage 1 text 
(cf the preceding manuscript). The continuation to 1419 is occasionally ab- 
breviated and altered, as seen, for example, in the passage on the death of 
John of Gaunt: 

And in this same yere dyed syr lohn of Gaunte the Igoiges vncle and 
duke of Lancastyr. And he lyth att Seynt Powlys in London besydes 
dame Blaunch hys wyfe. 

How |)e erle of Derby and the duke of Norffolk were exiled and how 
the erle of Derby putt down kyng Richard, [subheading in red] 



126 THE COMMON VERSION 

And in that same yere ther felle a discencioun betwyn the duke of 
Hertford [sic] and the duke of Norfolk [cf Brie 355/15-22] 



^ The Brut is preceded in the manuscript by the prose TAree Kings of Cologne (fols. 1- 
23v). A note at the top of fol. 23v records "Leaf 24 cancelled," and the foliation starts 
afresh with "Leaf 1" at the beginning of the Brut up to 184 (corrected from 180), that is, 
fol. 207 of the complete volume. 



64. Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. R.5.43, Part IP 

Begins imperfectly on fol. 39: bygan Leyr ayen wepe 8c made mych sorowe 

[Brie 19/1-2] 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading (see below) 
Ends: Salyn Cheyne Mongomery 8c [Brie 384 n. 17] 

Remarks: Leaves at the end of the 1333 narrative are missing, including any 
"5w" heading; if absent, then the text could have been based on the CV- 
1333 or CV-1377 f c. Stage 1. 

There are embellishments in the text, such as the changes from indirect 
to direct speech in the account of Edmund of Woodstock's trial, which 
heighten the dramatic quality of the normal CV-1333 narrative at various 
points: 

Tho answerid the goodman and seide, "forsoth ser vndirstondeth wele 
that I was neuer traytour to my king ne to the reme and that I do me 
on God and on all the world. And ferthermore by my kynges leve I 
shall it preve and defende as a man ought to do." Tho seide the 
Mortymere, "ser Edmonde, hit is so ferforth I knowe that it may nat 
wele be ageynseide. And in presence of all that here bene it shall well 
be iprovid." Nowe had this false Mortymere the same lettre that ser 
Edmond had take to ser lohn Deuerell in the castell of Corff forto 
take vnto kyng Edward his brothir that ser Edmond wist not of ne 
supposid no thing that ser lohn Daverell had be so false to deliuere 
his lettre in suche a wise to the Mortymere and {)oght no manere 
thing of J)at lettre [fol. 132v; and J^oght . . . lettre catchwords; following 
leaves lost] [c£ Brie 266/21-30] 



^ See Mooney, Handlist, p. 29. The Brut is preceded by the prose Three Kings of Cologne 



THE COMMON VERSION 127 



(fols. 1-38). The ascription "Johan Hillcs boke" appears on fol. 1. 



65. University of Leicester MS. 47^ 

Heading: Here may a man here how England was first called Albyon and 

thorow whome it had his name. 
Begins: In the noble londe of Sunye ther was a worthi kynge and a myghty 

man of grete renoune that men called Diodocian 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Cbangeover, 1333 to 1377: withouten eny chalenge of eny man. Deo gracias. 

And after this graciouse victory the kynge turned hym agayne into the 

seide sege of Berwik 
Fol. 106v ends: And ser Henry duke of Lancastre vndir pese &, treuse went 

to the [Brie 310/10-11] 
Ends imperfectly on fragmentary fol. 105v (bound in before fol. 106): ix* 

[ . . . Jminster [ . . . ] {)at [ . . . ]le [ . . . ]cle [Brie 340/30-341/3] 

Remarks: Many leaves are lost between fol. 106, which breaks off during 35 
Edward III, and the scrap that now forms fol. 105, which ends during 9 
Richard II. 

The early (possibly fifteenth-century) ownership signatures of William 
and Edmund Chadertun (Chaderton) appear on fols. 54v and 77. 



* See Kcr, MMBL UI, p. 99.- 



66. University of Sydney, MS. Nicholson 13^ 

Heading. Here may a man here howe Englond was ffyrst callyd Albyoun 

and afterward whanne hit that name hadde. 
Begins: In the nobjdle londe of Surre there was a nobyll kyng a stronge man 

and a myghty of body and of grete name that men called Dioclesioun 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoute eny chalenge of eny man. Deo gracias. 

And so aftur this gracious victorye the kynge turned hym ayen to the 

same sege of Berwik 
Ends imperfectly: And the baroun of Carewe with his retenewe was loigged 

on the watre syde and [Brie 388/9-10] 

Remarks: The text to 1333 is changed verbally from that of the CV-1333, 



128 THE COMMON VERSION 

and in the thirty-three kings passage, after one instance of the "after him" 
phrase, the text simply lists the king's name and gives the length of his 
reign. 

The "5w" heading does not occur but a space sufficient for a chapter 
heading is left. 

The text is clearly a copy, as errors show, and although it was written by 
two scribes, there is no significance to the point of changeover. 



1 See Margaret H. Engel, "An Edition of MS. Nicholson 13: f. 161r-f lyTv," M.A. 
thesis, University of Sydney, 1981, for a description of the manuscript and an edition of 
the text from 1377 to its end; I am grateful to Ms. Engel for a copy of her thesis. See 
also Keith V. Sinclair, Descriptive Catalogue of Medieval and Renaissance Western Manu- 
scripts in Australia (Sydney, 1969), pp. 193-95. 



67. Huntington MS. HM 113^ 

Begins imperfectly: J^at {)ey wold al make amendis [Brie 3/10-11] 
Contains: Cad, C^L 
Omits: "5w" heading 

Ends imperfectly: 8c wan him there grete worship 8c gre of |)e feld. [And in 
J)e next catchwords] [Brie 369/17-18] 

Remarks: The unusual combination of features is similar to that in NLS 
6128 of the CV-1377 f c. Stage 3, Huntington HM 136 (which includes 
"The Description of Edward III"), and the texts of the CV-1419(men): 
A(b), but since no substitute "5w" heading appears in Huntington HM 113, 
it cannot be directly related to these texts. 



^ See Dutschke, Guide, 1: 149-50; Hanna, Handlist, p. 10. 

The Common Version to 1419, 
with "Leyle" for Lear (CV-1419 [Leyle]) 

Verbal differences from the main tradition of CV texts are the major distin- 
guishing feature of the group. They are most marked in the early chapters 
of the 1333 text and consist mainly of the substitution of one word by a sy- 



THE COMMON VERSION 129 

nonymous word or phrase. Alterations (generally simplifications) of the 
grammatical structure of some sentences also occur. A further distinguishing 
feature is that King Lear is called "Leyle." The group consists of MSS. 
Glasgow Hunterian 74(1), Bodl. Rawlinson B.196, Lambeth 259, and BL 
Harley 4930. 



68. University of Glasgov^, MS. Hunterian 74(1)^ 

Heading: Here may a man here how Engelond was first called Albyon and 

afterwarde whan it hadde first \>e. name. 
First scribe begins: In the noble londe of Sirrye 
Omits: Cad, "5w" heading 
Contains: QIL 
Third scribe ends onfol. lUir. & manfully counterd with owre Englishe men. 

Remarks: The first three scribes are contemporary and prepared the original 
text. Their dialects are, respectively, those of Northwest Essex, Central 
South Essex, and Southeast Suffolk (Ipswich area).-^ 

The arms incorporated into the decoration of the first page — a shield (ar- 
gent), a chevron (sable), and an annulet (sable) in chief, dexter canton — 
show that the manuscript belonged to a member of the Wauton family of 
Great Staughton, Huntingdonshire, which also had Bedfordshire connec- 
tions.'' 



^ For (2), see item 87. The full text is edited in vols. 2 and 3 of Lister M. Matheson, 
The Prose Brut A Parallel Edition of Glasgow Hunterian MSS. T.3.12 and V.5.13, 
with Introduction and Notes," 3 vols., Ph.D. diss.. University of Glasgow, 1977. 
2 See Matheson, "The Prose Brut" 1: 227-40; cf. LALME, 1: 88, 3: 131-32. 
^ See Matheson, The Prose Brut," 1: 323-29. 



69. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.196 

Heading. Here may a man here how Engelonde was first called Albyoun and 

affterward whanne hit had first name. 
Begins: In the noble londe of Surrie 
Omits: Cad, "Sw" heading (see below) 
Contains: QIL 
Ends onfol. 109v: yn rewle & in gouernaunce. 



130 THE COMMON VERSION 

Remarks: The leaf is missing that contained the Halidon Hill narrative, in- 
cluding the array of the Scottish army. 



70. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 259^ 

Heading: Here may a man here how Engelond was first called Albyon and 
aftirward whanne hit hadde fyrst name. Incipit prologus. 

Begins illegibly onfol. 1. 

Omits: Cad, "5w" heading 

Contains: QIL 

Ends imperfectly: And so whan all J)inge was redy {)e kynge hastyd hym to |)e 
sege ward Sec. [Brie 306/28-29] 

Remarks: The text is probably as complete in its current state as when ori- 
ginally written, ending as it does at the end of the chapter on the battle of 
Wynchilsea part-way down the last leaf 

The Brut text is preceded by a calendar of Sarum use and a table of eclip- 
ses from 1384 to 1462. Front and end flyleaves contain copies of documents 
and many scribbles, including shields with a merchant's mark.^ An early 
owner was William Bentelee (Bentele, Bentylee), whose rhymed curse on 
thieves appears several times. 



^ See James, Descriptive Catalogue . . . Lambeth Palace, pp. 404-406. 
^ For details of these documents (one of which is addressed to the prior of Newnham in 
Bedfordshire) and names, see James's Catalogue; the name of "William Mondeffeld de 
Charre" should be added. 



71. BL MS. Harley 4930 

Heading. Here may a man here howe that England was ffirst named Albyon 
and thenne afterward whenne that it hadde first name. Hie incipit pro- 
logus vt patet in sequentis. 

Begins: In the noble lond of Surrey 

Omits: Cad, "5w" heading 

Contains: QIL 

Ends imperfectly: Vpon which spech 8c conauntes it was sent to the court of 
Rome on boJ)e sydes [Brie 304/31-32] 

Remarks on the CV-1419 (Leyle) 

Glasgow Hunterian 74 probably preserves the original ending of the group, 



THE COMMON VERSION 131 

which appears to have developed from some form of the CV-1419(men):B, 
although from a better text than that found in the extant manuscripts of that 
group, one that did not possess the "5w" heading. The extra lines to the 
1419(r&g) ending in Bodl. Rawlinson B.196 are possibly a secondary addi- 
tion made by the scribe in that manuscript itself or were present in a pre- 
vious exemplar. The incomplete BL Harley 4930 and Lambeth 259 could 
have ended originally at either point, although it is possible that the Lam- 
beth manuscript was not written beyond its present ending. 



The Common Version to 1419, 

ending in "men" or (?) "in rule and governance" 

(CV-1419[men/?r&g]) 

The text to 1419 found in Chicago MS. 254 is best considered separately. 
Although written in the same hand as the succeeding continuation to 1445, 
which contains part of John Page's poem on the siege of Rouen, the con- 
tinuation beyond 1419 is found appended to texts of very different groups.^ 



1 See pp. 150-56. 



72. University of Chicago MS. 254(1)^ 

Heading: In nomine Ihesu. Here may a man heren how Englonde was ffirste 

callyd Albyon and thurghe whom hit hadde J)e name. 
Begins: In J)e nobyl lande off Syrrye 
Omits: Cad 

Contains: QIL, "5w" heading 
Text to 1419 (men) ends onfol. 124: and manfully countiyd with oure Eng- 

lyssch men. 

Remarks: The text has none of the distinguishing verbal features of the CV- 
1419 (Leyle); it may well derive from a CV-1419(men):B text to which the 
few lines to the 1419(r&g) conclusion ("in rewle and in gouernaunce") have 
been added as part of the succeeding continuation, which was copied from 
a new exemplar of the type of TCC 0.9.1.^ A large "X," of indeterminate 
age, however, has been inserted in the text after the word "men" and also 
appears in the margin. 

The manuscript was owned by John Nuton, who became prior of Batde 



132 THE COMMON VERSION 

Abbey in 1463, as a note on a front flyleaf attests. A marginal note by the 
scribe (who makes many notae throughout) on fol. 49 suggests that the 
manuscript may well have been written at Battle Abbey: 

They J)at desyre to here all J)e lyfe of kyng William Conquerour lete 
{)em turne ayen to {)e begynnyng of J)ys boke 6c J)er he may se both 
J)e lyfe of hym 8c of hys auncetyrys. 

The manuscript is still bound in its original wooden boards and sheepskin. 
Unless this is an imprecise reference to the preceding Brut account of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, there may have been some abandoned intention to in- 
clude a work on the founder of Battle Abbey. 



^ For (2), see item 84. 
^ See items 117 and 83. 



Continuation to a CV-1377 f.c. Stage 3 text 
from a Common Version text ending in 1419(r&g) 

Princeton Taylor MS. 3 contains a continuation from a CV-1419(r&g) text 
that has been appended by a second scribe to a text of the CV-1377 f.c. 
Stage 3. As noted above (p. 50, and cf item 14), such a procedure underlies 
the original accretion of continuations to the basic CV-1333 text — a con- 
tinuation would be appended to an originally complete text and the whole 
would subsequently be recopied. Those manuscripts that contain composite 
texts ending in 1419(r&g) that were (or may have been) deliberately planned 
as unified combinations have been classified above as the CV-1419(r&g):B 
(with three subgroups), and the following item should be considered in that 
general context. However, since Princeton Taylor 3 was written by two 
scribes and shows no evidence of a unified program of copying, it has been 
treated as two separable items. 



73. Princeton University Library, Taylor Medieval MS. 3(2)^ 

Second scribe begins with heading on fol. 118v: And after kyng Edward the 

thrid that was borne at Wyndesore regned Richard of Burdeaux. 
Second scribe ends on fol. 13 Iv. in rule and governawnce. 



THE COMMON VERSION 133 



^ For (1), see item 20. 



The Common Version beyond 1419, including 
John Page's poem "The Siege of Rouen" (CV-JP)^ 

Those manuscripts that carry the narrative beyond 1419 and also contain a 
substantial extract from John Page's poem "The Siege of Rouen" can be sub- 
divided into three groups (the CV-1430 JP:A, the CV-1430 JP:B, and the 
JP:C), partly according to quite different textual antecedents up to the con- 
tinuation containing the poem and partly according to the continuation it- 
self. Groups A and B, to which most of the manuscripts belong, end in 
1430 and contain Page's poem from line 637 of the full text. Group C con- 
sists of a continuation containing the poem from line 1157 appended to 
Brut texts of differing groups. 

The CV-1430 JP:A contains the Cadwallader episode, Queen Isabella's 
letter, and a substitute heading for the "Sw" heading, suggesting that it is 
probably based on the CV-1419(men):A. It also shows signs of some verbal 
expansion, for example, in chapter headings and in the addition of sub- 
headings to the prophecies of Merlin. From the beginning of the reign of 
Henry^ V, the compiler began more and more to revise the text of his exem- 
plar, adding details from what was apparently a London chronicle source. In 
some earlier form this chronicle had also been used by the compilers of the 
standard continuation to 1419(men) and the extra few lines to the (r&g) 
ending. This source contained at least part of John Page's poem on the siege 
of Rouen, which is reproduced in its verse form in the CV-1430 JP:A. 

Distinctive features of the CV-1430 JP:B include its heading and the first 
words ("Some time") of the text, both of which are reminiscent of the Ex- 
tended Version of the Brut. The first part of the narrative contains the Cad- 
wallader episode and "The Description of Edward III" but omits Queen Isa- 
bella's letter and the "Sw" heading. It is probably based on a CV-1377 s.c. 
text similar to that found in Lambeth MS. 491 into which the Cadwallader 
episode has been interpolated. To this has been added most of a standard 
continuation to 1419, which then switches in the second chapter of Henry 
Vs reign to the continuation found in the CV-1430 JP:A. 

The JP:C stands apart from the two previous groups. Although the three 
manuscripts in which it occurs are all written in single hands throughout, 



134 THE COMMON VERSION 

the narratives up to the continuation belong to very different groups and 
have been treated as separate items. The JP:C continuation begins with a 
shorter extract from Page's poem than that found in the A and B groups, 
followed by material in London chronicle format to either 1434 or 1445. 

Although these texts containing Page's poem are not part of the main tra- 
dition of the Common Version, they are interesting as examples of complex 
aspects of Brut production (similar to what occurs even more often in the 
Peculiar Versions) and as illustrations of the close interrelationship between 
the Brut and the chronicles of London. 



^ See Rossell Hope Robbins, "Poems Dealing with Contemporary Conditions," A Manual 
of the Writings in Middle English 1050-1500, ed. Albert E. Hartung, vol. 5 (Hamden, 
1975) pp. 1427-28, 1665-66. Page's poem is edited in John J. Conybeare, "On a Poem, 
Entitled the 'Siege of Rouen," Archaeologia 21 (1827): 48-78; Frederic Madden, "Old 
English Poem on the Siege of Rouen," Archaeologia 22 (1829): 361-84; James Gairdner, 
ed., Historical Collections of a Citizen of London in the Fifteenth Century, Camden Society 
n.s. 17 (1876), pp. 1-46; John W. Hales and Frederick J. Furnivall, eds.. Bishop Percy's 
Folio Manuscript. Ballads and Romances, 3 vols. (London, 1867-1868), 3: 533-41; Herbert 
Huscher, td.,John Page's 'Siege of Rouen', Kolner Anglistische Arbeiten 1 (Leipzig, 1927); 
and (as part of the Brut) in Brie 404-22. The author's name is not given in any of the 
Brut texts but is found in BL Egerton 1995, w^hich has the fiill text of the poem (see p. 
144 below). 



The Common Version to 1430, including John Page's poem 
"The Siege of Rouen": Group A (CV-1430 JP:A) 
This group contains MSS. BL Cotton Galba E.viii, BL Harley 2256, 
Holkham 670, and CUL Ee.4.31 (though the poem is missing in the last). 
The second part of the composite text found in BL MS. Harley 266 can 
also be included here. 



74. BL MS. Cotton Galea E.viii^ 

Heading on fol. 29: Here may a man here and knowe how Englonde was 
furst callud Albion and whom thorough [^marked for reversal] hyt hadde 
hys furst name as ye shuU fynde yn thys boke wyth many othyr thynges. 

Begins: In the nobull londe of Surre 

Contains: Cad, QIL, John Page's poem 

Omits: "5w'' heading (see below) 



THE COMMON VERSION 135 

Page's poem (set out as verse) begins: and ofte we depid and longe there stode 
and so we come doune to the duke of Exeture and there we gate non 
ansuere. 

And at Warwike that erle so fre 
We callid ofte it wold not be. 
Page's poem ends: 

And alle that haue herd this redynge 
To his blisse Criste you brynge 
That for vs deied vpon a tree 
Amen sey we alle pur charite. 
And in this yere was quene lohna that was l^mge Henryis the iiij* arestid 
be lohn duke of Bedfford 
Text ends: and yet God sent hem good hele and welfare and scomfiture of 
all her enemyes blessid be God. 

Remarks: A substitute heading appears for the "Sw" heading: "How ^Tige 
Edward reskewyd the toune of Berewyke and how the kynge of Scotlond 
did hys homage to the kyngt of Engelond." 

The carefully written manuscript also contains Lydgate's "Kings of Eng- 
land sithen William Conqueror" (fol. Ir-vY and, in the same hand as the 
Brut, the Latin Tbree Kings of Cologne (fols. 3-28v). 

The name "Rycharde Rendale" (late fifteenth or early sixteenth century) 
occurs on an end flyleaf. 



* Extracts from the first chapter and the whole second chapter that deal with the reign of 
Henry V are printed in Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 299-309; the third 
chapter, including the poem, and the succeeding chapters to the end of the text are 
printed in Brie 394-439. 
^ See Mooney, "Lydgate's 'Kings of England'," pp. 256-63, 277. 



75. BL MS. Harley 2256 

Heading. Here may a man here and knowe how England was flirste callud 

Albyon and thorugh whom hit hadde his firste name as 3e schull fynde in 

this boke with many othir thyngis. 
Begins: In the nobul lond of Surre 
Contains: Cad, QIL, John Page's poem 
Omits: "5w'* heading (see below) 
Page's poem (set out as verse) begins: and ofte we clepud and long J)ere stode 



136 THE COMMON VERSION 

and so we come doun to ^e duke of Exeter & Jjere we gate noon answere. 

And at Warwik J)at erle so fre 

We callid ofte it wold not be. 
Page's poem ends: 

6c all |)at haue hirde J)is redynge 

To his blisse Criste 30U brynge 

f>at for vs deide vpon a tre 

Amen sey we alle pur charite. 
And in this 3ere was quene lohna J)at was kyng Henreis wiff {)e iiij' 
arestid by lohn duke of Bedfford 
Text ends: and 3it God sente hym good hele & welfare 8c scomfiture of all 
her enemyes blessid be God. 

Remarks: The substitute "5w" heading found in the previous text occurs: 
"How kyng Edward reskewid J)e toun of Berwik &, how {)e kyng of Scot- 
lond dide his homage to J)e kyng of Englond." 

The name "Rouland Lathum" (fifteenth century?) appears on a front fly- 
leaf. A deleted memo on a back flyleaf, retrospective in nature, reads: "Be 
hit knowen to all Crystyn men J)at y Rychard Deuenysshe become d[ . . . ] 
ser(?) [ . . . ] the y[ . . . ] the viij day of Nouembre Jje yere of l^^ng Herry yj*' 
J)e fyrst yere." 



76. HoLKHAM Hall MS. 670 

Table of contents begins imperfectly: How after the deth of Cassibelan Andro- 
gen the erle of Cornewaill reigned. Capitulum xxxviij'". 

Table of contents ends imperfectly: Capitulum C boocvj'". How J)e gode l^'^ng 
Edward hilde his parlement and how J)erto cam diuers lordes of Scotlond 
and how J)ey were accorded and swore to l^^ng Edward. 

Text begins impefectly: And whan this myschefe was bifall the peple of the 
lond tho made grete sorowe [cf Brie 6/13-14] 

Contains: Cad, QIL, John Page's poem 

Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 

Page's poem (written in prose lines) begins: And at Warwyk Jje erle so fre we 
called ofte it wolde nat be 

Text ends imperfectly during Page's poem: For a worde wronge out of warde 
myght make you to fare full harde. Therfore of wordes loke ye be wise 
and sey no thing [without gode avise catchwords^ [Brie 408/18-19] 

Remarks: Folios are missing that would have contained the end of the table 



THE COMMON VERSION 137 

of contents and the beginning of the text, the prophecies of Merlin, and the 
substitute "5w" heading. 



77. Cambridge University Library MS. Ee.4.31 

Begins on fol. 203: How after kyng Henre regnyd hys sone Edward the 

worthiest knyght of alle the worlde and of kyng Alisaundyr of Scotlond. 

[Brie 179/1-2] 
Contains: QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see below), John Page's poem (but see below) 
Text ends imperfectly: Mouns in Henaude J)e whiche was sworn to hym to 

ben gode 6c trewe 6c to kepe {je lady in sauffe wafis [read ward] tille he 

come [a3en catchnvord] [Brie 432/4-6] 

Remarks: The Brut text from Edward I is used as a continuation of the 
longer version of Robert of Gloucester's Metrical Chronicle (fols. 53-200v), 
which probably was the original item in the manuscript.^ (The Cadwallader 
episode is accordingly absent.) 

The leaves are missing that would have contained the text of John Page's 
poem. The remaining text, however, agrees with that of the preceding 
manuscripts. It contains, for example, the substitute "Sw" heading: "How 
kyng Edward reskewyd the toun of Berwyk 6c how the ^Tig of Scotlond 
dide hys homage to Jje kyng of Englond." 



^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2617-21, 2798. The original beginning of the manuscript 
was probably fol. 51. "Hughe Cooke" (sixteenth century) is noted as its owner on fol. 52. 
The manuscript now also contains a fragmentary Wise Book of Philosophy and Astronomy 
(fols. l-6v, see Peter Brown, "The Seven Planets," in Popular and Practical Science of 
Medieval England, ed. Matheson, p. 9 and n. 16), Benedict Burgh's Parvus Cato (fols. 7- 
24), and the Chronicle of Popes and Emperors (fols. 25-50; see Dan Embree, ed.. The 
Chronicles of Rome [forthcoming]). 



78. BL MS. Harley 266(2)^ 

Continuation begins on fol 93: And after kynge Edeward the iij^ that was 

borne att Wyndesore regned Richarde of Burdeux [Brie 335/5-6] 
Contains: John Page's poem 
Pages poem (written in prose lines with, sporadically y colons to indicate verse 



138 THE COMMON VERSION 

endings) begins: 8c oft we clepyd 8c long there there [sic] stode and so we 
cam dovne to J)e duke off Excestre 8c thare we gate non answere. And at 
Warwyk that erlle so ffre we callyd ofte hit wold not be 

Page's poem ends: And J)is cytee ffaste encresyd off brede 8c wyne ffysch 8c 
fflesch 8c thus ovre kyng made an ende off hys sege. And in thys 3ere was 
quene lane |?at was l^nig Henre wyfe J)e fferthe arestyd by lohn duke off 
Bedeford 

Text ends: and yet God sent hym gode hele 8c welfare and scomfyture of all 
here enemyes blessyd be God. 

Remarks: Although the same scribe continues, a change of exemplar to a 
CV-1430 JP:A text takes place at fol. 93. A second scribe then takes over 
on fol. 128 in the course of the first chapter on the reign of Henry V (with 
the words "And anon the captayne come fforthe in the kyngges presens" 
[Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 304-305]). 

Page's poem breaks off sooner than in other texts of the CV-1430 JP:A, 
the deficiency being supplied by a prose paraphrase. Nevertheless, and de- 
spite the late fifteenth-century date of the manuscript, there is evidence to 
suggest that the basis of the text to 1430 was a textually early version of the 
CV-1430 JP:A, for a number of its readings are superior to those preserved 
in the other extant texts of group A.^ Some additional material found in the 
other texts of the group is absent, such as the account of the duke of Bed- 
ford's naval victory off Harfleur at the end of the first chapter on Henry V 
and the accounts of the earl of Huntingdon's naval victory and the conclu- 
sion of the Council of Constance in the second chapter on Henry V. 



^ For (1), see item 22. 

^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 302; Huscher, ed., Siege of Rouen, pp. 34- 

35, 37. 



Remarks on the CV-1430 JP.A 

The texts of the group show stylistic differences from the earliest CV word- 
ing, mainly in the addition of superfluous words and phrases. The wording 
of chapter headings is more discursive and additional headings have been in- 
serted, for example, for the individual sections of the prophecies of Merlin 
to Arthur (in those manuscripts that possess this section of narrative). 
There is no precise onset of the 1430 JP continuation, which is preserved 



THE COMMON VERSION 139 

in its fullest form in the JP:A; rather there is a gradual changeover from the 
usual 1419 continuation to the present continuation in the chapters that be- 
gin the reign of Henry V. In the first chapter on the reign of Henry V the 
stylistic additions become more significant and some extra material details 
begin to be incorporated.^ The second chapter (printed by Kingsford) and 
the third chapter (printed by Brie, who does not notice any previous differ- 
ences^) give progressively more information and differ in wording to some 
extent from the 1419 continuation. 

It is likely that the 1419 continuation known to the compiler of the 
archetype of the 1430 continuation belonged to the CV-1419(men):A rather 
than the CV-1419(r6cg):A; the evidence of the substitute heading for the 
"Sw" heading supports this view on the grounds that the CV-1419(men):A 
would be more likely to possess a text that omitted this heading. In addi- 
tion, a number of readings in Glasgow Hunterian 74 agree with the CV- 
1430 JP: A, and, as argued earlier, this text was based on a continuation end- 
ing "and manfully countered with our English men."-' Kingsford seems to 
have been familiar with only the CV-1419(r&g), and his argument cannot 
be accepted that there were versions of the Brut ending earlier than 1419. 
He assumes "one perhaps ending in November 1415 or in October 1416, 
and others more certainly in July 1417 and November 1417," to which the 
continuation to 1430 was added {English Historical Literature, p. 133). 

Unlike previous developments, where a new continuation is simply ap- 
pended to an existing text, the compiler of the archetype of the 1430 JP text 
has reworked his original and has grafted on his continuation, blending it 
into the existing text of his exemplar before finally forsaking his exemplar to 
strike out on his own. The verbal similarities between the 1419 continuation 
and the 1430 continuation make it clear that the same sources were used for 
both, although the compiler of the 1430 version probably had additional 
sources of information. 

The following passages, taken from Kingsford (1430 version). Brie (1419 
[r&g] version), and Glasgow Hunterian 74 (as a reflex of the 1419[men] 
text), illustrate the development of the 1430 continuation. 

In the first chapter on the reign of Henry V, the 1430 compiler follows 
a 1419 text, and the two versions are very similar. Although the "tennis-ball" 
story is related more briefly, as Kingsford remarks, the 1430 version has 
some fuller readings and some extra material details, as the following se- 
lected extracts show: 



140 



THE COMMON VERSION 



(1) |)is worthi Prynce 8c King 
toke his leve, 8c went hym to 
Caleys warde by londe. And pt 
Frensch men herde of his kom- 
yng [Brie 377/11-13] 



And the kynge the worthi prynce 
that God saue and kepe wold fro 
thens to Caleis so stronge thor- 
ough the londe and the Frensshe 
men herd of his comynge [Cot- 
ton Galba E.viii, fol. 133v; cf. 
Kingsford, English Historical Lit- 
erature, p. 299] 



Since the 1430 version was written after the death of Henry V, the phrase 
"that God saue and kepe" suggests that the 1430 compiler was using a 
source written while Henry was still living. 



(2) 8c Jjere |)ay welcomyd hym, 
and brou3t hym to London with 
moche honour and grete reuer- 
ence. And atte Seint Thomas wa- 
tryng J)ere mette with hym the 
King and alle his lorde3 yn gode 
aray. And J)ere was a worthi met- 
yng betwene J)e Emperour and |)e 
King; 8c [jere thay kussid to- 
gadre3, 8c braced ech othir. [Brie 
380/31-381/4] 



And there thei welcomyd hym 
with alle honoure and reu[er]ence 
and so the meyre and the aldre- 
men with the cominnalte brought 
hym to Seint Thomas Waterynge 
withoute Southewerke and there 
the kynge met with hym with alle 
his lordis in a good and riall araye 
and there was a worthi and a sol- 
empne metynge betwix the em- 
peroure and oure l^nige and there 
kyssid togederis and myche obey- 
saunce yche shewid to othir and 
thankynge. [Cotton Galba E.viii, 
fol. 134; cf Kingsford, English 
Historical Literature y pp. 299-300] 



There is little new material here, but the effect is more graphic and 
immediate, and the use of "oure kynge" in the 1430 version suggests that 
Kingsford's opinion is correct, "that we have here a record drawn up at the 
time,""* that is, a return to the common original source. This is borne out 
further by the insertion of two passages which are not found in the 1419 
continuation.^ 

In the second chapter the same processes are at work; the 1430 compiler 
has longer readings and is historically fuller in some respects. He is still 
using the Brut framework for chapter headings and for the general ordering 



THE COMMON VERSION 



141 



of his material: 



How kinge Henry the .v^. pur- 
posyd and ordeynyd him ouere 
the see in to Fraunce and Nor- 
mandie by the counceyle of all his 
lordis and comons of the reame 
of Englond. 

And in J)e ,iiij'. 3ere of kyng 
Henries regne \>e .v. he helde his 
parlement at Westmynster in pe 
begynnyng of J)e monthe of Octo- 
bur & lasted vnto pc purifica- 
cioun of oure lady J)an nexte 
folowynge 6c J)ere was graunted 
vnto pe king to mayntene his 
werres bothe of spiretualte & 
temparalte a hole taxte &c a dyme 
in sustenynge of hys werres & 
J)an anone \>e kyng prayed al hys 
lordis to make hem redy to 
strengthe hym in hys ry3th &c 
anone he lete make a newe rete- 
new &, charged all men to be 
redy at Hampton in Whitson- 
weke {)an nexte folowing with- 
outen any delay. [Glasgow Hun- 
terian 74, fols. llOv-111] 



How kynge Henry the v purposid 
and ordeynyd hym ouyr the see 
ayen into Fraunce and Norman- 
dye by counseill of hys lordis and 
cominnes off the Rewme. 

And in the iiij' yere of kyngt 
Henryis regne the v the l^ge 
haldynge his parlement at Weste- 
minster in the bygynnynge of the 
monythe of Octobre the whiche 
parle[ment] endid aboute the 
puryfication of oure lady thanne 
nexte by comen assent of alle the 
clergye and temperalte ther was 
grauntid to the kynge bothe 
dymes and tallagis to flilfille the 
kyngis purpos in holdynge and 
susteynynge of chalenge and right 
that he had to Normandye and 
Guyane his trewe titull and right 
heritage. Wherefore the kynge 
chargid dukis erlis baronys kny- 
ghtis and squyeris to make hem 
redy in the best and moste 
worthy aray that thei coude or 
myght with all the strengthe of 
men of armys and archeris to 
helpe and strengthe hym yn his 
werris for the right of Engelond 
and that thei alle be redy to 
moustur at Hampton in the Wit- 
sonwoke thanne nexte comynge 
in all her aray as they ought to 
werre. [Cotton Galba E.viii, fol. 
135; cf. Kingsford, English Histo- 
rical Literature, p. 302] 



142 



THE COMMON VERSION 



The chapter heading, not found in the early CV texts, suggests again that 
a 1419(men) continuation was used by the 1430 compiler. The continual use 
of the phrase "oure kynge" is noticeable in the 1430 version in this chapter. 
Many details and distinct additional passages are incorporated that can be 
paralleled in other works, such as the account of the earl of Huntingdon's 
naval battle in 1417 and the murder of John, duke of Burgundy, in some 
London chronicles,^ showing that the 1430 compiler is using the common 
source more and more. 

In the third chapter (printed in Brie), both the 1419 and 1430 versions 
are based on John Page's poem The Siege of Rouen, and the 1430 JP:A ver- 
sion includes the second half of the poem in verse from line 637. However, 
it is clear that the 1430 compiler used the poem as reference from the be- 
ginning of the chapter, as the following passage shows: 



How king Henre J)e ffythe leyde 
a sege vnto J)e cete of Rone. And 
how he gat J)e cetee with strenthe 
6c manhode. 



How kynge Henry the v leide 
sege to the cite of Rone and how 
he gate the cite with strengthe 
and manhode well and worthily. 



And in J)e vj^ 3 ere of kyng 
Henries regne J)e v^ he sente his 
vncle sere Thomas Beauford duke 
of Excestre with a fayre meyne of 
men of armys 8c archers tofore J)e 
cetee of Rone and J)ere displayed 
here baneres 8c sente herodes 
vnto J)e towne and bad hem 3eld 
{)at cetee vnto here king 8c here 
lege lord 8c J)ey sayde he toke 
hem non to kepe ne none he 
shoulde haue jjere but 3if hit were 
ry3t dere ibou3th 8c meved with 
here handis for o|)ere answere 
wolde J)ey none 3eve but out go 
gonnes 8c |)ere J)e duke toke good 
avysement of {)e grounde all a- 
bowte. [Glasgow Hunterian 74, 
fol. 112] 



And in the yj yere of kynge 
Henryis regne [MS. Regnyd] the 
V the kynge sent his vncle sir 
Thomas Beauford duke of Exetir 
with othir lordis and knyghtis 
men of armys and archeris to the 
cite of Rone and there displayid 
her baneris opynly byfore the cite 
of Rone and sent herodis to hem 
that were withynne the cite and 
bade hem yolde vp the cite in alle 
haste that was the kyngis righte 
or ellis thei shuld deie an harde 
and sharpe dethe and withoute 
eny mercy or grace and there he 
behild the g[r]ounde about the 
cite how thei myght best sette her 
sege to get that cite. And answere 
wold thei none yeue but meuyd 
with her hondis ouyr the waUis as 



THE COMMON VERSION 143 

who seyth "voydith the grounte 
and the place that ye ben on" and 
shotte tho many gunnys to hem. 
[Cotton Galba E.viii, fol. 137; cf. 
Brie 394/1-16] 

The extra details of the 1430 version are paralleled in the fiill text of 
Page's Siege of Rouen, showing that the 1430 compiler had resorted to it 
even before he decided to give the unparaphrased poem in verse:'' 

Howe the V. Harry our lege, 
With hys ryalte he sette a sege 
By for Rone, that ryche cytte. 
And endyd hyt at hys owne volunte. 
[Gairdner, ed.. Hist. Collections, p. 1; lines 
11-14] 

Whenne Pountlarge with sege was wonne. 
And ovyr Sayne then enter was be gunne, 
The Duke of Exceter that [lord so] hende. 
To Rone, yn sothe, oure l^nge hym sende. 
Herrowdys with hym unto that cytte. 
To loke yf that they yoldyn wolde be. 
And aUe soo for to se that grounde 
That was a boute the cytte rounde; 
Howe our ^oig myght lay {)er at a sege, 
If they wolde not obey to oure lege. 
When J)e Duke of Exceter with grete re- 

nowne 
Was come by fore the ryaUe towne, 
He splayyd his baners on a bent. 
And herrowdys unto |)e cytte were sent, 
To meke hem to oure l^gys merthe, 
Chargyd them uppon payne of dethe, 
Not withstondyng hym of hys ryght. 
But delyvyr the cytte to hys syght. 
For he dyd them to wytte with owtyn bade, 
He wolde not goo er he hyt hadde, 
But or he paste farre in space, 



144 THE COMMON VERSION 

Wynne hys ryght thoroughe Goddys grace. 
To that the cytte gaf non answere, 
But prayde oure herrowdys furthe to fare. 
They made a maner skorne with hyr honde 
That they there shulde not longer stonde. 
Gonnys they schott with grete envye, 
And many were smytte pyttyfully. 
[Gairdner, ed., Hist. Collections, pp. 2-3; lines 
25-52] 

The poem has been used by both the 1419 and 1430 versions, but the lat- 
ter gives a much fuller paraphrase that follows very closely until the poem 
itself is reproduced in verse. It is a more polished version than John Page's 
rough original in BL Egerton 1995; presumably Page lived long enough to 
fulfill the promise made at the end of the original poem (in lines skipped in 
the Brut version): 

With owten fabylle or fage 
Thys procesce made John Page 
Alle in raffe and not in ryme, 
By cause of space he hadde no tyme. 
But whenne thys werre ys at a nende 
And he have lyffe and space he wylle hit a mende. 
[Gairdner, ed.. Hist. Collections, pp. 45-46; 
lines 1305-10] 

The 1430 compiler brings the narrative finally to the year 1430, using 
material which was probably not available to the compiler of the 1419 con- 
tinuations. 

Why the 1419(men) compiler did not proceed further vidth his loose para- 
phrase of the poem is uncertain, unless he did not have the full text of the 
poem to work with. The unsatisfactory conclusion, ending in the middle of 
the siege, is rectified in the 1419(r&g) continuation by the addition of a few 
lines of prose to bring the siege to an end. Brie believed that these lines 
were not connected with the poem.^ The phraseology of the last lines, how- 
ever, can be paralleled in the poem, which must surely have been known to 
their writer. For example: 

(a) Both govnnys and quarellys &, moche pople slayne dyuers 

went so thrylle, tyme3 with Gune3, quarell, 8c 



THE COMMON VERSION 



145 



Trypget and spryggalde and grete 

ingyne, 
They wrought oure men fiille 

moche pyne. 

[Gairdner, ed., Hist. Collections, 

p. 16; lines 408-10] 



o{)er ordynaunce3. [Brie 390/29- 
30] 



(b) They etete doggys, they ete 

cattys; 
They ete mysse, horse and rattys. 

[Gairdner, ed., Hist. CollectionSy 

p. 18; Unes 471-72] 



for |)ay hade ete al her hors, 
doggis and catte3. [Brie 390/34- 
391/1] 



(c) And the chyldryn soI^Tig in 
ther pappe 

With yn a dede woman lappe. 
[Gairdner, ed.. Hist. Collections, 
p. 35; Unes 1003-1004] 



and also saue yonge childryn lye 
& sowke her modir pappis |)at 
weryn ded. [Brie 391/7-8] 



* See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 299-300. 

^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 87: "Er beginnt abzuweichen an dem Punkte, wo 
Heinrich V. seinen Onkel Thomas Beauford gegen Rouen schickt." 
' See pp. 104, 130-31. Thus the 1430 JP contains some of the more accurate details 
concerning Owen Glendower's rebellion. 

* Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 299; a fiirther, similar example is given by 
Kingsford on p. 300. 

' Quoted in Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 300. 

* See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 301. 

^ Quoted from Gairdner's edition of BL Egerton 1995 in Hist. Collectionr, the Une 
numbering is that of Huscher's critical edition. The dialect of BL Egerton 1995 is that 
of Surrey, see LALME, 1: 109, 3: 493. 
^ Geschichte und Quellen, p. 72. 



The Common Version to 1430, including John Page's poem 
'The Siege of Rouen": Group B (CV-1430 JP.B) 
The group contains MSS. BL Harley 753, Lambeth 331, and Illinois 
116(2). 



146 THE COMMON VERSION 

79. BL MS. Harley 753 

Heading;. Here begynneth the prologe of Brut. 

Begins: Svm tyme in J)e noble land of Surre ther was a noble l^Tig and a 
myghty and a man of grete power J)at clepid was Dioclisian 

Contains: Cad, Description of Edward III, John Page's poem 

Omits: QIL, "Sw" heading 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: without eny calenge of eny man. After which vic- 
tory |)e kyng turned ayene into Englond and ordeyned ser Robert Baillol 
with of)er wordes [sic\ to kepe Scotland. 

How kyng Edward went ayene into Scot[ . . . ] J)e batayle of Scluys and 
Seint Omers and of J^e tur[ . . ]ment of Dunstaple and of Seint Georgis 
feste at Wyndesore. Capitulo \repeated\ CC xxiiij^. 

The vij yere of l^^ng Edward in \>t wynter tyme he went into Scotlond 
End of text to 1377 and heading of "The Description of Edward III": |)e l^nig 
Edward after tyme J)at he had regned 1 wynter dyed at hys manere of 
Shene |)e xj kalend of luyn and is buryed at Westminster. 

Of f)e distruccioun of kyng Edward. Capitulo CC xxix°. 
Changeover, "The Description of Edward III" to 1419 continuation: and |)e 
more harme is conteyned longe tyme after. 

And after kyng Edward J)e {)irde |)at was borne at Wyndesore regned 
Richard of Burdeux J)at was prince Edwardes sone of Walys which prince 
Edward was sone of \>t l^^ng Edward. Capitulo CC xl°. 

Changeover, 1419 to 1430 continuations: And so J)e lord Powes meyne 
brought hym out of Walys to London in a whirlecole and so in J)e same 
whirlecole brought to Westminster halle byfore J)e kynges iustice. And 
J)ere he was examyned and arayned of |)o poyntes jjat were put vpon hym 
[cf Brie 386/19-22 and Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 308; 
see below] 

Page's poem (set out as prose, with occasional colons to indicate line breaks) 
begins: and ofte we cleped and longe J)ere stode and so we come downe to 
J)e duke of Excestre and {)ere we gate none answere. 
Atte Warwyk Jje erle so fre we cleped ofte it wold not be 

Page's poem ends: And all haue herd |)ise tydyng to blysse Crist yow brynge 
J)at for vs dyed on a tre. Amen seyde all for charitee. 
And J)is yere was quene lohanne |)at was kyng Henryes wyfe J)e iiij* 



THE COMMON VERSION 147 

arested by lohn duke of Bedford 
Ends imperfectly on rubbed last leaf, victorie and scomf[ . . Jure [Brie 439/27- 
28] 

Remarks: The text probably ended originally at the same point as the CV- 
1430 JP:A. 

The names of several sixteenth-century owners appear: "Thys ys Henry 
Brayne hys boke bey the leyff off Robartt Herdes and Ellen hys wyffes wryt- 
tyn the iiij day beffore he whas maryed" (fol. 165v; "Henry Brayne" also on 
fol. 125); "Rowland Shakerley" (13 EUzabeth [1571-72], fol. 127v; named 
also on fol. 134). 



80. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 331^ 

Heading: Her begynned J)e prologe of Brute. 

Begins: Sum tyme in the noble land of Sirrye J)er was a noble l^nig and a 

my3thy & a man of gret power J)at clepyd was Dyoclician 
Contains: Cad, Description of Edward III, John Page's poem 
Omits: QIL, "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: without eny chalange of eny man. After whych 

victory \>t l^Tig turned ayen into Englond & ordeyned ser Edward Bayllol 

with ojjer wordy lordes to kepe Scodond. 

How |)at JDe kyng Edward went ayene into Scodond & of f)e batayle of 
Cluys & Seynt Omers & of J)e turnament of Dunstable & of Seynt 
Georges fest at Wyndesore. Capitulo CC xxiiij. 

The vij yere of l9^g Edward in {)e wynter tyme he went into Scodond & 
reparayled J)e castell of Kylbrigge ayenst {)e Scottes 
End of text to 1377 and heading ofHThe Description of Edward UT: J)e kynge 
Edward after tyme J)at he had regned 1 wynter dyed at his maner of 
Shene J)e xl kalendes of luyn 8c is buryed at Westmynster. 

The distruxcyoun of l^ng Edward. Capitulo CC xxix°. 
Changeover, H'he Description of Edward IW to 1419 continuation: & {)e more 
harme is conteyned longe tyme after. 

And after kyng Edward [)e |)irde J)at was borne at Wyndesore regned 
Richard of Burdeux {)at was prince Edwardes sone of Wales. Capitulo 
CCxl. 



148 THE COMMON VERSION 

Changeover, 1419 to 1430 continuations: 8c so J)e lord Poweys meyne brought 

hym out of Wales to London in a whircole &. so in J)e same whircole 

brought to Westmynster halle byfore J)e kynges iustice 8c |)er he was 

examyned 8c arayned of |)o poyntes J)at were put vpon hym 
Page's poem (set out as prose, with stops and double virgules to indicate line 

breaks) begins: 8c so we come down to J)e duke of Excestre 8c J)ere we 

gate non aunswere. 

Atte Warwik J)e erle so fre we called oft it wold nat be 
Page's poem ends: 8c all have herd J)is tidynges to blisse Criste you bringes 

J)at for vs dide on a tree. Amen seid alle for charitee. 

And {)ys yere was queue lohanna J)at was kyng Henryes wiff J)e iiij* 

arested by lohn duk of Bedford 
Ends imperfectly onfol 117v: by ordinaunce 8c commaundement of f)e kyng 

8c of his counsell J)e bastard of Clarance 8c ser lohn Kyghle [Brie 437/9- 

11] 



^ See James, Descriptive Catalogue . . . Lambeth Palace, pp. 436-37. 



81. University of Illinois MS. 116(2)^ 

Third hand begins onfol 185: [capjtayne boJ)e of J)e citee and off J)e castel 

Contains: John Page's poem 

Page's poem (set out as prose, with occasional stops to indicate line breaks) begins: 

And ofte we clepyd and longe J)ere stode. And so we come downe to {)e 

duke of Excetre. And Jjere we gate none answere. 

Atte Warwyk the erle so ffre we callid ofte it wolde nat be 
Page's poem ends: And alle haue herde J)is tydynges to blysse Cryst you 

brynge jjat for vs deyde on a tre. Amen seyde alle ffor charyte. 

And thys yeer was queue lohanna that was l^^ng Henryes wyfe J)e iiijthe 

arestyd by lohn duke of Bedford 
Ends: and yit God sent hem bo^e hele and wellfare and scomfyture of alle 

here enmyes blessid be God. 

Remarks: The third hand^ in the manuscript begins fol. 185 in the middle of 
a word and completes the text from a new, CV-1430 JP:B exemplar, as tex- 
tual comparison with BL Harley 753 and Lambeth 331 shows. The change 
in exemplar occurs as follows: 

Mounser Guy Botteler was chieff cap[fol. 185; new hand and 



THE COMMON VERSION 149 

exemplar] tayne bo|)e o(\>t citee and ofFJ)e castel and Mounsere Ter- 
megan and he was captayne off pe porte Caux. Mounsere le Roche 
was captayne off Devisyn. Mounsere Antony he was levetenaunt to 
Mounsere le Guy de Boteler. Harry Chamfewe was capteyne of |)e 
port de Fount. lohn Matrivers was captayne off porte de la castell. 
Mounsere Peneux was po captayne off port de Seynt Hillarie. The 
bastard of Teyne was po capteyne off port Martevile. And Graunt 
lakes a worthy werriour was capteyne of alle pe ordenauncis outward 
on hors bale and on fote of men of armys pat isswid out of {)e citee at 
alle J)e portis to done peir ffetis in poyntis of werre ayenst here 
enemyes. [cf Brie 390/9-21, 398/11-24] 



^ For (1), see item 120. 

^ The change from the first to second hands occurs at a point of no textual significance. 

The leaves on which the third hand writes are more heavily lined than those before. 



Remarks on the CV-1430 JP:B 

As noted above, the group is composite, formed from several other groups. 
The heading and the first words ("Some time") of the two flill texts re- 
semble the Extended Version, but the other distinctive features of the EV 
are lacking.^ 

To 1377 the text is based on the CV-1377 s.c. of the type of Lambeth 
491, which also includes "The Description of Edward III," but which did 
not, apparently, include the Cadwallader episode.^ However, the text that 
the compiler used for the 1430 continuation would have certainly included 
this popular story, and the text that served for the 1419 continuation may 
also have included it. 

After the 1377 text and "The Description of Edward III," the narrative 
continues with a normal 1419 continuation to almost the end of the second 
chapter on the reign of Henry V, where, in the middle of the account of Sir 
John Oldcasde, the text changes to that of the 1430 JP:A: 

and so pt Lorde Powys meyne brou3t hym out of Walls to London 
yn a whirlecole; and so he was brou3t to Westmynstre [1419 continu- 
ation: Brie 386/19-21] 

and so he was take there and arestid by the lord Powis and his meyne 
and brought oute of Walls into Engelond and so to London in a 



150 THE COMMON VERSION 

whirlecole and so in the same whirlicole brought to Westeminstre 
hall to the parlement and byforn the l^^ngis iusticis [1430 JP:A 
continuation: Cotton Galba E.viii, fol. 137; cf. Kingsford, English 
Historical Literature, p. 308] 



1 See p. 173. 
^ See item 18. 



Manuscripts containing John Page's poem 
"The Siege of Rouen": Group C (JP:C) 
In MSS. CUL Hh.6.9(2), TCC 0.9.1(2), and Chicago 254(2) a continua- 
tion is found beyond 1419 that begins with a shorter extract from John 
Page's poem (corresponding to line 1157 in the full poem) and ends in 1434 
or 1445. Although in all three manuscripts the continuation is written in the 
same hand as the preceding texts, these preceding texts are of such different 
groups as to justify treating the continuation separately. 



82. Cambridge University Library MS. Hh.6.9(2)^ 

Page's poem (set out as verse) begins on fol. 158v: 

And more they shulde vndertake 

A castell for our kyng doo make [Brie 418/32-33] 
Page's poem ends on fol. 161: 

And all that harde of J)is talkyng 

To his blisse Criste theme brynge 

That for vs died vpon a tre 

Amen sey we all for charitee. 

Off the tretis made bytwne the kyng off Yngland and off Fraunce. 
Capitulo ij^ xlviij°. 

And in this same yere att \)t feste of Witsonday the l^Tig lay at Maunt 
with all his lordes 
Ends: which was grete hevynesse to all people. [Capitulo ij^ iiij'" xviij° del.\ 
Brie 467/18-19] 

Remarks: The continuation follows without break immediately after the 



THE COMMON VERSION 151 



1419(r6cg) conclusion of the first part of the text. 



* For (1), see item 145. An extract from 1420 to 1428 is printed in Brie 440-43. 



83. Trinity College, Cambridge MS. 0.9.l(2)^ 

Page's poem (set out as verse) begins onfol. 195 v. 
And more thei shall vndertake 
A castell for oure kyng to make [Brie 418/32-33] 
Page's poem ends: 

And all Jjat haue herd this tall^Tig 
To his blisse Crist theim bryng 
Pat for vs deied vpon a tree 
Amen say we alle for charite. 
And in the same yere at the fest of Whitsontide the kyng lay at Maunt 
with alle his lordes and there held a roiall fest at that tyme among all his 
peple 
Ends onfol. 225v (the names set out as in the London chronicles)'. Simon Eyre 
Maior. Johannes Derby Galfrid Feldyng vicecomites. Anno xxiiij'". 

Remarks: Although the original text is written in a single hand, a change of 
exemplar is indicated when the text to 1419 ends on fol. 195r, about one- 
third of which is left blank, and Page's poem begins the continuation on the 
verso of the leaf. The text, however, was conceived of as a whole, for the 
program of illumination continues. Thus the leaf on which the mayor and 
the sheriffs are recorded for the first year of Henry VI receives an illumin- 
ated border in the same manner as the beginnings of previous reigns were 
distinguished. 

At the conclusion of the original continuation, a later, fifteenth-century 
hand continues the text for one year from a London chronicle, on fol. 226v, 
beginning "Johannes Olney Maior. Robertus Home Galfiidus Boleyne vice- 
comites. Anno xxv^." and ending "And they rode thoroughe London in 
theire passage outeward with a roiall meyny." 

On fols. 230-231 occurs a copy of an indenture, dated 26 December, 17 
Edward IV (1478), between Walter Lokington and John Cokerych, wardens 
of the Fraternity of the Assumption of Our Lady in St. Margaret's Church 
in the close of St. Peter of Westminster, and James Fytt, citizen and tailor 
of London. 



152 THE COMMON VERSION 



^ For (1), see item 117. See Mooney, Handlist, pp. 136-38. The continuation from 1430- 
31 to the original end in 1445-46 is printed in Brie 456-90. 



84. University of Chicago MS. 254(2)^ 

Page's poem (set out as verse) begins onfol. 124\ 

And more J)ey schulde vndyrtake 

A castel for oure l^mge to make [Brie 418/32-33] 
Page's poem ends: 

And all {)at harde off f)is talkyng 

To blysse Cryste hem brynge 

That ffor vs dyyde oon a tre 

Amen say we all ffor charyte. 

Of a ffeste J)at J)e kyng made at Maunte at |)e whych ffeste he made ij 
erlys &. of embassatourys. 

And in J)is same yere at J)e ffeste off Whitsontyd the I^Tig lay at Maunte 
with all his lordys 
Ends imperfectly on torn fol. 149v\ vnto J)e feste off Saynt George [ . . . {torn 
off) And J)an J)e catchwords] [Brie 488/4-5] 

Remarks: The continuation follows without break immediately after the 
1419(r&g) conclusion of the first part of the text and may have ended at the 
same point as that found in the preceding manuscript. 



^ For (1), see item 72. The manuscript belonged to John Nuton, prior of Battle Abbey. 



Remarks on the JP:C 

The relationships among the texts of the three manuscripts of the JP:C, and 

between them and the 1419(men) and the 1430 continuations, are complex. 

The first part of each manuscript belongs to different textual groups that 
are not directly related. Textual comparisons show that none of the JP:C 
continuations were copied directly from any of the others and that each of 
the three texts has agreements with the other two members of the group. ^ 

TCC 0.9.1 preserves most closely the annalistic format of the London 



THE COMMON VERSION 153 

chronicle source. On the other hand, Chicago 254 (which probably ended 
at the same point as the preceding text) and CUL Hh.6.9 (which ends some 
eleven years earher) make some accommodation to the narrative structure of 
the Brut by introducing subheadings that approximate to chapter headings. 
This is particularly true of the text in the former manuscript, whereas the 
latter also inserts chapter numbers. Although it ends at an earlier point, 
CUL Hh.6.9 omits much material related to the French wars. Clearly, ear- 
lier texts must have existed from which the surviving texts of the JP:C were 
derived and then appended to texts of various groups. 

The original text of the JP:C continuation was close in form to the source 
material and preserved the annalistic structure of the London civic chroni- 
cles, which also provided the raw material for the 1419 and 1430 JP con- 
tinuations. Yet the surviving texts of the JP:C continue the narrative further 
(1434, 1445) than the more literary Brut continuations (1419, 1430), and it 
is reasonable to suppose that had this extra information been available to the 
compilers of the 1419 and 1430 continuations, they would have used it. Like 
the 1419 and the 1430 continuations, the JP:C texts, although based on 
common sources, were largely — though probably not entirely — independent 
adaptations of the source material. 

The common sources for the various groups are clearly to be sought in 
the London City Chronicles. Although a single original source does not 
seem to have survived, there are sufficient agreements and disagreements in 
the extant civic chronicles to show that there once existed chronicles that 
provided the raw material for the Brut continuations.^ The developing rela- 
tionship may have occurred as follows. 

The 1419(men) continuation was principally taken from a London civic 
chronicle-' and from John Page's poem (adapted into prose).'* To the primary 
civic chronicle source a continuation to 1430 was added,^ and the compiler 
of the CV-1430 JP:A continuation reverted to it for his material, which he 
converted into a form analogous to the customary Brut text. Thus he omit- 
ted the names of mayors and sheriflfs and presented his continuation in 
chapters, with headings taken from existing 1419 continuations as far as 
possible.^ 

A further addition to the primary source London civic chronicle, in one 
copy or another, appears to have brought it to 1434, and this stage is now 
represented by the text in CUL Hh.6.9. This continuation is less an adapta- 
tion to Brut form than a mere transcription of selected passages inserted 
primarily to bring the narrative up to date without any artistic or literary 
pretensions. There are some attempts to accommodate the form to that of 



154 



THE COMMON VERSION 



the Brut by introducing some chapter headings and numbers, but the civic 
provenance is betrayed by the names of the mayors and sheriffs and by the 
typical civic chronicle opening-phrase "And in this same yere," which opens 
a great number of notices of individual events/ 

The closeness, if not identity, of the chronicle sources of the 1430 con- 
tinuation and of the continuation in the JP:C (here quoted from CUL 
Hh.6.9) can be seen in the following extracts (quoted from Brie): 



(a) And also in the same yere, 
betwene Cristemesse and Candil- 
masse, the toune of Milon was 
yolden to the Kynge; and all the 
cheueteynys, with the soudiourys, 
were taken, and led to the Cite of 
Paris in the croke of the mone, 
they myght sey; for of hem ther 
scapid thens but a fewe on lyue. 
[1430 JP:A cont.: Brie 427/24- 
28] 



And in this same yere, And in {)e 
yere of grace a M^ IIII'^ XX", by- 
twene Cristemesse and Candil- 
masse, the Towne of Milloyne 
was yolden vp to the Kynge; And 
all {)e Chiftains, with J)e Soul- 
deours, were take and ledde to {)e 
Cite of Parys, "in J)e Croke of |)e 
mone," J)ei may say for theme; 
ffor {)er escapede fro thens of 
{)eme but a fewe on lyue, for J)ei 
of Paris did theme to dethe. 
[CUL Hh.6.9: Brie 440/10-15] 



(b) 



How that there ffiU grete habun- 
daunce off Rayn; And how dyuers 
sowdiourz went ouer the see. 



And also in this same yere fro the 
begynnynge of the monythe of 
Appryell into the feste of All- 
Haloue, was so grete haboun- 
dance of Reyne, where-thorough 
not only heigh was distroyid, but 
also all maner of cornys, for it 
reynyd almoste euyry othir day, 
more or lesse, durynge the tyme 
aforeseid. [1430 JP:A cont.: Brie 
435/6-10] 



And in this same yere, 8c in J)e 
yere of grace M' III? XXVII, 
from ^e begynnyng of J)e moneth 
of Aprile vnto the feste of All 
Halowen, was so abundaunce of 
Rayn that, not only hay was di- 
stroied, but Also all maner of 
Cornes; for it Raynede all-moste 
euery day, more or lesse, duryng 
this terme a-for-said. [CUL Hh. 
6.9: Brie 442/8-14] 



Since he believed that the common source of CUL Hh.6.9 and of TCC 



THE COMMON VERSION 155 

0.9.1 was a London chronicle ending in 1445, Brie was unable to explain 
why the latter text should end eleven years later than the former.^ Various 
explanations are possible. 

It is, for example, possible that all three extant texts of the JP:C were 
copied from a text ending in 1445, through at least one intermediate stage 
(to account for agreements that each text has with each of the other mem- 
bers of the group), but that CUL Hh.6.9 was not completed. 

Assuming, however, that this manuscript is in fact complete, then a plaus- 
ible genesis may be that it was copied from an earlier stage of the text that 
ended in 1434 but which later received a continuation to 1445. Again, at 
least one intermediate text must have intervened between the original com- 
pilation and the existing witnesses, as textual agreements show, exempUfied 
in the following notice for 1432-33 from the three texts: 

Off a gen[er]all counsell hold by3ond the see ffor to destroie eretikes 
&. lollardes. Capitulo ij*^ iiij" xiij°. 

And in J)is same yer anone aftir Cristemesse \>e grete convocation &. 
consaill of all J)e landes of Cristeiance of all \>e spiritualte 8c tem- 
porallte and of all seculer lordes and clerkis J)at is to say bisshoppis 8c 
other was holden 8c begonne in ^e citie of Basile in Ducheland for to 
make peace 8c vnite betwix all Cristen peple 8c for to destroie 
heretikes 8c heresie pat now reigneth amonge the peple. [CUL 
Hh.6.9: cf Brie 466 n. 2] 

Of a grete conuocacion holde at Basyle yn Duchelande of alle 
Crystyn landys. 

And in J)is same yere anone after Crystemas pt gret conuocacion and 
counceyle off all \>e lande off Crystyanyte and also of oJ)er seculer 
lordes and clerkes pat is to say bysschops and othre was holdyn and 
bygunne in J)e cyte off Basyle in Duchelande ffor to make vnyte and 
pees amonge all Crystyn pepyl and for to distroye heretykes and 
heresy pat now regnyth amonge pe pepyl. [Chicago 254, fol. 138v] 

And in this same yere, anon after Cristmasse, the grete conuocacion 
and consayle of all the landes in Cristendom, and also of all oJ)er 
seculer lordes, and Clerkes, — J)at is to say, Bisshoppis and other 
[other which MS.] consayle began in the Cite of Basyle in Duche- 
lande, for to make vnite and peas emong all Cristen peple, and for to 



156 THE COMMON VERSION 

destroye heretikes and erresye J)at then reigned emong the peple. 
[TCC 0.9.1: Brie 466/3-8] 

Individual readings show the closeness of the three texts but also illustrate 
that none seem to be derived directly from any other. 

Two points in the passage last quoted deserve separate comment. First, 
the headings in CUL Hh.6.9 and Chicago 254 indicate a primitive attempt 
at assimilation to the normal Brut format. Second, the use of "now" in CUL 
Hh.6.9 suggests that the original JP:C text may have been written around 
that date, that is, in 1434-35 (the reading being simply retained in a text 
continued to 1445 and thus occurring in Chicago 254), whereas the use of 
"then" in TCC 0.9.1 is consonant with a suggested date of writing some 
eleven years later, that is, in 1445-46. 



^ Huscher, who did not have access to Chicago 254 (olim Quaritsch), concludes that 
neither CUL Hh.6.9 nor TCC 0.9.1 is a copy of the other {Siege of Rouen, p. 36). 
^ The relationship among the extant texts of the London chronicles is highly complex, 
more so than Kingsford concluded {English Historical Literature, pp. 75-107); see Mc- 
Laren, "Textual Transmission," pp. 38-72 (for the texts of the present Brut group, see pp. 
41, 70-71 n. 25). Thomas and Thornley, eds., Great Chronicle, pp. xviii ff , see each text 
as more or less an independent production, drawing selectively upon common sources and 
upon one another. Many such texts have clearly been lost. 

^ Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 76 and 292, argues that some texts ended at 
1417 and 1419. 

■* It is possible that John Page's poem, in its revised form, was included in some lost Lon- 
don City Chronicle source, since three Brut continuations that used that common source 
include the poem in some form, whether in prose adaptation or in verse. However, 
Kingsford points out the paucity of poems in the extant texts of London chronicles 
{Chrons. London, pp. xxv-xxvi). The inclusion of Page's poem in the CV-1430 JP:A may 
have influenced the compilers of the JP:C. 

^ There is some evidence that one version of a London chronicle ended in 1430; sec 
Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 77, 80, 82-86. 
6 See pp. 138-42. 

^ The phrase is found, though more sparingly, in the more literary continuations based on 
London chronicles. 

8 Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 90-91 (read "1445" for "1345" on p. 90). Brie had not 
seen the Chicago text. The extant London chronicle text to which the Brut continuations 
are most closely related is found in BL Harley 540, transcribed by John Stow, which be- 
gins imperfectly in 1421 and ends in 1447; see McLaren, "Textual Transmission," p. 66, 
and the short extract in Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 295-96. 



THE COMMON VERSION 157 

The Common Version to 1461 (CV-1461) 

The final group of texts in the Common Version contains the Cadwallader 
episode, Queen Isabella's letter, "The Description of Edward III," and a 
continuation that takes the narrative from the end of the siege of Rouen in 
1419 to the year 1461 but omits the "5w" heading. The CV-1461 can be 
considered the culmination of the main tradition of the Common Version 
in that it presents the fullest form of the text taken to the latest date. 
However, it should be remembered that the CV-1461 developed from a sub- 
group of those texts that ended in 1419(r&g) — the CV-1419(r&g):B, sub- 
group (c), represented by Huntington MS. HM 136(1) (which, coinci- 
dentally, received in its turn an incomplete addition from the continuation 
to 1461). 

The continuation from 1419 to 1461 appears in William Caxton's editio 
princeps of the Bruty under the title of The Chronicles of England {14S0), and 
was probably compiled by him (see Remarks on the CV-1461 below). The 
only complete manuscript written in a single hand that contains the 1461 
continuation is BL MS. Addit. 10099. Incomplete texts of the 1461 con- 
tinuation are appended to texts of various groups in MSS. Glasgow Hunter- 
ian 74, Glasgow Hunterian 228, Bodl. Rawlinson poet. 32, Lambeth 264, 
Huntington HM 136, and Harvard 530. BL Cotton Claudius A.viii con- 
tains an extract covering the reign of Henry V. (A section of the 1461 con- 
tinuation also appears in the Poly. 1461 W.C; see the following group.) 



85. "The Cronicles of Englond" (Caxton, 1480)^ 

Preface: In the yere of th'yncarnacion of our lord Ihesu Crist M CCCC Ixxx 
and in the xx yere of the regne of kyng Edward the fourthe atte requeste 
of dyuerce gentilmen I haue endeuourd me to enprinte the cronicles of 
Englond as in this booke shall by the suffraunce of God folowe. And to 
th'ende that euery man may see and shortly fynde suche mater as it shall 
plese hym to see or rede I haue ordeyned a table of the maters shortly 
compiled 6c chapitred as here shall folowe which booke begynneth at Al- 
byne how she with her susters fonde this land first & named it Albion &, 
endeth at the beginnyng of the regne of our said souerain lord kyng Ed- 
ward the iiij. 

Tahie of contents begins: First in the prologue is conteyned how Albyne with 
hir sustres entred into this ile and named it Albyon. 

Table of contents ends: Of the deposicion of Igmg Harry the sixthe and how 
l<yng Edward the fourth toke possession of the reame and of the bataille 



158 THE COMMON VERSION 

on Palme Sonday and how he was crouned. Capitulo cc Ixiij &, vltimo. 
Heading: How the lande of Englonde was fyrst namd Albyon and by what 

encheson it was so namd. 
Begins: [I]n the noble lande of Sirrie ther was a noble l^^ng and myhty &. a 

man of grete renome that me called Dioclisian that well and worthely 

hym gouerned and ruled thurgh hys noble chiualrie so that he conquered 

all the landes about hym so that almost al the lunges of the world to hym 

were entendant. 
Contains: Cad, QIL, Description of Edward III 
Omits: "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1419 to 1461: And than the kyng entred into the toune and 

rested hym in the castell till the toune was sette in rewle and in gouern- 

aunce. 

How the kyng of Englond was made heritier 8c regent of Fraunce and 
how he wedded quene Katherine. Capitulo CC xlv. 

And anone after that Rone was goten Depe & many othir tounes in baas 
Normandie yaf them ouer withoute strok or siege [cf. Brie 391/14-16, 
491/1-5] 

Ends: And aboute midsomer after the yere of our lord M cccc Ix and the 
first yere of his regne he was crouned at Westmynstre 8c enoynted kyng 
of Englond hauyng the hole possession of all the hole reame whom I pray 
God saue 8c kepe 8c sende hym the accomplisshement of the remenaunt 
of his rightfuU enheritaunce beyonde the see 8c that he may regne in 
them to the playsir of Almyghty God helthe of his soule honour 8c wur- 
ship in this present lyfe 8c well 8c proufytt of alle his subgettis 8c that 
ther may be a verray fmall pees in all Cristen reames that the infidelis 8c 
mysscreauntes may be withstanden 8c destroied 8c our faith enhannced 
which in thise dayes is sore mynusshed by the puissaunce of the Turkes 
8c hethen men and that after this present 8c short lyfe we may come to 
the euerlasting lyfe in the blisse of heuen. Amen. 

Colophon: Thus endeth this present booke of the cronicles of Englond en- 
printed by me William Caxton in th'abbey of Westmynstre by London. 
Fynysshid and accomplisshid the x day of luyn the yere of th'incarnacion 
of our lord God M CCCC Ixxx and in the xx yere of the regne of kyng 
Edward the fourth. 

Remarks: To the 1419(r8cg) ending, the text is of the type of Huntington 
HM 136(1), which contains a similar combination of features.^ As in that 



THE COMMON VERSION 159 

manuscript, a separate chapter heading and number (also listed in the table 
of contents) occur for the array of the Scottish army at Halidon Hill: "This 
was the aray of the Scottes how that they comen in batailles ayens the ij 
Igmges of Englond and Scotland. In the vauntward of Scotland were these 
lordes. Capitulo ducendesimo xxiiij." 

This edition of 1480 formed the basis for all subsequent printed editions 
(see pp. 339-48 below). 



^ For a typographical description, see William Blades, The Life and Typography cf William 
Caxton, 2 vols. (1863; rpt. New York, n.d.), 2: 109-11. The Chronicles of England are 
often found bound with The Description of England {finished August 18, 1480), an extract 
from John Trevisa's translation of the Poly chron icon, in the preface to which Caxton notes: 
"Hit is so that in many and dyuerse places the comyn Cronycles of Englonde ben hadde 
and also now late enprynted at Westmynstre." 
^ See item 61. 



86. BL MS. Additional 10099^ 

Tai/e of contents begins on fol. 1\ 31 sustres [marg.] Fyrst in J)e prologue is 
conteyned how Albyne with h[.]r sustres entred into Jjis land &, named it 
Albyon. 

Tab/e of contents ends on fol. 8: Ed. iiij'"* [^arg.] Of f)e deposicion of king 
Henry pe sixt. And how king Edward pe fourt toke possession of J)e 
realm & of pe batail of Palme Sonday & of his coronacion. 

Heading on fol. 11: How pt land of England was first named Albion and by 
what encheson it was so named. 

Begins: In the noble land of Surry ptt was a noble kyng and a man of gret 
renown that men callid Dioclician that wel & worthely gouerned him &, 
keped him thorow his noble chivalry so p2X he conquered al J)e landes 
about him so p2X almoste al pt kynges of ^e world to him wer entendant. 

Contains: Cad, QIL, Description of Edward III 

Omits: "5w" heading 

Changeover, 1419 to 1461: And jjan pt king entred into pt town & rested 
him in pt castell til pt town was sett in rewl & gouernance. 

How {)e l^^ng of Englond Henry pt v'^ was made heritier 8c regent of 
Fraunce & how he weddid quene Katerine. Capitulo CCxlv. 

[A] none after pzx Rone was goten Depe & many other townes in baas 



160 THE COMMON VERSION 

Normandie yafe J)ame ouer without stroke or siege when pei vnderstode 
J)at Jje l<yng had goten Rone. 
Ends onfol. 203: which in thise dayes is sore mynushed by J)e puissaunce of 
J)e Turkes 6c hethen men and Jjat after J)is present & short life we may 
come to J)e euerlastyng life. Amen. Explicit. 

Remarks: Fol. 9v contains historical notes in Latin. Fol. lOv contains a set 
of Latin verses and a mnemonic verse on the kings of England up to Henry 
VIL 

After the Brut text occur a number of short items: (1) fols. 203v-204 were 
originally blank; fol. 204 contains Elizabethan notes on the accessions of the 
monarchs from Edward IV to Elizabeth, "whome God longe preserue"; (2) 
fol. 204v: Latin notes on the kings and their coronations from William the 
Conqueror to Henry III and on the election of Thomas Warthel to the 
abbacy of Westminster; (3) fols. 205-210v: a tripartite, English treatise (also 
found in BL Harley 2252, fol. 51v) on Edward IVs claim to the crowns of 
England, France, "castel legiounes," and Normandy, from A.D. 876 to Ed- 
ward III; the text refers to Edward IV as the current king and ends with the 
initials "T. B." (see below); (4) fol. 210v also contains several of the provi- 
sions of the Treaty of Picquigny (August 29, 1475), including the proposed 
marriage of Edward IVs daughter Elizabeth to the Dauphin and an annual 
jointure of;C60,000^; (5) fols. 211-212v: thirteen disarranged stanzas of Lyd- 
gate's "Dietary," here entitled "Doctrina sana," ending with the reversed 
name Thomas Burton; (6) fols. 213-226v: extracts from various chapters of 
the Latin Polychronicon, beginning in book 1, chapter 36 ("Giraldus 
refert . . ."); (7) fols. 227-233v: a Latin charter, dated at Roxburgh, January 
25, 1355, from Edward Balliol, King of Scots, to Edward III of England, 
granting Edward Ill's overlordship; (8) fols. 234v-235v: a letter, dated at 
Ramsey, March 7, 1301, from Edward I to Pope Boniface VIII, concerning 
Edward's right to the kingdom of Scotland; and (9) fols. 236-246v: an 
alphabetical index to the Polychronicon, headed "Tabula super Policronicon." 

The manuscript is on paper to fol. 204 and on vellum thereafter. It is 
written in an unprofessional hand, which may also be responsible for the 
historical notes (except for the Elizabethan notes on fol. 204). 

Item (3) was probably composed before Edward IVs French expedition 
of 1475 and item (4) deals with the resulting treaty toward the end of that 
year. This need not imply, however, that the manuscript was written before 
1480 (the date of Caxton's edition), though, given the inclusion of these 
items, it was probably written before Edward's death on April 9, 1483. First, 
the terms of the treaty were not made widely public in 1475.^^ Second, the 



THE COMMON VERSION 161 

proposed marriage became a central issue in diplomatic negotiations between 
1479 and 1481 between England, France, and Burgundy, though any possi- 
bility of it taking place was destroyed by the Treaty of Arras (December 23, 
1482) between France and Burgundy, which included an agreement that the 
Dauphin should marry Margaret of Austria.'* 

The manuscript belonged to Leonard Beckwith in 1634. 



' See Peter Brown and Elton D. Higgs, The Index of Middle English Prose. Handlist V: A 

Handlist of Manuscripts Containing Middle English Prose in the Additional Collection 

(10001-14000), British Library, London (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 10-12. The 1419-1461 

continuation is printed in Brie 491-533. 

^ See Charles Ross, Edward IV (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1974), p. 233. 

^ See Ross, Edward IV, p. 236 and n. 1. 

* See Ross, Edward IV, pp. 253-55, 284, 292. 



87. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 74(2)^ 

Fourth scribe begins on fol. 113: And moche people slayne dyuerse tymes 

wyth gonnes quarelles and other ordynaunce [Brie 390/29-30] 
Changeover, 1419 to 1461: tyll the towne was sett in mile & in gouernaunce. 

And anone after Jjat Roone was gotten Depe & many other townes in the 
Basse Normandy gaue them ouer wythowt stroke or seyge 
Ends imperfectly: he shulde not seke none occasiouns for to entre into such 
matters & |)en [Brie 495/11-12] 

Remarks: The fourth scribe, who belongs to the late fifteenth or early six- 
teenth century, continues immediately after the 1419(men) ending. Spaces 
are left for the chapter headings. 

* For (1), see item 68. 



88. BL MS. Cotton Claudius A.vm^ 

Heading on fol. 2: The cronycle of l^Tig Henry the v that was kyng Henries 

sone. 
Begins: And after the deth of kyng Henry the iiij* [Brie 373/3] 
Changeover, 1419 to 1461: tyll the toune was sett in rewle and in gouern- 
aunce. 



162 THE COMMON VERSION 

How the kyng of England was made hertier and regent of Fraunce and 
howe he wedded quene Katerine. Capitulo CC xlv. 

And anone after that Rone was goten Depe and many othir tounes in 
Baas Normandye yaf hem ouer withoute stroke or seige 
Ends onfol. 12: on whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. [Brie 496/32-33] 

Remarks: That this extract, which covers the reign of Henry V, is taken from 
a complete text is shown by the chapter number in the heading of the first 
chapter of the 1461 continuation, quoted above (cf Brie 491/1-3 and n. 1). 



' See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2633-34, for this and other biographies of Henry V. 



89. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 228(2)^ 

Second scribe begins onfol. 149v: How the kyng of Englond was made heritor 
\changedjrom herityer] and regent of Fraunce and how he wedded quene 
Kateryne. Capitulo CC xlv°. 

[A]nd anone after that Rone was gotyn Depe and many other tounes in 
Baas Normandye yaf them ouer withoute stroke or siege 
Ends imperfectly: Vltima conseptam denunciat esse Mariam [Brie 495/32] 

Remarks: The unprofessional hand is of the late fifteenth century. The text 
agrees with that of Caxton's 1482 edition of the Chronicles of England. 



^ For (1), see item 45. 



90. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson poet. 32(3)^ 

1461 continuation begins onfol. 151: How kyng Henry the vj regned beyng 
a childe not one yere of age and of the bataill of Vernoill in Perche. 

Affter l^^ng Henry the v regned Henry his sone but a childe and not fully 
a yere old [Brie 497/1-5] 
Ends onfol. 168: And that after this present 8c short lyfe we may come to 
the euerlastyng lyfe in the blisse of heuen. Amen. [Brie 533/30-31 and n. 
10] 



THE COMMON VERSION 163 

Remarks: The continuation to 1461 begins with its third chapter, recounting 
the accession of Henry VI. It follows immediately upon the conclusion of a 
continuation copied from the PV-1422:A, which ends with the death of 
Henry V.^ The same hand that finished the PV-1422:A text (the last of 
several hands that wrote the composite Brut text), beginning at the top of 
fol. 151, was also responsible for the 1461 section. 



' For (1), see item 115; for (2), see item 160. 
2 See pp. 271-77. 



91. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 264(2)^ 

New scribe begins on fol. 143: How l^^ng Henry the vj*** regned beyng a 
childe not on yere of age and of {)e bataille of Vernoill in Perche. Capitu- 
lum CC xlvij. 

After kyng Henre J)e v regned Henry his sone but a childe &, not ftilly a 

yere olde [Brie 497/1-5] 
Ends: And that after J)is present & short lyf he may come to {)e euerlastyng 

lyf in f)e blisse of heuen. Amen. 
Colophon: Thus endeth J^is present booke of cronicles of Englond wryten by 

me Thomas Rydyng J)e iiij day of Novembre J)e yere of our lord M 

CCCCC X. 

Remarks: Several leaves have been torn out between the end of the 
1419(men) continuation and the beginning of the 1461 continuation, which 
begins with the third chapter. The sixteenth-century writer, Thomas Ryd- 
yng, was probably also the owner. His colophon is modeled on Caxton's. 



^ For (1), see item 28. 



92. Huntington MS. HM 136(2)^ 

Second scribe begins on fol 156v: [A]nd anone after that Rone was goten 
Depe and many other tounes in Baase Normandie yaf them over with- 
owte stroke or siege [Brie 491/4-5] 

Ends imperfectly on fol 158: [A]fter kynge Henry the v regned Henry his 



164 THE COMMON VERSION 

sone but a childe and not fully a yere olde whos regne begane the first 
day of Septembre [Brie 497/4-6] 

Remarks: That the continuation, which is written in a neat fifteenth-century 
hand, ends at the foot of the recto of a leaf shows that it was not completed. 
Spaces are left blank for chapter headings. 



^ For (1), including early owners of the manuscript, see item 61. See Dutschke, Guide, 2: 
181-83. 



93. Harvard University MS. Eng. 530(2)^ 

Heading onfol. 204: Howe the kyng of Englond was made heriter & regent 

of Fraunce 6c howe he weddid qwene Kateryn. 
Begins: and anone after that Rone was goten Depe 8c many other townes in 

Baas Normandy yaf them over withowte stroke [Brie 491/1-5] 
Ends imperfectly onfol. 21 Iv: certeyn shyppes la[ . . . ] with rye which eaysyd 

&, dyd moch gode to the peple ffor come was so skarse yn Englond that 

[Brie 507/24-26] 

Remarks: The 1419 to 1461 continuation, which includes chapter headings 
but not numbers, is added in a late-fifteenth-century hand that does not 
appear elsewhere in the manuscript. This hand cannot, of course, be that of 
John Shirley, who is associated with the manuscript, since Shirley died in 
1456.^ The text agrees well with that of Caxton's edition. 



* For (1), see item 146. See Voigts, "Handlist," pp. 20-22. 

^ See A. I. Doyle, "More Light on John Shirley," Medium jEvum 30 (1961): 93. 



Remarks on the CV-1461 

There is strong codicological and internal evidence, which I have adduced in 

detail elsewhere, to suggest that William Caxton was the compiler of the 

continuation from 1419 to 1461 and that the manuscript witnesses are 

copied either from his printed editions or, in the case of BL Addit. 10099, 

perhaps from the manuscript exemplar that Caxton had prepared for his 

compositor.^ 

There is no evidence that a manuscript tradition lies behind the continu- 



THE COMMON VERSION 165 

ation from 1419 to 1461. In Huntington HM 136, Glasgow Hunterian 74, 
Lambeth 264, Glasgow Hunterian 228, and Harvard Eng. 530, the continu- 
ation is appended by later scribes to texts belonging to various groups. The 
short additions in Glasgow Hunterian 74, Huntington HM 136, and Glas- 
gow Hunterian 228 were possibly never finished; the text of the last agrees 
with that found in Caxton's second edition of the Chronicles of England 
(1482). The late copy in Lambeth 264, incomplete at the beginning, is 
clearly taken from Caxton. 

BL Cotton Claudius A.viii presents itself as a biography of Henry V. It 
is not, however, an independent work but a close copy of Caxton's printed 
text covering the reign of that king. 

The continuation in Bodl. Rawlinson poet. 32 follows upon a continu- 
ation that ends with the death of Henry V in 1422 and, like Lambeth 264, 
begins with the third chapter. The text corresponds almost exactly to Cax- 
ton's, and it ends with the prayer for Edward IV. 

The Brut text in BL Addit. 10099 is written in a single hand and is the 
only manuscript that contains the full continuation. Both content and word- 
ing correspond almost exactiy to those found in Caxton's Chronicles of Eng- 
land. It also contains a table of contents similar to that in the print where 
Caxton seems to claim this feature as his own contribution. 

A verbal comparison with the London civic chronicle sources for the 1419 
to 1461 continuation shows that BL Addit. 10099 could not be the exem- 
plar for Caxton's Chronicles of England. It also shows that BL Addit. 10099 
cannot simply be a copy from the print. There is evidence that some copies 
of texts printed by Caxton were made from the manuscript exemplars pre- 
pared for the press rather than from the printed books themselves. The 
more handsome of these were probably intended as presentation copies for 
royal or noble patrons, but more ordinary-looking manuscripts of this type 
presumably had less lofty purposes or recipients, perhaps of the merchant 
class. It is likely that BL Addit. 10099 falls into the latter category.^ 

The major source of the continuation was a civic chronicle of London, 
supplemented by material from the Fasciculus temporum of Werner Role- 
vidnck, first officially published in Cologne in 1474 and in Louvain in 1475 
by Johan Veldener, who had been Caxton's printing master and business 
associate. An addition to the notice of the invention of printing around 
1456 suggests that printed books were easily available and cheap in England. 
This notice, reminiscent in phrasing of Caxton's Advertisement of ca. 1477, 
probably refers to the situation after Caxton's introduction of printing to 
England in the 1470s. The concluding prayer for Edward IV contains topi- 



166 THE COMMON VERSION 

cal allusions appropriate to the year 1480, and many of the phrases used 
therein are paralleled or echoed in other such prayers or dedicatory epilogues 
by Caxton. 



^ See Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," pp. 594-601, 610-13, on which the present 
Remarks on the CV-1461 are based. The addition of Harvard Eng. 530, which agrees 
with Caxton's printed text, does not alter the arguments presented therein. 
^ In addition to the examples and references given in Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," p. 
598 n. 21, see also N. F. Blake, "Manuscript to Print," in N. F. Blake, William Caxton 
and English Literary Culture (London and Rio Grande, 1991), pp. 287-90, 294-303. 



Manuscripts containing the Polychronicon 1461 continuation 
and associated with "Warkworth's" Chronicle (Poly. 1461 W.C.) 

Three manuscripts, Peterhouse 190, Glasgow Hunterian 83, and BL Harley 
3730, form a closely linked group that illustrates in a striking way the 
methods open to a medieval scribe who wished to assemble a composite 
text. These manuscripts contain a continuation from 1419 to 1461 (Poly. 
1461) formed by combining sections of text copied first from Caxton's 
printed Chronicles of England and then from the Liber ultimus, which was 
compiled by Caxton to complete his 1482 edition of the Polychronicon. In 
the two complete manuscripts, this composite continuation is followed by a 
short chronicle once attributed to John Warkworth (W.C.).^ 

The first section of Caxton's Liber ultimus, from 1358 to the end of the 
siege of Rouen in 1419, is itself partly based on a Brut text ending in 1419, 
quite possibly the 1480 edition of the Chronicles of England, supplemented 
from a copy of a London civic chronicle and from other sources.^ In general, 
the Brut text is followed more closely in the earlier parts of this section, per- 
haps because the civic chronicle and the other sources were not as fiiU for 
this period. As the supplementary sources became fuller, Caxton relied on 
them more and he made a number of compensatory abbreviations in the 
Brut text. Thus, for example, the whole story of the siege of Rouen is sum- 
marized as follows before the text begins to correspond to that of the con- 
tinuation to 1461 found in the Chronicles of England: 

In the syxthe yere the kyng besyeged the cyte of Roan whiche 
endured half yere and more. And atte laste the cyte beyng in grete 
famyne putte oute moche peple as women and children whiche deyde 



THE COMMON VERSION 167 

for honger moo than thyrtty thousand 8c also seyng that noo 
rescowse cam appoynted with the kyng & gaf ouer the toun vnto 
hym which he receyued. And anone after that Roan was goten Deepe 
and many other tounes in Baas Normandye gaf them ouer withoute 
strook or syege whanne they vnderstode that the kynge had goten 
Roan. 

Capitulum xv 

Also this same yere hadde ben a pees made and sworne bytwene the 
due of Burgoyne and the dolphyn 

The second section of the Liber ultimus, from 1419 to 1461, is essentially 
the same as the corresponding section in the earlier volume, with spelling 
changes and minor verbal alterations made by the compositor. Some short 
passages are deleted and some minor additions and corrections are made that 
are occasionally paralleled in the surviving London chronicles, and this part 
of the Liber ultimus could well have been set up from a marked-up copy of 
the Chronicles of England. The text ends with the prayer for Edward IV. 

The chapters of the Liber ultimus are numbered from 1 ("Capitulum Pri- 
mum") to 33 ("Capitulum Trisesimum Tercium"). Apart from the natural 
chapters provided by the beginnings of the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, 
and Henry V, the divisions in the text to 1419 do not correspond to those 
in the Chronicles of England. After 1419, however, except for the redivision 
for chapter 15 quoted above (cf Brie 491/1-8), the chapter divisions cor- 
respond, though no narrative chapter headings are used throughout the Liber 
ultimus. 



^ See Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," pp. 601-610; fuller descriptions of the manuscripts 
of this group and their relationships appear in my new edition of "Warkworth's" Chronicle 
in Lister M. Matheson, ed., Death and Dissent: Two Fifteenth-Century Chronicles (Cam- 
bridge, 1998). 
^ For a full account of Caxton's sources, see Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," pp. 603-607. 



94. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterl\n 83(2)^ 

Second scribe begins onfol 128: withoute J)e gates ffor spendyng off jjer vitale. 
And anone our Englisch men droff them into the tovn agayn [cf Brie 
391/2-3] 



168 THE COMMON VERSION 

Changeover, 1419 to Poly. 1461'. And then J)e kynge entred J)e town & rested 
hym in the castell tyll Jje tovn was set in rewell and gouernaunce. 

How the kyng off Englond was made heritier and regent off Fraunce 6c 
how he wedded quene Katerine. Ca. 

And anone after J)at Roone was goten Depe & many o|)er tovnes in Baas 

Normandy yaf them ouer without strok or siege 
Poly. 1461 continuation ends imperfectly on fol. 140v: Ageynste whoos com- 

ynge the duke off Northffolke the [cf Brie 531/18] 
"Warkworth's" ChxomcXt begins imperfectly on fol 141: the erle off Warwyke 

com home and herd her-off then was he gretely displeysed 
"Warkworth's" Chronicle ends: and all was done by there oune foly &c. 

Remarks: To the original Brut text the second scribe has prefixed a prologue 
taken from the Saint Albans edition of the Chronicles of England {}14S3; see 
item 205). He also made a number of notes on the text, in Latin and Eng- 
lish, throughout the manuscript, and he may also have inserted chapter 
headings throughout the text. 

The scribe may have paused between completing the narrative to 
1419(r&g) and adding the Poly. 1461 W.C. texts; beginning with the chap- 
ter heading "How the kyng of England . . ." (see above), the ink appears dif- 
ferent and the writing is heavier and less neat on fol. 128r. 

Starting with fol. 132, many of the pages of the Poly. 1461 continuation 
have Caxton's heading "Liber Vltimus (or ultimus)," and a number also in- 
clude the corresponding folio number from the printed edition. 

The leaf is missing that would have contained the end of the Poly. 1461 
text and the beginning of "Warkworth's" Chronicle) it is simply a chance cor- 
respondence that the next words of the former would have been "erle of 
Warwycke" (Caxton, Liber ultimus) whereas the first words of the latter in 
the manuscript are "the erle off Warwyke."^ 



^ For (1), see item 123. 

^ See the collation in J. Young and P. Henderson Aitken, y1 Catalogue of the Manuscripts 

in the Library of the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow (Glasgow, 1908), p. 

88. 



THE COMMON VERSION 169 

95. Peterhouse, Cambridge, MS. 190(2)* 

Second scribe begins on fol. 196v\ and quyte hem lyke good men and J)ei 

slewh myche peple of owrys with gonnes and quarelles and this sege en- 

duryd xx wel^^s and moor [cf. Brie 390/29-30] 
Changeover, 1419 to Poly. 1461: and than the kynge enteryd the towne and 

restyd hym in the castell tyll {)e towne was sette in reule and gouern- 

awnce. 

How the l^ge of Englond was made herytier and regent of Fraunce and 
he wedde quene Kateryne. 

[A]nd anone after that Rone was geten Deepe and many other townes 
and Baas Normandy yaf them ouyr withowte stroke or sege 

Poly. 1461 continuation ends on fol. 214v'. And the fyrste yer of his regne 
aboute mydsomer after J)e yer of our lorde M' CCCC Ixj he was crowned 
at Westmynster and enyoynted kyng of Englond havyng the hole possess- 
youn of alle the hool reame whom I pray God saue and kepe and sende 
hym the complyshment of the remanent of ryghtfull enherytaunce wher 
so euer it be and he to lyff in God and he in hym. Amen. 

Colophon: And her I make an ende of this lytell werke as myche as I can 
fynde after the forme of the werke byfore made by Ranulpd monke of 
Chester. And where ther is ony faught I beseche them that schal rede it 
to correcte it ffor yf I cowed haue founde moo storyes I wold haue sett in 
itt moo but the substaunce that I can fynde and knowe I haue schortely 
seett them in this boke to the entent that suche thynges as haue be don 
sith deyth or ende of the same booke of Polycronycoun be hade in re- 
memberaunce and not putt in oblyuioun ne forgetynge. Prayenge alle 
them that schall see this simple werke to pardoun my symple and rude 
wrytynge. Ended the secunde day of Julij the xxij yer of the regne of 
kynge Edward the fourt and of the incarnacyoun of our lorde M' CCCC 
iiij score and tweyne. Finysched and ended after the copey of Caxton then 
in \ins. above\ Westmynster. 

'Warkworth's" Chronicle begins on fol. 214v: [A]s for alle thynges that folowe 
referre them to my copey in whyche is wretyn a remanente lyke to this 
forseyd werke. That is to wytt that at the coronacyon of the forseyde 
Edward he create and made dukes his two brythir 

"Warkworth's" Chronicle ends: and alle was doune by ther owne foly Sec. 

Remarkr. The second scribe takes the narrative from the original ending in 



170 THE COMMON VERSION 

1419(men) to 1419(r&g) and then writes the Poly. 1461 continuation and 
"Warkworth's" Chronicle. 

As in Glasgow Hunterian 83, the Poly. 1461 section retains the chapter 
numbers of the Liber ultimus. The prayer for Edward IV that concludes this 
section (missing in the Hunterian manuscript) is abbreviated compared to 
Caxton's original text, but, apart from the last sentence, the colophon is that 
of the printed text. 

The manuscript was presented to Peterhouse in 1481 by John Wark- 
worth, master of the college, whose note of presentation and anathema ap- 
pears on the verso of the front flyleaf. 



^ For (1), see item 24. The text of "Warkworth's" Chronicle is printed in James Orchard 
Halliwell, ed., A Chronicle of the First Thirteen Years of the Reign of King Edward the 
Fourth, by John Warkworth, D.D., Camden Society o.s. 1 (1839). 



96. BL MS. Harley 3730(2)1 

Poly. 1461 continuation begins on fol 106: How the l^^ng of Englond was 
made heritier and regent of France &c how he wedde quene Katerine, 

[A]nd anon after {)at Roone was getyn Deepe and many oJ)er townes in 
Baas Normandy yaf them ouer without stroke or sege 
Ends imperfectly: J)e erle of March hys sone was comyng with [Brie 520/29- 
30] 

Remarks: The manuscript is written by one scribe throughout and was cop- 
ied from Glasgow Hunterian 83 (see Remarks on the Poly. 1461 W.C. be- 
low); nevertheless, it is convenient to consider it under the same group 
headings as its exemplar. 

The continuation to 1461 was used by Brie to collate the CV continu- 
ation from 1419 to 1461 in his edition, where the manuscript is designated 
H.^ A textual comparison, however, shows that the text is the same as that 
contained in the continuations of the two preceding manuscripts, that is, for 
the first chapters beyond 1419 it is based on a CV-1461 continuation, fol- 
lowed by the Liber ultimus version of the 1461 continuation. Again, the 
chapter numeration of the latter work is employed. The following are exam- 
ples of additions found in the Liber ultimus and in BL Harley 3730 (H) but 
not in Caxton's Chronicles of England or BL Addit. 10099:-' 



THE COMMON VERSION 



171 



1. \>e world [worde H] was nat 
worthy to haue his presence. [In 
J)is yer was |)e kynge of Scottes 
murthered in his chambour by 
nyght pytously which l^nig hade 
ben presoner xv yere in Englond. 
And thei J)at slew hym wer takyn 
efterward and hade cruell iustice. 
add. H] [BL Addit. 10099, coUa- 
ted with Caxton's Chronicles and 
BL Harley 3730 (H); cf. Brie 
506/27 and n.] 

2. Also J)is yere [the lorde Talbott 
leyd sege to Depe (y del. between 
e and p). But {)e Dolphyn res- 
cowed it and wan |)e bastell {)at 
Englischmen hade made. Also J)is 
yere add. H] was A gret Affray in 
Flet Strete [BL Addit. 10099, 
collated with Caxton's Chronicles 
and BL Harley 3730 (H): Brie 
509/16 and n.] 



the worlde was not worthy to 
haue hys presence. Jn this yere 
was the kynge of Scottys mur- 
thred in his chambre by nyght 
pytously whiche l^oige had be 
prysoner xv yere in Englonde, 
And they that slewe hym were 
taken afterward 8c had cruel 
iustyce. [Caxton, Liber ultimus 
(1482)] 



Also this yere the lord Talbotte 
had leyde syege to Dyepe but the 
dolphyn rescowed it and wan the 
bastyle that Englysshmen had 
made. Also this yere was a greete 
effraye in Fletestrete [Caxton, 
Liber ultimus (1482)] 



Corresponding omissions of details also occur in BL Harley 3730 and in 
Caxton's Liber ultimus. 

The text breaks off before the end of the 1461 continuation, but it is 
unlikely that "Warkworth's" Chronicle formed part of the manuscript (see 
Remarks on the Poly. 1461 W.C). 



* For (1), see item 124 and below. 

2 See Brie 2: viii, 491-520/30. 

^ These additions are, of course, also found in the other two texts in this group. 



Remarks on the Poly. 1461 W.C.^ 

Glasgow Hunterian 83 is the original compilation consisting of a Brut text 



172 THE COMMON VERSION 

to which the Saint Albans preface and the Poly. 1461 continuation and 
"Warkworth's" Chronicle were added. The last of these was probably added 
later than the other items, and it is possible that the first item was also 
added at the same time. 

BL Harley 3730 was copied entirely from the Hunterian manuscript and 
probably ended with the note that now prefaces "Warkworth's" Chronicle in 
the Peterhouse manuscript, referring the reader to the text of this in the 
Hunterian manuscript. A short extract from the B-version of John Hard- 
yng's Chronicle was added as preface to the Harley manuscript. 

The text beyond 1419(men) in Peterhouse 190, also originally a discrete 
Brut, was copied from Harley 3730, the scribe including by mistake the note 
of reference to the Hunterian manuscript, to which he then turned to copy 
"Warkworth's" Chronicle. 

The additions to all three manuscripts were probably made about 1483 or 
1484 for fellows of Peterhouse, Cambridge, possibly in the college library. 

The Poly. 1461 continuation follows the text of Caxton's Chronicles of 
England for its first four chapters, but in the course of the fifth chapter it 
changes to the text of the Liber ultimus. 



^ For a full account of the development of the group, on which the present remarks are 
based, and for speculations on the author of "Warkworth's" Chronicle, see Matheson, ed.. 
Death and Dissent. 



11. The Extended Version 



The Extended and Abbreviated Versions 

The primary distinguishing features of all groups of manuscripts of the 
Extended Version (EV) and of the related groups that constitute the Abbre- 
viated Version (AV) are a short exordium not found in the Common Ver- 
sion, the words "Some time ..." at the beginning of the Albina prologue, 
and the addition of selected details from the anonymous Short English Me- 
trical Chronicle to the Albina prologue and the earlier part of the narrative.^ 
A complex set of variations in the different versions of the exordium allows 
distinctions to be made among individual groups of texts. Other features, 
such as textual variations and differences of content in the later narrative, 
can be used to classify Extended and Abbreviated texts when the exordium 
or prologue is missing. These features include such details as the "first giants 
passage," the passage on Lud's naming of London, the Latin tag associated 
with King Blegabred, and other items in the list of test factors for the Ex- 
tended and Abbreviated Versions (pp. 53-54; items 4 through 14). 

As noted earlier in this study, the Extended Version can be divided into 
three groups (A, B, and C), characterized by three distinct recensions of the 
exordium. The Abbreviated Version has four groups (A, B, C, and D), 
again based on their recensions of the exordium; the exordia for EV groups 
A, B, and C correspond to those found in AV groups A, B, and C respec- 
tively, while AV group D offers an independent recension that is not pa- 
ralleled in the EV. The Abbreviated Version differs from the Extended 
Version primarily in its abridgments of the narrative at various points (de- 
pending on the particular group or subgroup), including material after the 
death of Arthur and material surrounding the battle of Halidon Hill. The 
Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter are generally found in sur- 
viving EV and AV texts that are not physically defective at either point of 
the narrative; "The Description of Edward III" does not occur in any EV or 
AV texts. 

Although individual groups within the Extended and Abbreviated Ver- 



174 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

sions can be differentiated fairly easily, they are less internally coherent than 
those of the Common Version, and the precise relationships between the in- 
dividual groups are not always clear. As will be seen, much scribal crossing 
has occurred (apparently among texts from a variety of groups), with a re- 
sulting array of correspondences and divergences among groups. Accord- 
ingly, the following layout has been adopted for sections II and III of the 
Classification of Texts: 

1. description of the individual manuscripts and groups, first of the Ex- 
tended Version (section II) and then of the Abbreviated Version (sec- 
tion III), with short accounts and preliminary discussions of the inter- 
nal correspondences, divergences, and, where these can be ascertained, 
relationships among particular manuscripts of the individual groups. 

2. at the end of section III, a full discussion of the interrelationships 
among all the groups and subgroups belonging to both the Extended 
and the Abbreviated Versions. 



^ For a representative example of the exordium text (from the EV-1419:B), see Introduc- 
tion, Appendix 3. Brie treats texts of the Abbreviated Version under the Extended Ver- 
sion ("die erweiterte Fassung"), calling them "eine umfangreiche Klasse von MSS . . . , die 
nichts als verkiirzte Wiedergaben jener sind" ("a large class of manuscripts . . . that are 
nothing but abbreviated renderings of [the Extended Version]"; Geschichte und Quellen, p. 
84). This is an oversimplification, and the type of conscious change found in the Abbrevi- 
ated Version texts makes it preferable to consider them as constituting an independent 



The Extended Version to 1377 (EV-1377) 

From remarks found in the exordia of most texts of the Extended and 
Abbreviated Versions, one can assume a now lost manuscript or group of 
manuscripts, based on a Common Version text, in which an exordium was 
first used and which ended with the death of Edward III in 1377: 

And J)is booke made 8c compiled men of religioun & o\>tx good 
clerkes f)at wreten J)at bifell in her tymes and made {)erof grete bokes 
and remembraunce to men |)at comen aftir hem to heere and to see 
what bifell in f)e londe afore tyme and callid hem cronycles. And in 
J)is londe haue been from Brute to Igoige Edward \)t thridde aftir |)c 
conquest C xxxij kynges whos lyues and actes ben compiled shortly in 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 175 

J)is boke pt whiche conteyneth CC xxxviij chapiters wiJ)oute J)e pro- 
thogoll or prolog. [BL Harley 4827] 

Both the finishing point of the text, that is, the death of King Edward 
III, and the number of chapters stated to have comprised the work point to 
an original text ending in 1377. It seems likely that this 1377 group was an 
embryonic EV rather than an AV for the following reasons: 

1. It is unlikely that an exordium would be added to a projected abbre- 
viation of the text, especially in view of the truncated state of the extant 
AV texts. 

2. The use of literary sources found in the prologues and elsewhere in 
the extant EV and AV texts suggests a conscious attempt to produce 
a "show" text. It is even possible that the Cadwallader episode and 
Queen Isabella's letter were first introduced into the Brut canon in this 
group. 

3. The relationships between the groups of the EV and AV, although un- 
clear, suggest a prototype EV. 

The remarks in the exordia of the surviving EV texts point to a text of 
the CV-1377 f.c. as having been the basis for the original form of the EV. 
There are, however, three stages of the CV-1377 f c. (see pp. 88-90, 92- 
97): the first does not contain the Cadwallader episode nor Queen Isabella's 
letter; the second includes the Cadwallader episode; and the third includes 
both the Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter. There are, there- 
fore, at least three possible explanations for the constitution and early history 
oftheEV-1377: 

(i) The EV-1377 was based on the CV-1377 f c. Stage 1 and contained 
neither the Cadwallader episode nor Queen Isabella's letter. 

(ii) The EV-1377 was based on the CV-1377 f c. Stage 1 and first intro- 
duced the Cadwallader episode. This was then borrowed during the 
compilation of the CV-1377 f c. Stage 2 and thus introduced into the 
development of the Common Version. 

(iii) The EV-1377 was based on the CV-1377 f c. Stage 3, which was first 
to include both the Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter. 

Little weight can be put on the evidence that the EV-1377 contained 
exactly 238 chapters, for in manuscripts of the Brut chapter numbering — 
where found at all — tends to vary. However, possibility (i) can probably be 
discounted, for all complete texts of the extant EV and AV groups contain 



176 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

the Cadwallader episode and Queen Isabella's letter, which suggests that 
these were found in the early stages of the EV/AV development. 

The Cadwallader episode in the Brut is taken from Book XII of Geoffrey 
of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britannie, and incorporates, in Latin, Geoff- 
rey's biblical quotation: "Dedisti nos domine tanquam oues escarum et in 
gentibus dispersisti nos." Geoffrey's Historia reads: "Dedisti nos deus tan- 
quam oues escarum 8c in gentibus dispersisti nos" (Ps. 43:12).^ 

In the chapter listing thirty-three kings of Britain, most texts of the EV- 
1419:A, EV-1419:B, and AV-1419:B contain a Latin tag that occurs after 
the name of Blegabred: "Qui quidem omnes regni cantares in modulis &- 
musicis instrumentis superabant" (Harvard Richardson 35; BL Harley 4827 
reads ". . . cantores . . . supera"). This quotation is also based on some text of 
Geoffrey's Historia, and the corresponding phrase in Biirgerbibliothek Bern 
MS. 568 is "Hie omnes cantores quos retro etas habuerat et in modulis et in 
omnibus musicis instrumentis superabat."^ Since the Latin tag is not found 
in CV texts, this indicates that a compiler involved in the EV knew Geoff- 
rey's Historia, but whether it was the compiler of the EV-1377 is not defi- 
nite, for the distribution of the tag is not universal. Either it was an inde- 
pendent addition made at some stage of the EV/AV development after the 
EV-1377, or it dropped out of certain EV/AV groups in the course of 
scribal transmission or by deliberate omission. 

Possibilities (ii) and (iii) remain open. In view of the general character of 
the extant EV texts, which use details from literary sources, possibility (ii) 
allows a possible hypothesis concerning the genesis and early development 
of the EV-1377. We can suppose that the compiler was faced by a text of 
the CV-1377 f.c. Stage 1, containing neither the Cadwallader episode nor 
the Queen Isabella letter. His intention was to improve upon the text of his 
exemplar, and to this end he added an exordium and some details from the 
Short English Metrical Chronicle to the prologue and early parts of the narra- 
tive. For purposes of coUation, the compiler was using a text of the Historia 
Regum Britannie (upon which the earlier parts of the Brut are ultimately 
based), and from this he may have inserted the Latin tag into the catalogue 
of British kings and a translation of the Cadwallader episode (perhaps on 
account of its connection with the Havelok tale). In the subsequent CV- 
1377 f.c. Stage 2 recension, the Cadwallader episode was introduced into the 
main development of the Common Version. Queen Isabella's letter was then 
added separately to the CV-1377 f c. Stage 3 and thus appears in subse- 
quent CV texts ending in 1419, from which source it was introduced into 
the EV-1419. 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 177 

No manuscript of the EV-1377 appears to have survived. Extant EV and 
AV manuscripts carry the text to 1419, using the CV-1419(r&g) continu- 
ation, or, where incomplete, can be assumed to have once carried the text at 
least beyond 1377 and most likely to 1419. Some EV texts modify the "in 
rule and governance" ending by inserting "good" before one of the nouns — 
"in rule and (in) good governance" or "in good rule and governance" — but 
the formulaic nature of the phrase and the number of texts that end imper- 
fectly weaken the taxonomic usefulness of this feature. 



^ Acton Griscom, ed., The Historia Regum Britannia of Geoffrey of Monmouth (London, 
1929), p. 531. See also Neil Wright, ed., The Historia Regum Britannie of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, I: Bern, Burgerbibliothek, MS. 568 (Cambridge, 1984), p. 145. 
^ Wright, ed., Historia, p. 34; cf. Griscom, ed., Historia, p. 300. 



The Extended Version to 1419, Group A (EV-1419:A) 

Group A consists of MSS. Rylands Eng. 105, Harvard Richardson 35, BL 
Harley 24, BL Addit. 12030, Bodl. Rawlinson B.187, Takamiya 12, and 
BodL Tanner 188. 



97. Rylands MS. Eng. 105^ 

Exordium begins: Here begynneth a boke in Englysshe tunge called Brute 

whiche entreteth of the first begynnyng of the lond 
Exordium ends: And in this lond have ben with Brute vnto l^nig Edward the 

thridde C xxxij kynges whos lyves actes and dedes ben compiled in this 

boke here folowyng the whiche conteyneth CC xxxviij chapiters withoute 

the prolog or protogoll. 
Prologue heading begins: The prolog of this booke declareth how this lond 

was first called Albyon after the eldest doughter 
Text begins: Some tyme in the noble lond of Surry 
Contains: Cad, QIL 

Omits: extra giants (see below), Latin tag, "5w" heading (see below) 
Ends imperfectly: Of kinge Henri the v*^ borne at Monmouth in Wales son 

to king He[nri] the iiij*. [cf Brie 373/1-2] 

Remarks: The foUo that would have contained the extra giant details in the 
prologue is missing. 



178 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

In the chapter on the battle of Halidon Hill a redistribution of the num- 
bering of the wards of the Scottish army has occurred, presenting only four 
and not five wards, and the "5w" heading is altered accordingly: "In the 
fourth warde of the Scottes were theis lordes." 

A late marginal note on fol. 46v can be discounted: "This chronicle was 
mayde the x*^ yere of the reynge of l^^nge Henry the viiith by the right re- 
nouned and myghty" [breaks off]; the hand of the manuscript belongs to the 
second half of the fifteenth century. 

Sixteenth- and early-seventeenth-century owners are "Thomas Hought'," 
"Ricardus Hobbes," "Hugo Wynnard," "Thomas Pawlyn, surgion in civitate 
London'." 



^ See Lester, Handlist, pp. 39-40; Tyson, "Hand-List," p. 172. 

98. Harvard University MS. Richardson 35 

Exordium begins: [HJere bygynnej) a boke in Englysche tonge J)at ys called 
Brute of Ynglond wyche declarejje spekef) and treteth of J)e frust bygyn- 
nyng of J)e londe of Ynglond 

Exordium ends: And for to sey soJ)e in J)is londe haue ben with J)is Brute 
vnto l^nge Harry J)e v aftur J)e conquest C xxxv kynges wos lyues actes & 
dedes ben all compiled schortely in {)is booke here folowyng |)e wyche 
conteynej) CC xlj chapitures withoute ^e protegoll of)er prologe. 

Prologue heading begins: The prologe of |)is booke declarej) how |)is londe 
was frust called Albyon after J)e eldest suster dou3ter of J)e ryal kynge 
Dyoclycian of Surre 

Text begins: Svm tyme in J)e noble londe of Surrey 

Contains: extra giants, Latin tag. Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 

Ends imperfectly: And so furth to Westmynstre and {)er she was crowned 
quene of Englond. And |)an was she broght ayen into J)e kynges place. 
And J)er was [Brie 351/8-10] 

Remarks: The scribe has altered the name of the latest king in the exordium 
from Edward III to Henry V, though he has not altered the number of 
chapters to correspond to this change (chapter 238 ends with the death of 
Edward III, but the last chapter in the incomplete text is numbered 244; cf. 
a similar change in item 118). The folio is lost that would have contained 
the "5w" heading. 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 179 

After the imperfect conclusion of the Brut text occur 22 pages of shields 
of arms, with the names of the bearers and the blazons. That the earl of 
Wiltshire is also called of "Vrmont" (that is, Ormond) gives a terminus a quo 
of 1452 for this section.^ 

The earliest (possibly fifteenth-century) name in the manuscript is that of 
"Rycharte Thomas of Nethe" (Glamorgan) and later marginal names also 
suggest a Welsh connection. The manuscript is decorated throughout with 
grotesque figures and fancifiil creatures in the margins. 



^ See E. B. Fryde, D. E. Greenway, S. Porter, and I. Roy, eds.. Handbook of British Chro- 
nology, 3rd ed. (London, 1986), pp. 487, 496; James Buder, earl of Wiltshire and Or- 
mond, was executed in 1461. The manuscript is dated 1430-1500 in Kennedy, Manual, 
p. 2820. 



99. BL MS. Harley 24^ 

Heading: Here begynnyth the kalendare of Brute in Englyssh tunge. 

Exordium begins: Her begynnyth a booke in Englyssh tung that is called 

Brute of Englande which declarith and tretith of the ftirste beginnyng of 

the lande of Englande 
Exordium ends: and [f..t.(?) del^ seye the sothe in this lande haue bene with 

this Brute vnto kyng Edw[a]rde the thirde after the conqueste C xxxij 

kynges whos lyues actes and dedes bene alle compilede shortly in this 

booke here [-re ins. above] folowyng the which conteyneth CC xxxviij 

chapitours withoute the protegoll othir prologe. 
Prologue heading begins: The prologe of this booke dedareth howe this lande 

was fiirste callede Albyon after J)e eldest doughter 
Text begins: Sume tyme in the noble lande of Surrey 
Contains: extra giants, Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "Sw" heading 
Ends: in ruele and good gouernaunce. Deo gracias. 



^ The Arthurian narrative in this manuscript is printed in Karl Boddeker, "Die Geschichte 
des Konigs Arthur," Archiv 52 (1874): 10-29. 



100. BL MS. Additional 12030^ 

Heading. Here begynnyth the kalendare of Brute in Englyssh as here after 
ye shall here. 



180 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

Exordium begins: Here begynnyth a book in Englyssh tunge that ys called 
Brute of England which declareth speketh and tretethe of the furst by- 
gynnyng of the lande of Englande 
Exordium ends: and forto seye the sothe in this lande haue ben with this 
Brute vnto kyng Edwarde the thirde after the conqueste C xxxij l^niges 
whos lyves actes and dedes ben alle compylede shortely in this book here 
folowyng the which conteyneth CC xliiij chapitours withoute the prote- 
goll other prologe. 
Prologue heading begins: The prologe of this book declareth howe this lande 
was fiirste called Albyon after the furste eldeste sustre doughter to the 
ryall kyng Dioclician of Surre 
Text begins: Summe tyme in the noble lande of Surre 
Contains: extra giants, Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: afterwarde the kyng passing furthe by the cuntre aboute the 
brede of xx myles he wastede alle [Brie 298/8-9] 



* See Brown and Higgs, Handlist, p. 42. 



101. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.187 

Begins on fragmentary foL 1: wyldyrnesse 8c no thyng [ . . . ] And thys booke 
ys calledde Brute aftyr [ . . . ] the lond whos name was Brute the [ . . . ] 
opynly ys declared yn dyuers chapyty[rs . . . ] good clerics and namely men 
of 

Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL 

Omits: extra giants (see below), "5w" heading (see below) 

Ends imperfectly: the Scottes vnderstoode J)an J)at the [Brie 280/5] 

Remarks: The folio that would have contained the extra giants in the pro- 
logue is lost and the text ends before the enumeration of the Scottish army 
at Halidon Hill. 

The evidence for including the text here is, therefore, a combination of 
the features noted above and of textual comparisons with other texts of the 
group: 

(a) the phrases given above from the fragmentary fol. 1. 

(b) second giants passage: 

also the geawntys lyven be dyuers frwtys growyng ther and be fowlys 
vyld and tame and othyr grett bestys and yn specyalle be flesche of 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 181 

schepe grett as hors the whyche weryn woUe as the her of a goote ther- 
of they makyn hem slawyns; and that lond to yow ys ordeynyd be des- 
tanye and to yowr pepyll. [cf. Remarks on the EV-1419:A below] 

(c) Lud passage: 

this kyng Lud loved more to dwell at Newe Troye J)en in any oJ)er 
place of J)e lond wherfor he commaundid that J)at cite shuld not no 
lenger be called Newe Troy but Ludentoun or Ludestoun as sum bokes 
seyen after his name Lud for in Jsat cite he mad most cost of byldyng. 
And ther he mad a gate al oute of |)e ground and lat hit to be called 
Ludgate after his name. And he lat walle J)e toune and dike hit also 
but afterwardis J)e name of J)is cite was chaunged with Saxons tonge 
and by variaunce of lettres and was called London. And Normandis 
and Frenchemen and oJ)er alyauntes call it Loundris. And these clerkes 
call it in Latyn Ciuitas Londinarum. [see pp. 238-39 below] 

(d) there are no AV features; for example, Constantine reigns after Arthur 
and the Engist's heptarchy passage agrees with the other members of 
the group. 

The form of Coryn's paramour's name is paralleled in Harvard Richard- 
son 35 (and in the AV-1419:A[b]): "yef Erneborowe J)i paramour my3th 
wete that on man only ferde thus with J)e sche wold neuer love J)e.'' 

The hand of the manuscript is similar to the first hand of Glasgow Hun- 
terian 83, a text of the AV-1419:A(a). 



102. Takamiya MS. 12 

Begins imperfectly: hem home into hir owne cuntre and their hem q[ . . . ]. 

And it byfell thus aftrewarde that this dame Albyne b[.]come so stoute 

and so stately [Brie 2/5-7] 
Contains: extra giants, Latin tag. Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: And so king Henry the v'*^ gate and conquerid all the 

tovnes and the castelles pyles streng[)es abbeis vnto Pountelarge and frome 

thens vnto the citee of Roon. [Brie 386/10-12] 

Remarks: The evidence for including the text here is a combination of the 
features noted above supported by textual comparisons with other EV- 
1419:A texts, as follows: 

(a) first giants passage: 

and thei conceyvid and brough flirth geantz of the whiche men callid 



182 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

one Gogmagog chief king of hem all and he was xl fote in length and 
xij in breede. One othre hight king Wydy and duellid vppon one highe 
hill within Shropshire that is callid the Wreken. One othre Onewen 
[-ne- ins.] the forte. Ane othre Bonde at the brugge ende brothre to 
Onewen; one othre Laugherygo Bondes sonne whome Onewenz erne 
slough aftre in [ins.] a bataille assignid bytwix hem two vnwitting to 
hem both; and grete multitude moo of giauntz that were callid many 
diuers names. And in this manere thei come furth and weren borne 
horrible giauntz in Albion and thei duellid in cavis and in hilles at heir 
luste and had the londe of Albion as hem liked vnto the tyme that 
Brute come and arryvid at Tottenesse that was in the He of Albion and 
their this Brute conquerid and scomfite the giauntz abouesaide and 
slough the moste parte of hem as othre bookes openly declareth. 

(b) second giants passage: 

Also the gyauntz lyven by diuers fruites growing their and by foulez 
wilde and tame and othre grete bestes and in especiall by flesshe of 
shepe grete as hors the whiche were woU as here of geyte wherof thei 
maken hem slavens and |)at londe to you is ordeynid by destenie and to 
your poeple. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Than saide Brute to Corin "yef Erneborowe thi paramour might wit that 
one mane onely ferde thus foule with the she wolde neuir love the," 

(d) Lud passage: 

he commaundid that that citee no lenger shulde be callid Newe Troie 
hot Ludentoune or Ludestoune as sum bookes sein aftir his name Lud 
for in that citee he made most coste of belding and ther he made a 
gate all out of the grounde and callid hit Ludgate aftir his name and he 
made wall the toune and diche it also hot aftirwarde the name of this 
cite was chaungid by Saxons tonge and variaunce of lettres and was 
callid London and yete is hot Normandez and othre aliens call it 
Loundres and clerkes callez it Ciuitas London. 

(e) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

The flirst kingdome was Kent their that Engest himself reignid and 
was lorde and maistir of all that othre. And one othre king had Sussexe 
where nowe is Chicestre; the iij had Wessex; the iiij had Essex; the v 
hadde Estangle that nowe is callid Northfolke and SouthfolkMarchene- 
riche that nowe is to saie the erledome of Nichole; the sixte had Ley- 
cestre; the vij Oxenford Gloucestre Winchestre Warewik and Derbye- 
shire. 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 183 

(f) there are no AV features; for example, Constantine reigns after Arthur. 

Sixteenth-century notes of ownership name Thomas Mettham of Brayton 
in Yorkshire (who has made many notes and drafts of letters), John Baxter, 
Robert Red, and Richard Wattsoun (Watson). The names of John Frobyser 
and Richard Walsby also occur. 



103. Bodleian MS. Tanner 188 

Begins imperfectly: with here strength yche one of hem toke a certayne con- 
trey and euery man in his lande lete calle hym kynge [cf Brie 22/30-32] 

Contains: Latin tag. Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Omits: extra giants (see below) 

Ends imperfectly: And at his furst commyng [to her iustes xxiiij catchwords] 
[Brie 343/14-15] 

Remarks: The text begins after the point at which the giants' passages would 
have occurred. 

The text is included here on the evidence of the combination of features 
noted above and of textual comparisons with other texts of the group: 

(a) Lud passage: 

This Lud loved more to dwell atte Troy than in any other place of the 
londe wherfore he commaunded that cite no lengur be called Newe 
Troy but Londestoun as bokes seyne aftur his name Lud for in that 
cite he made moste cost of byldyng. And there he made a gate alle 
oute of the grounde and called hit Ludgate aftur his name. And he 
made the waUes of the towne and dichid hit. But afturward the name 
of the cite was changed by Saxons tonge and variaunce of letteres and 
was called London and yit is. But Normandes and other aliens calle hit 
Loundours. [Cf. the two preceding texts.] 

(b) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

And Engist wente through the londe and sesud all the londe with all 
the ffrauncheys into his hande. And in euery place J)at he come he lete 
caste doun chirches and houses of religioun and destroied Cristondome 
through all the lande. And made change the name of the londe and 
lete calle hit Engislonde and nowe by corrupcioun of tong is called 
Englond. And he departed the lande to his men and made therin vij 
kynges ffor to streynth the londe. The flirst kyngedom was Kente there 
that Engist hymself reigned and was lorde of And that other Igoige 



184 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

had Sussex. And the thirde had Westsex. The fourth had Essex. The 
V had Eastangle and nowe is called Norffolk and Suffolke and the 
erledom. The vj had Leycestre Northamptounshire Hertfordshire [in 
bottom marg.] and Huntyngdoun. The vij had Oxonfordshire Glouces- 
tre Wynchestre Warwike and Derbyshire, 
(c) Constantine follows Arthur. 

Remarks: The spaces for chapter headings have been left blank. 

Remarks on the EV-1419:A 

Among the four manuscripts that are complete at the beginning, Rylands 
Eng. 105, Harvard Richardson 35, BL Harley 24, and BL Addit. 12030, 
there are a number of details that suggest that the Rylands text reflects in 
the main an earlier stage of the development of this group than the Harvard 
and BL manuscripts do, although the redivision of the Scottish army at 
Halidon Hill and some verbal abbreviation must be secondary developments 
in the Rylands text. In turn. Harvard Richardson 35 seems to represent an 
earlier stage than the BL texts, the heading and title of which must be a 
secondary development since they occur in no other EV group. The Latin 
tag associated with Blegabred found in the Harvard and BL texts but not in 
Rylands Eng. 105 is, however, paralleled elsewhere in the EV and AV 
manuscripts. 

In the prologue and opening chapters, additional details, taken from the 
Short English Metrical Chronicle, are found in the EV. In this work, a de- 
scription of Gogmagog and of the giants' mode of existence is found after 
Brutus's arrival in England and just prior to the giants' attack: 

He was of swy^e gret streng|)e 

Fourty fot he was in lenj)e 

8cxij. fro his elbow to his bond 

& XX. in brede men hym fond 

In gret hulles J)ei woned here 

8c lyued by erbis [and] wilde dere 

Melc 8c water J)ei dronke no3t ellis 

As J)e Brut hit seis 8c tellis^ 

Schep J)ei hadde as hors gret 

t>erof [\>t\\ maden hom sclaueyns 

So palmers weryn 8c painim(s). 

[Zettl, ed.. Metrical Chron., p. 2, lines 25-36] 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 185 

Details from this passage are added at two points in the EV texts: 

(a) At the end of the prologue relating the Albina story, which is given 
thus in the CV: 

6c they conceiued, and after J)ei broughten forth Geauntes, of pe 
which on me called Gogmagog, and anoJ)er Laugherigan, &. so J)ei 
were nompned by diuers names; & in {)is manere they comen forth, 
and weren boren horrible Geauntes in Albion; &, pty dweUyd in 
Cauys &. in hulles at here will, 6c had J)' lond of Albyon as hem 
liked, vn-to J)' tyme J)at Brut Arryved 6c come to Tottenesse, J)at was 
in {)' He of Albyon. and pere {)is Brut conqueryd 6c scomfyted these 
geaunt3 aboueseyd. [Brie 4/26-34] 

The corresponding passage in Harvard Richardson 35, collated with BL 
Harley 24 (H) and Addit. 12030 (Add), reads: 

And Jjey conceyued 6c brou3th forjje gyountes of J)e wyche men 
called one Gogmagog chefe I^nige [repeated Add] of pern all [repeated 
Add]. And he was xl foote of [in H, Add] length 6c xij in brede. 
Anojjer hy3th l^mge Wydy 6c dwellyd vpon an hye hylle withinne 
Shorpshire [sic] J)at was [ys H, Add] called J)e Wreken; one oJDer 
Onewen le fort; ano{)er Bonde at pt brygge ende broJ)er to Onewen 
[le forte add. H]; one oJ)er Laugherygo Bondes sone whom Onewens 
[Qnewens H] eme slowe aftur in a [om. Add] batayle assygned by- 
twyxte {)em to [om. H] vnAvytyng to {)em bo|)e; 6c grete multitude mo 
of gyantes J)at weren called mony diuerse names. And in J)is [same 
add. H] maner J)er come fourthe 6c weren borne horryble gyantes in 
Albyoun 6c pet dwelled in caues and in hylles at J)er lust and hadde 
pt londe of Albyoun as jjem lyked vnto pe. [om. Add] tyme that 
Brute came and aryved atte Totenesse J)at was in pe. He of Albyon 
and J)er Jjis Brute conquered and sconfited pt gyantes aboue-sayde 
and slou3th pt most partye of {)em as oJ)er bokes openly dedareth 
6cc. [Harvard Richardson 35] 

Unfortunately, as noted above, the relevant leaf in Rylands Eng. 105 is 
missing, but from a comparison with the corresponding passage in other EV 
and AV groups, the extra giants and folklorish details of the Harvard and 
BL texts can be seen as secondary additions, possibly not having occurred in 
the Rylands text or not in such extended form. 

(b) The remainder of the lines from the Short English Metrical Chronicle 



186 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

quoted above are incoqjorated into Diana's prophecy to Brutus. Harvard 
Richardson 35, again collated with BL Harley 24 and Addit. 12030, reads: 

Also \>t gyantes leuen by diuerse frutes growyng J)er and by foules 
wylde 8c tame 8c ojjer grete bestys 8c inspecyally [enspeciall H, in es- 
peciall Add] by [om. H] flesche of schepe grete as horses [hors H, 
horse Add] J)e wych weren wolle as here of gote wherof J)ey make 
[made H] ptm sclauyns [slauyns H, Add]. And J)at londe to 30W ys 
ordeyned by destenye 8c to 3oure peple. 

The corresponding section in Rylands Eng. 105 is: 

And thies giauntz live by diuers frutes and rootes of the erth and 
foules wilde and tame and other grete bestes and in especiall bi grete 
shepe as grete as hors which weren wolle as herre wherof thei make 
hem slavyns. And that lond to you is ordeyned by destany and to 
your peuple. 

The "erbis" of the S/jort English Metrical Chronicle appear to have become 
"rootes of the erth" in the Rylands text, which omits the Chronicles qualify- 
ing phrase "of get," which appears in the Harvard and BL texts — that is, 
each text preserves details from the source, although each is close to the 
other. Minor errors in BL Harley 24 suggest that it is secondary to BL 
Addit. 12030. 

A further detail that helps to distinguish the EV-1419:A from other 
groups is the name of Coryn's paramour in chapter 4, which is not given in 
the CV: 

Then seyde Brute to Coryn "3yf Erneborowe [Erneburgh H, Add] {)y 
paramoure my3t wyte |)at one man onely ferde J)ys [thus H] foule 
with \t& sche wolde neuer loue {)e." [Harvard Richardson 35] 

This detail is also taken from the Short English Metrical Chronicle, where 
the relevant lines read: 

8c if J)e worde of J)e spronge 
[)at o man f)e stod so longe 
Geant or champion 
Al J)i honour were ileide adon 
8c nameliche to J)i lemman 
J)at is so fair a womman 
Whenne Coryneus hurde J)at 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 187 

J)at Brut of his lemman spak 

Of Erneborw [vrr. ernebourwe, Erneburh, 
erneburgh] 

|)at maide hende 

To Gogmagog he gan wende . . . 
[Zettl, ed., Metrical Chron., p. 4, lines 71-80; variant readings 
from Marion C. Carroll and Rosemond Tuve, "Two Manuscripts 
of the Middle English 'Anonymous Riming Chronicle'," PMLA 
46 (1931): 122; Joseph Ritson, ed., Ancient Engleish Metrical Ro- 
mancees, 3 vols. (London, 1802), 2:273; CUL Dd.14.2, fol. 261v; 
see also Zettl, ed.. Metrical Chron., pp. 1-li] 

In the listing of the kingdoms of Engist's heptarchy, the Rylands and 
Harvard texts (especially the former) preserve a reading that is closer to that 
of the CV and the other EV/AV texts than that of BL Harley 24 and 
Addit. 12030: 

The vij hade Oxenford, Gloucestr', Wynchestre, Warwik, and Darby- 
shire. [CV, Bodl. Rawlinson B.171: Brie 55/13-14] 

the vij* had Oxfordshire Gloucestreshire Winchestre Wari[k] and 
Derbyshire. [Rylands Eng. 105] 

And \>t vij hadde Oxenfordschyre Gloucestreschyre Wynchestreschyre 
Wanvykeschyre 8c Darbyschire. [Harvard Richardson 35] 

and the vij had Oxenfordeshire Gloucestershire Worcester Warwyke 
and Derbyshire. [BL Harley 24] 

Thus a number of details suggest that BL Harley 24 and Addit. 12030 
can be considered as slightly apart from Rylands Eng. 105 and Harvard 
Richardson 35, which appear to be closer to the ultimate source in the CV 
and to have points of agreement with other EV and AV groups that the BL 
texts do not have. Textual details associate the imperfect texts in Bodl. Raw- 
linson B.187, Bodl. Tanner 188, and Takamiya 12 with Harvard Richardson 
35 rather than with Rylands Eng. 105. 



^ Probably an Anglo-Norman chronicle, possibly Le Brut DEngletere abrege (or some 
source common to both the Short English Metrical Chronicle and the Anglo-Norman 
work), which is printed in Zettl, ed., Metrical Chron., pp. 92-107. But cf. M. Dominica 
Legge, "The Brut Abridged, A Query," Medium ^vum 16 (1947): 32-33. 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 



The Extended Version to 1419, Group B (EV-1419:B) 

Group B contains MSS. BL Harley 4827; BL Harley 2182; Edinburgh 185; 
Glasgow Hunterian 230; CUL Addit. 2775; CUL Ff.2.26; Trinity Coll., 
Oxford, 5; BL Addit. 24859; Virginia 38-173; Lincoln Cathedral 98; NLW 
Addit. 442D; and Bodl. Rawlinson poet. 32(1). With the exception of the 
last two manuscripts, the texts of this group are generally consistent with 
one another. A text of the exordium from this group is printed in the Intro- 
duction, Appendix 3; it differs from that of the EV-1419:A in ways dis- 
cussed more fully below, along with further lexical differences between the 
EV-1419:B and the CV and other EV groups (pp. 237-40). 



104. BL MS. Harley 4827^ 

Heading: Here bigynneth a booke whiche is callid Brute the Cronicles of 

Englond. Capitulo primo. 
Exordium begins: This boke treteth and telle{) of |)e kynges & principal 

lordes 
Prologue heading begins: The prolog of Jjis book declareth hou this lande was 

callid Albioun aftre |)e eldest doughtre of J)e riall kyng Dioclisian of Surry 
Text begins: Somtyme in |)e noble land of Surry 
Contains: Latin tag. Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: in reule 6c in gouernaunce. 

Remarks: A slip of vellum interleaved between fols. 56 and 58 contains a 
copy in a Chancery hand of a bill, apparently dated 36 Henry VI (1457), re- 
questing letters of safeconduct for John Ponce and four of his servants. 



^ Kennedy, Manual, p. 2819, erroneously dates the manuscript to the sixteenth century. 



105. BL MS. Harley 2182 

Heading: Here begynnej) a boke which is callid Brute J)e cronycles of Eng- 

londe. Capitulo 'f. 
Exordium begins: This booke tretej) techej) and tellij) of kingis and of princi- 

palle lordis jjat euere were in J)is londe 
Prologue heading begins: The prolog of {)is boke declarej) how J)is londe was 

callid Albyon after J)e eldist dou3ter 
Text begins: Somtyme in Jje noble londe of Surreye 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 189 

Contains'. Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "Sw" heading 
Ends: in reule and in gode gouernaunce. 

Remarks: At the end of the text, on fol. 185, occurs a short note by a six- 
teenth- or seventeenth-century annotator: "printinge was firste invented in 
Germanie at Magance in the yere of our redempcion anno 1458 & was 
brougt into England in the yere of our lord 1471." The wording is reminis- 
cent of the Great Chronicle of London and of Caxton's comments in the Liber 
ultimus of his printed Polychronicon} 

On the front flyleaf occur the early modern name of George This(?), an 
owner of the manuscript, and the later name of William Jones. 



^ See Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," pp. 599-600 and n. 30. 

106. Edinburgh University Library MS. 185 

Heading: Here begynneth a boke which is called Brute the cronyculis of 

England. Capitulo primo. 
Exordium begins: This book tretij) & tellij) of J)e kingis and princepall lordis 
Prologue heading begins: The prolog of J)is book declarij) how J)is land was 

callid Albyoun aftir f)e oldest doughtir of J)e ryall l^^g Dioclysyan of 

Surry 
Text begins: Svmtyme in J)e noble lond of Surry 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, C^L, "5w" heading 
Ends: in good rule and gouernaunce. Deo gracias. 

107. University of Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 230 

Original text begins imperfectly, his lettris patent vnto these xxxiij" kingis [cf. 

Brie 2/32] 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: in good rule & gouernaunce. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: The text up to the imperfect beginning has been supplied in a 
modern copy taken from Glasgow Hunterian 74(1) (item 68). 

The text is included here on the evidence of the giants' passages and the 
enumeration of the thirty-three kings (see pp. 190-91, 193-94 below). 

Some aphorisms written by a "Rychard Wylloughbe" occur on the last fo- 
lio. The manuscript seems to have been owned by the Willoughby and 
Zouche families of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.^ 



190 THE EXTENDED VERSION 



^ See BofFey, Manuscripts of English Courtly Love Lyrics, p. 124 and n. 33. 



108. Cambridge University Library MS. Additional 2775 

Begins imperfectly: his letters patent vnto these xxxiij" kingis [cf. Brie 2/32] 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends: in good rule 8c gouernaunce. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: The first folio is now fragmentary, it is possible that Glasgow 
Hunterian 230 (see the preceding manuscript), which begins at the same 
point, was copied from the Cambridge manuscript at some time after this 
folio was damaged. 



109. Cambridge University Library MS. Ff.2.26 

Begins imperfectly during exordium on fragmentary fol. 1: J)e ^ridde aftir J)e 
[ . . . ] kingis whos lyues 8c actis ben [ . . . ] in {)is book ^e which conteyn- 
eth CC xx[ . . . jtris wiJ)oute |)e protholog or prolog. 

Prologue heading. [T]he prolog of J)is book declarith how jjis lond was callid 
Albioun aftir J)e eldist doughtir of {)e rial king Dioclisian of Surry J)e 
which dou3ter was callid Albyne and sche wi|) hir xxxij sisters were exilid 
out of her owne lond for grete trespaces J)at |)ey hadde doon and arryued 
in this lond casuely wheryn was no lyuyng creature but wilde berstis \sic\ 
and how vnclene spiritis lay by hem and J)ey broughten forth horrible 
gyauntis and Brute killide hem. [cf p. 65 above] 

Contains: Cad, QIL 

Omits: Latin tag (see below), "5w" heading (see below) 

Ends imperfectly: almy3ti God hadde many tymes done for Thomas loue of 
Lancastre many grete myracles to many men 8c women that [Brie 263/6- 
8] 

Remarks: The text ends before the battle of Halidon Hill. Many folios are 
missing throughout the manuscript, including those that contained the 
chapter on the thirty-three kings, but the internal details, insofar as they 
remain, agree with those of other EV-1419:B texts, as follows: 

(a) first giants passage: 

8c so conceyuede and brou3te for|) grete gyantis of {)e whiche oon was 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 191 

callid Gogmagog and he was xl feet of leng^e & xij feet [repeated of 
brede 

(b) second giants passage. 

and in {)at lond was wont to be manye giauntis and now ther ben but 
fewe and J)at lond is al wildirnes in the which gyauntis lyuen J)ere bi 
herbis & bi rootis and J)ere ben scheep as grete as hors and J)at lond is 
ordeyned for 30U 8c for 30ure peple and J)ere schule we [corr. to 3e in 
marg.] dwelle. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Panne seide Brute vnto Coryn "If Eneburgh J)i paramour my3te wite 
J)at 00 man ferde so foule with J)ee sche wolde neuer loue |>ee.'' 

In 1856, Frederic Madden implied that the text ended in 1377, and since 
the manuscript was imperfect when Brie examined it. Brie relied on Mad- 
den's description to assume that it was a text of the CV-1377.^ The pro- 
logue heading and internal details are, however, those of an EV text, and 
Madden was mistaken in believing that it ended in 1377.^ 

The appropriate volume of the catalogue of Cambridge University manu- 
scripts, published in 1857, describes the manuscript as being then in the 
same imperfect state as it is now.-' It cannot, therefore, be supposed that the 
text represents the posited EV-1377, for the EV-1419:B shows many sec- 
ondary features unique to the group (see below), and these features are 
found in CUL Ff 2.26. 

The dialect of the text is that of the Central Midland literary standard."* 



^ Frederic Madden, "Prose Chronicles of England Called the Brute," Notes and Queries 

2nd ser., 1 (1856): 2-3; Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 56. 

^ It seems likely that Madden did not examine the manuscript personally, for he remarks 

elsewhere in his article that "None of the copies I have examined are older, however, than 

the fifteenth century, and it would be desirable to know if those referred to at Cambridge 

are coeval with the period at which they conclude" (3). 

^ A Catalogue of the Manuscripts Preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge 

(Cambridge, 1857), pp. 346—47, where the manuscript is described as possessing 104 

leaves and breaking off at "cap. ccxvi" of Caxton's Chronicles of England (1480). 

*' Samuels, "Some Apphcations of Middle Enghsh Dialectology," pp. 84-85 and n. 5. 

110. Trinity College, Oxford, MS. 5^ 

Heading, Here begynneth a boke the whiche is callyd Brute the Cronycler 
\sic\ of Inglond. Capitulo primo. 



192 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

Exordium begins: This book tretyth & tellyth of the kynges & the pryncipal 

lordys 
Prologue heading begins: The prologe of this boke declaryth how this lond 

was callyd Albyon after the eldest dovter of the royall kyng Dyodycyan 
Text begins: Some tyme in the noble lond of Surre 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly on fol 216v: 8c the dolfyn & the duke of Burgoyne [Brie 

389/29] 



^ See S. J. Ogilvie-Thomson, The Index of Middle English Prose, Handlist VIII: Manu- 
scripts Containing Middle English Prose in Oxford College Libraries (Cambridge, 1991), p. 
93. 



111. BL MS. Additional 24859 

Begins imperfectly: and so withinne a litil while he bicame of so greet power 
that men wiste not whiche were the l^^ngis men ne whiche were Engistis 
men [Brie 52/31-53/1] 

Contains: Latin tag. Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Ends: in reule and gouernaunce. 

Remarks: Additional evidence for including the text here can be found in the 
Engist's heptarchy passage: 

The first kyng was of Kent and there Engist himsilf regnyd and he 
was lord and maistir of the o|)ere kyngis; f)e secund was kyng of 
Southsexe; J)e iij^ was kyng of Westsexe; J)e iiij* was l^^ng of Essexe; 
|)e v^ was kyng of Estangle that is callid Northfolk and Southfolk; 
and the yj^ was kyng of Leicestre-schire Northampton Hertford and 
Huntyngdoun; J)e vij*^ was kyng of Oxenford Gloucestre Wynchestre 
Warwik and Derbischire. [cf pp. 193, 196 below] 

Brie, however, thought that this text belonged to the CV-1419 and used 
it for collation purposes for his texts for 1333 to 1377 and 1377 to 1419, de- 
scribing it in his edition as: "7= MS. Br. Mus. Add. 24,859, a late but accu- 
rate transcript from a MS. of the second half of the 15th century which 
closes with the capture of Rouen in 1419."^ 



^ Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 63; Brie 2: vi. 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 193 

112. University of Virginia MS. 38-173^ 

First complete lines of fragmentary fol Iv (fol Ir illegible): assent wroot 
[ . . . ]el tacches of her wyues vnto here fad[ . . . ] Dioclisian biseking him 
to sette a remedie [cf. Brie 2/24-27] 

Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Ends imperfectly: J)e king prayede alle his lordis to make hem [ . . . ]o 
strengthe him his ri3t and |)anne anone he [lete catchword\ [Brie 382/2-3] 

Remarks: Additional evidence for including the text here consists of: 

(a) second giants passage: 

and in f)at londe was wonte to ben many geauntes but now J)er been 
but fewe & ^at londe is al wildernesse in J)e whiche geauntes lyuen 
|)ere by herbis and by rootis and J)ere ben scheepe as greet as an hors 
&, J)at londe is ordeyned for 30U and for 30ure peple and |)ere schulle 
3e dwelle. 

(b) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Thanne seide Brute vnto Coryn "if Eneburgh \>\ paramour my3t wyte 
J)at 00 man ferde so foule with J)ee sche wolde neuer loue {)ee." 

(c) 33 kings passage: 

The j^ kinge of {)ese xxxiij" kingis was callid Gorbodia and he regnyd 
xij 3ere. The ij^ kynge was callid Morgan and he regnyd ij 3ere. The iij' 
kynge was callid Githnaus [sic\ and he regned yj 3ere. {etc.^ 

(d) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

The j' kyng was of Kent J)er Engist himsilf regnyd and was lorde &. 
maister of alle J)e o|)er kyngis. The ij^ was kynge of SouJ)sex; J)e iij' was 
kynge of Westsex; |3e iiij^ was kynge of Essex; \>e. v* was kynge of Est- 
angle jjat is now Northfolke and Sou^folke; and J)e yj^ was l^^nge of 
Leicestre-schire Northamton Hertforde & Hontyngdon. The vij^ was 
kynge of Oxenforde Gloucestre Wynchestre Warwike and Derby- 
schere. 



^ See George H. Reese, "The Alderman Brut. A Diplomatic Transcript, Edited with a 
Study of the Text," Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1947, esp. pp. 14-21 for a de- 
scription of the manuscript and its history. 



113. Lincoln Cathedral MS. 98^ 

Heading on damaged foL 1 74: Hire bigynneth a bok wiche is callid Brut the 



194 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

Cronyclis of Engelonde. Capitulo primo. 
Exordium begins: This boke tretith 8c tellith of the kingis 8c principal lordis 
Prologue heading begins: The prolog of this book declareth how this londe 

was callid Albioun 
Text begins: Sumtyme in the noble londe of Surry 
Ends imperfectly onfol 181v: ffor he was duk of Burgoyn J)orugh Fowyn J)at 

he had spousid wiche was dou3tir 8c heir [vnto the duke of catchwords] 

[cf Brie 26/18-19] 

Remarks: Only one quire of the Brut text survives; with other items, it has 
been appended to form this composite manuscript. 

The text is included here on the strength of the exordium and prologue, 
supported by the following passages: 

(a) first giants passage: 

8c so \>ey conceyvid 8c brou3t forth gret gyauntis of the wiche oon was 
called Gogmagog 8c he was xl feet of lengthe 8c xij feet of brede. And 
thes giauntis dwelleden in diuers placis in this londe Albioun in cavis 
8c in mounteyns into the tyme J)at Brute come into this lond 8c arryvid 
at Toteneys in Devenshire 8c j[)anne this Brute scomfitid 8c conqueryd 
alle these giauntis 8c slow3 hem all. 

(b) second gian ts passage: 

8c in J)at londe J^ere was wonte to ben many geauntis but now J)ere ben 
but fewe 8c |)at londe is al wildernes in J)e wiche geauntis lyven |)ere by 
herbis 8c by rootis 8c J)ere ben shepe as grete as hors 8c J)at londe is 
ordeyned for 30W 8c for 30ur puple 8c ther shulde 36 dwelle. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Thanne seid Brute vnto Coryn "3if Eneborugh thi paramour myght wet 
J)at 00 man ferde so foule wij) the she wolde neuere loue the." 



^ See Rodney M. Thompson, Catalogue of the Manuscripts of Lincoln Cathedral Chapter 
Library (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 73-75; Julia C. Crick, The 'Historia Regum Britannie' of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, IIL A Summary Catalogue of the Manuscripts (Cambridge, 1989), 
pp. 130-33. 



114. National Library of Wales MS. Additional 442D^ 

Heading;^. Here begynneth a booke whiche is called Brute the Cronycles of 
Englonde. Capitulo primo. 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 195 

Exordium begins: This booke treteth and telleth of |)e ^Tiges and principal 

lordes 
Prologue heading begins: The prolog of |)is booke declareth hou J)is was callyd 

Albyon aftre Jje eldest doughtre 
Text begins: Somtyme in J)e noble londe of Surry 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL, "Sw" heading 
Ends: in reule and in gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The internal features are those of the preceding texts until the end 
of the chapter on the battie of Halidon Hill, that is, the point where the 
CV text to 1333 continues with the 1377 continuation. The concluding sec- 
tion of the Halidon Hill chapter and the first section of the chapter "How 
King Edward made a duchy of the earldom of Cornwall ..." are omitted, 
and the text reads: 

And J)is victorie bifelle to J)e Englissh men in Sent Margaretes euen 
in J)e yere of oure lorde Ihesu Crist M' CCC xxxij And while J)is 
doyng last |)e Englissh knaues nomen J)e pilfre of f)e Scottes {)at were 
queld euery man J)at he my3t of |)e l^Tiges frendes of Englond wij) 
_ tovnes & castelles & meny o|)ere of her lordships and meny harmes 
shames and despites dede vnto J)e queen. Wherfore J)e kyng whanne 
he herde of J)ese tidynges he was strongliche moued and J)erwiJ) an- 
angred and sent dyuers lettres ouere see to {)e queen and to ojjere |)at 
were his frendes gladyng hem and certefiyng |)at he wolde be {)ere 
himself in alle jje haste J)at he might, [cf Brie 286/4-8, 294/4-10] 

Thereafter the text becomes normal again until it ends in 1419(r&g). The 
omission of material does not make sense as it stands and has probably oc- 
curred through scribal error; it is of interest, however, since the AV-1419:B 
also exhibits the omission of material around this point (see pp. 226-27). 



* See Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 371-73, for a description and an analysis 
of the contents (Marx niistakenly assigns the text to my "Common Version" [373]). 

115. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson poet. 32(1)^ 

Heading onfol 57: Here begynneth a boke which is called Brute the Crona- 

cle of England. Capitulo &c. 
Exordium begins: This boke treteth techeth and telleth of kyngis and of 

pryncipall lordis 



196 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

Prologue heading begins: The prologg of this boke declareth how this lande 

was called Albioun after the eldest doughter 
Text begins: Sum tyme in the noble lande of Surrey 
Omits: Latin tag 
Contains: Cad 
EV-1419 text ends onfol. llSv: and this batail was ended at Tunbrigg in the 

ij*^^ yer of his raigne vppon Saint Calixtis day and he lyeth att Walteham. 
Colophon: Here endeth the Cronacles from Brute vntill William Conquerour. 

Remarks: The extra details in the prologue and opening chapters are similar 
to those in the other EV-1419:B texts (although minor verbal differences 
suggest that the text stands at one further remove), but in the chapter listing 
the kings of Britain, although the kings are enumerated (the last being num- 
bered twenty-nine), the Latin tag on Blegabred does not appear. Constan- 
tine reigns after Arthur's death. 

The naming of Engist's heptarchy is slightly shorter than in either the 
CV or the EV, but the introductory wording is closer to the CV or EV- 
1419:A than to the other EV-1419:B texts, whereas the remainder corres- 
ponds in general to that of the EV-1419:B: 

And then thai changed the name of this land. And callid hit [ins. 
above] after the name off Engeist and that no man yn no wyse wer so 
hardy to call hitt Bretaigne. And then Engeist departyd the lond 
betwene hym and his men and made vij kynges for the mor strengjje 
of hymself so that the Bretons shuld cum no mor among ham. The 
first l^^ng was of Kent ther that Engeist hymself raigned above all the 
oJ)er kynges. The ij'' was of SowJ)esex; the iij'^ of Westsex; the iijj*"^ of 
Estsex. The v^^ of Esthangele which ys now Northfolke and Sowth- 
folke. The vj was of Laicesttre Northampton Hertefford and Hun- 
tyngdon. The vij^^ kyng was off Oxfford Glowcettre Wynchester 
Warwyke and Derbysher. [cf pp. 192, 193, and Brie 55/2-14] 

The Brut text is written in a number of hands, who were clearly super- 
vised carefully in the production of the composite text. Medieval foliation by 
one of the scribes in the top right corner of the rectos of the leaves shows 
that the Brut text was originally written as a separate text and that it was 
originally conceived of as a whole to the end of the continuation to 1422. 

The beginning of the EV text occurs on medieval fol. "j" (modern fol. 
57). The last medieval foUo, numbered "iiij"" xiijj" (modern fol. 150), con- 
tains on its verso text from near the end of the 1422 continuation, which is 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 197 

finished by a new hand on fol. 151. The new hand then proceeds with a 
CV-1461 continuation that was probably not part of the original plan. 

The composite Brut text became the eighth part of a larger compendium 
manuscript in the late fifteenth century. In the general table of contents the 
Brut text is called "The olde Cornecles and the newe" (fol. 2). A "tabyll off 
all the l^ges that euer raignyd yn Englond" and the lengths of their reigns 
(fols. 55v^56v) precedes the Brut text, on which it is clearly based; the table 
begins with Brutus and ends "Henre the yj raygnyd xxxix yere." 



^ For (2), see item 160; for (3), see item 90. Part of fol. 65v is reproduced in M. B. 
Parkes, English Cursive Book Hands 1250-1500 (1969; rpt. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 
1980), plate 12(ii). 



The Extended Version to 1419, Group C (EV-1419:C) 

Group C contains MSS. CCCC 182, TCC 0.9.1(1), Bodl. Laud Misc. 
571, Princeton Garrett 150, Illinois 116(1), Soc. of Antiquaries 223, and 
Huntington HM 133. For discussion of its recension of the exordium and 
further changes compared to the CV and other EV groups, see pages 237- 
40 below. 



116. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 182 

Exordium begins: Here begynneth a booke in Englissh tonge called Brute of 
Englonde or the Cronicles of Englonde compilinge and treatynge of the 
saide lande 

Prologue heading begins: The prloge [sic\ of this booke declareth and tellith 

Text begins: Sum tyme in the noble londe of Surre 

Omits: Latin tag 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Ends: in rule and goueranase [sic]. 

Remarks: A sixteenth-century hand has added a colophon: "Explicit usque ad 
annum 7"" Henrici quinti." 



117. Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. 0.9.l(l)^ 

Exordium begins on fol. 49: Here begynneth a booke in Englissh tonge called 



198 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

Brute of Englond or the Cronicles of Englond compilyng and tretyng of 

the seid lande 
Prologue heading begins: The prologe of this booke declareth and telleth how 

this lande was first called Albioun after the eldest doughter of the roiail 

kyng Dioclician of Surre called Albyne 
Heading to text Here begynneth the ffirst chapter. 
Text begins: Somtyme in the noble lande of Surre ther was a noble and a 

worthy man called Dioclician a grete conquerour and a myghty man 
Omits: Latin tag, "5w" heading (see below) 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
EV-1419:C ends onfol. 195: in rewle and in gouernaunce. 

Remarks'? The name of Coryn's "lemman" is not given and the names of 
Ebrak's children are omitted. 

The manuscript is illustrated throughout with well executed borders and 
initials, though the rubrication of chapter headings was not completed. 
Headings are thus omitted in the chapter containing the battle of Halidon 
Hill and a space is left where the "5w" heading would appear. 

A break occurs in the manuscript between fol. lOOr (the death of "Alrude" 
and the flight of Godwin [Brie 128/10]) and fol. 103r (the arrival in Eng- 
land of Edward the Confessor [Brie 128/11]). Much of fol. lOOr is left 
blank; fols. lOOv-101 contain notes on Ireland, the number of bishoprics, 
shires, towns, etc.; fols. lOlv and 102r are left blank (except for the later 
name "William Barret" on the latter; the beginning of a late deed of Will. 
Barret of Sholton in Staffordshire appears on fol. 231v); on fol. 102 appears 
a fine set of illustrations to the life of Edward the Confessor, consisting of 
seven scenes in six compartments. The break seems to have been dehberately 
left for the paintings, and there does not appear to have been a change of 
exemplar at this point. 



^ For (2), see item 83. See Mooney, Handlist, pp. 136-38. Earlier items in the manuscript 
are "Heruest hath iij monethis" and prose lives of St. Katherine, St. James, and the 
Virgin; for these and other minor items, see also James, Western Manuscripts . . . Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 3: 439-41. 
^ See also p. 151 for a London connection. 



118. Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 571 

Exordium begins onfol 6: Here begynneth a boke yn Englyssh tonge called 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 199 

Brute of Engelond or the Cronycler of Engelond compyled and tretyng 

of the sayd londe 
Prologue heading begins: The prologge of thys booke declareth 8c telleth how 

thys lande was ffirste called after the eldest doughter of J)e ryall Ignig 

Deoclisyan off Surre 
Heading to text (damaged): Here bigynneth the cronycle of a wo[ . . , ] called 

Dyoclisian which was a grete conquerour & conquered many [ . . . ] 
Text begins: Some tyme in the nobbe Ysic\ lande of Surrey 
Omits: Latin tag 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly (see below): And yn J)e firste yere of his reigne for grete 

[Brie 373/5-6] 

Remarks: The text is prefaced by an early modern table of kings and chapters 
to Henry V. 

The exordium, which omits some phrases found in other manuscripts of 
the group, is subdivided into sections, some parts of the text being laid out 
as headings in red. The number of kings who have reigned in England is 
computed up to Henry VI, instead of up to Edward III (cf item 98); the 
number of kings has been changed, but the number of chapters said to be in 
the book seems to have been left alone (the edge of the leaf is damaged, but 
"CC xxx[ . . . ]" is visible). 

Coryn's "lemman" is not named, and the names of Ebrak's children are 
omitted. 

The text ends in the midst of a line, partway down fol. 142v (four lines 
into chapter 244), and is presumably as complete as it ever was. 

After the imperfect ending occurs an early note of ownership (part of the 
leaf has been cut away): "This boke is gevyn to Esabell Alen of the bequest 
of her hunkuU ser William Trouthe vicary in the close of Salisbury to the 
entent that sche schuld pray for hym of whom God of his [mi.] sawle haue 
mercy. Delyueryd by the handes of hir ffader and moder William Alen 
[ . . . ] Elenor his wiff which Elenor [which Elenor ins.] desessyd vpon ser 
[^(f/.] Mary Mawdlen eve the [ . . . ] of kyng H. vij" of whom God of her 
saule haue mercy. Amen. Quod Esabel(?)." 

119. Princeton University Library, Garrett MS. 150^ 

Begins imperfectly during exordium on fragmentary fol 1: pi[ . . . ] lond [ . . . ] 
was fyrst a wyldreness[ . . . ]nd forlete and no thyng theerin [ . . . ]ut wylde 
bestis and fowlis 



200 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

Prologue heading begins: The proloog of this book declarith and tellyth 

Omits: Latin tag, "5w" heading (see below) 

Contains: Cad, QIL 

Ends: in rewie and in governaunce. Explicit. 

Remarks: The names of Ebrak's numerous sons and daughters are omitted 
(Brie 15/15-24). 

An addition is made to the chapter heading that begins the reign of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror: "Here endith the cronicles of alle the kynges before the 
conquest and next folowith William Bastard duke of Normandie that con- 
querid alle Englond. Off William Bastarde and howe he gouerned hym wel 
and wysely 8c of the warre that was betwene hym & the kyng of Fraunce." 

The chapters between the death of Mortimer and the establishment of the 
duchy of Cornwall are omitted (Brie 272/6-292/26), a gap that includes the 
Halidon Hill chapter. This gap is very suggestive of the omission of material 
around the same point that occurs in the AV-1419:B (see pp. 226-27). 
Taken with the evidence of the "double heading" to the reign of William 
the Conqueror, it might seem possible that these reflect a change to an 
exemplar that also underlies the AV-1419:B. The evidence of the following 
text, however, suggests that this is not the case and that the gap in 
Princeton Garrett 150 is the result of scribal error. 

Early owners of the manuscript include Sir John Sulyard (died 1488), 
justice of the King's Bench, and "Syr Thomas Bourgyer knight" (also 
"T. Bourgchier"), the constable of Leeds Castle, who married Sulyard's wid- 
ow, Anne, and who died in 1492? 



^ See Bennett, Preston, and Stoneman, Summary Guide, p. 45. 

^ And not Thomas Bourghier, archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1486), as mistakenly noted 
by me in Analytical and Enumerative Bibliography 3 (1979): 265. See BofFey, Manuscripts 
of English Courtly Love Lyrics, pp. 122-23 and nn. 29 and 30 (where other books associ- 
ated with the influential Bourchier family are also noted); Meale, "Patrons, Buyers and 
Owners," pp. 216 and 233 n. 87, where the signature of "John Sulyerd" is noted; Carol 
M. Meale, " '. . . alle the bokes that I haue of latyn, enghsch, and frensch': Laywomen and 
Their Books in Late Medieval England," in Women and Literature in Britain 1150-1500, 
ed. Carol M. Meale, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 142-43. 



120. University of Illinois MS. 116(1)^ 

Exordium begins: Here begynneth a boke in Englysshe tonge called Brute of 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 201 

Ingelond or the Cronycles of Ingelond compylynge and tretynge of J)e 

seyd londe 
Prologue heading begins: The prologe of J)is boke declarej) & tellej) 
Text begins: Some tyme in J)e noble londe of Surry 
Omits: Latin tag 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Second hand ends onfol. 184v: Nowe wille I tel 30U whiche were J)e chiefF 

capteyns 6c governoures of J)is cite of Rone. Mounser Guy Botteler was 

chieff cap [Brie 390/8-10] 

Remarks: As in the preceding text, the names of Ebrak's children are omit- 
ted and the addition to the heading to the reign of William the Conqueror 
appears. Unlike the previous text, however, there is no loss of material 
around the Halidon Hill chapter. 

A change of exemplar is indicated where the third hand of the manuscript 
continues in mid-word on fol. 185 with a CV-1430 JP:B continuation. 



^ For (2), see item 81. 



121. Society of Antiquaries MS. 223 

Text begins: Som tyme in the noble lande of Surry 

Omits: Latin tag 

Ends imperfectly: And whenne she came vnto age she [Brie 67/23-24] 

Remarks: The hand of this paper manuscript, which belongs to the late fif- 
teenth century, becomes progressively more of a hurried scribble.^ The text 
is probably complete as the scribe left it, for it ends about two-thirds down 
fol. 45v. 

The text is included in this group on the evidence of: 

(a) Jirst giants passage: 

grete gyauntes of the whiche men callyd one of hem Gogemagoge 
chefe of hem all xl ffoote longe & xij foote of breede & an othir was 
called Wydy & he dwellyd in Shropeshyre vppon an hyghe hyll callyd 
the Wrekyn and an other Onowen and an othir Bounde and many 
othir there weren 8c called dyuerse names 8c dwelled in depe caues 8c 
on hyghe hyllys and mountetaynes whiche gyantes gate vppon her 
moders more gyantes [vppon her moders del.] to multeplye there people 



202 THE EXTENDED VERSION 

at theyre owne luste 8c wyll vnto the tyme that Brute come and 
sloughe many of them and conquered the londe &c. 

(b) second giants passage: 

8c that ile is compassed all with the see and no man may come ther but 
all shyppes and in that londe were wonte to be many gyauntes but now 
{)er be but few and so that is but wyldyrnes ne no erthe tylled ne none 
sede isow of no maner graynes; also the gyauntes lyue be dyuers frutes 
growyng there and be fowles wylde and tame and othir grete bestes and 
in especyall by fleshe off sheepe grete as horses whyche beryn woll as 
it were here of gotes where-of they maken hem slavens and that londe 
is to you ordeyned by desteny and to yowre people. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

and than seyde [seyde repeated\ Brute vnto Coryn "yefe thy lemman 
wyste {)at one farde so fowle the she wolde neuyr loue the after." 

(d) As in the other texts of the group, the names of Ebrak's children are 
omitted. 



^ Three examples of the development of the hand are given in Parkes, English Cursive 
Book Hands, plate 21 and p. 21. 



122. Huntington MS. HM 133^ 

Begins imperfectly: Fraunce. And whanne he come a3ene intoo ^is londe he 
belded \ftrst e overy] a fayre tone and now es a cytee [cf. Brie 15/10-11] 

Omits: Latin tag, QIL (see below) 

Contains: Cad 

Ends imperfectly: nay he shulde notte be transled the same erle Thomas of 
Lancaster vntoo the tyme that he was [Brie 263/12-13] 

Remarks: The folios are missing that might have contained QIL. 

An examination of the first chapters of the text shows it to agree well 
with the other EV-1419:C texts. As in these, the names of Ebrak's numer- 
ous children are omitted. 

In the chapter relating the construction by Bladud of the hot baths at 
Bath, there is a verse addition (written as prose), apparently unique among 
extant EV and AV manuscripts, taken from the Short English Metrical 
Chronicle? The verses occur at a point where the CV-1333 remarks "as Jje 
gest tellej)" (Brie 16/16), a phrase that is omitted in the other EV-1419:C 



THE EXTENDED VERSION 203 

texts. The Huntington manuscript is at times carelessly written, presenting 
readings at a further remove from the ultimate CV sources than the corres- 
ponding readings in the other texts of the group; it cannot, therefore, repre- 
sent the original of the group in its present form. It is striking, however, 
that the verses on the hot baths should come from the Short English Metrical 
Chronicle f from which source other details were added to the EV; possibly 
the Huntington text reflects an earlier stage of the EV that contained those 
verses. 



^ Sec Dutschke, Guide, 1: 177-78; Hanna, Handlist, pp. 13-14. 
^ Zettl, ed., Metrical Cbron., pp. 7-8, lines 156-84. 



III. The Abbreviated Version 



The Abbreviated Version contains four primary groups: the AV-1419:A 
(with three subgroups), B, C, and D. Important features that help dis- 
tinguish these groups and subgroups are the form of the exordium, specific 
details of content, and the kinds of abridgment found in the individual texts. 
As we have seen, the exordia in groups A, B, and C agree well with the cor- 
responding exordia in groups A, B, and C of the Extended Version, while 
that of group D has no EV counterpart. As in the EV, the wording of de- 
tails ultimately derived from the Short English Metrical Chronicle, such as the 
name and designation ("paramour" or "leman") given to Coryn's mistress, is 
a very useful taxonomic tool. 

Abridgments occur throughout the AV narratives, but those that have 
proved most significant for this classification include the chapter on thirty- 
three kings of Britain, the handling of material after Arthur's death, and the 
treatment of chapters around the battle of Halidon Hill, as well as other 
passages and details that will be encountered in the descriptions and dis- 
cussions below. Thus, for example, the AV-1419:A(a) and the AV- 
1419:A(b) drastically abbreviate the chapter on the thirty-three kings by 
simply omitting the names and lengths of reign of all but the last. The AV- 
1419:A(a), the AV-1419:A(b), the AV-1419:B, and the AV-1419:C omit 
four chapters after the death of Arthur, whereas the AV-1419:A(c) and the 
AV-1419:D apparently repair this omission with a single, substitute chapter 
on Arthur's successor Constantine that is drawn from Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth. Except for one atypical (but explainable) member of the group, the 
AV-1419:B is marked by the wholesale omission of material around the 
batde of Halidon Hill. 



The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group A (AV-1419:A) 

Group A consists of three subgroups, the AV-1419:A(a), the AV- 
1419:A(b), and the AV-1419:A(c), which share the same exordium (with 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 205 

verbal variations) found in the EV-1419:A but are othervsdse not derivable 
one from the other. 



The Abbreviated Version to 1419: 
Group A, Subgroup (a) (AV-1419:A[a]) 
This subgroup contains MSS. Glasgow Hunterian 83(1), BL Harley 
3730(1), and Bodl. Digby 185. 



123. UNivERsnY OF Glasgow, MS. Hunterian 83(1)^ 

Exordium begins on fol. 15\ Here begynnythe a boke in Engleshe tonge 

callyd Brute of Englond qwyche declarethe and tretethe of the ferst be- 

gynnyng of England 
Prologue heading begins: The prologe of |)is boke tellethe how J)is land was 

first callid Albioun efter J)e [qwiche del^ eldest doochter 
Text begins: Svm tyme in the noble land of Surre 
Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur, "5w'' heading (see Remarks on 

the AV-1419:A[a] below) 
Containr. Cad, QIL 
AV text ends imperfectly on fol. 127'v: the armed men drew owte J)e beggers 

8c J)e povyr peple [c£ Brie 391/1-2] 

Remarks: The AV-1419:A(a) text is the original text of the manuscript, to 
which the second scribe later added prefatory material and a Poly. 1461 con- 
tinuation, together with a text of "Warkworth's" Chronicle. 

The first hand is a secretary book hand similar to one of the hands in 
Bodleian Arch. Selden B.24, which has been described as "a typical Scottish 
hand of the end of the fifteenth century."^ The language is northern. 



^ For (2), see item 94. For a fUller account of the manuscript, its texts, and its history, see 

Matheson, ed., Deati and Dissent. 

^ Parkes, English Cursive Book Hands, p. 13 and plate 13(ii). 

124. BL MS. Harley 3730(1)^ 

Exordium begins on fol 2: Here begynnythe a boke in Englysch tonge called 
Brute of Englond which dedareth and treyateth of ^e fyrst begynnyng of 
Englond 



206 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

Prologue heading begins: The prolog of J)is boke telleth how J)is land was first 

callid Albioun efter J)e eldest doughtur 
Text begins: Sum tyme in the noble land of Surrye 
Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur, "5w" heading 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
AV text ends onfol. 105: in reule and gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The Brut text, including the continuation to 1461 (now incom- 
plete), was copied by two scribes from the preceding manuscript and thus 
shares the same internal features. 

The second scribe has prefixed on fol. Ir-v an extract from the epilogue 
of the later version of John Hardyng's Chronicle? 



^ For (2), see item 96. For a fuller account of the manuscript, its texts, and its relation- 
ship to the preceding manuscript, see Matheson, ed.. Death and Dissent. 
^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2644-47, 2836. 



125. Bodleian MS. Digby 185 

Exordium begins: Her begynnyth a booke in Englisch tong called Brute of 
Englond which declareth and treteth of the first begynnyng of Englond 

Prologue heading begins: The prolog of this boke tellith how this lond was 
furst called Albion after the eldist doghter 

Text begins: Svm tyme in the noble lond of Surrey 

Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur, "5w" heading 

Contains: Cad, QIL 

Ends onfol 79: in revoll and governaunce. Explicit. 

Remarks: The Brut is the first item in the manuscript and is followed by 
Hoccleve's Regiment of Princes , Hoccleve's stories of Gerelaus and his wife 
and of Jonathas and his paramour, and the unique text of King Ponthus and 
the Fair Sidone} 

The manuscript belonged to, and was possibly commissioned by, the 
Hopton family of Swillington (near Leeds) in Yorkshire, whose arms are in- 
corporated in the decoration of the initials of the first words of the major 
works. Mather (followed in LALME) suggests that it might have been writ- 
ten for Sir William Hopton.^ 

The language is of the West Riding of Yorkshire, "somewhat northern- 
ized, but of late type."-' 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 207 



^ See M. C. Seymour, "The Manuscripts of Hoccleve's Regiment of Princes," Edinburgh 
Bibliographical Society Transactions 4 (1974): 276-77; Frank J. Mather, Jr., "King Ponthus 
and the Fair Sidone," PMLA 12 (1897): xxiii-xxiv. 

^ See Mather, "King Ponthus," pp. xxiv^-xxv and facsimile. Mather claims that Hopton 
was the treasurer of Edward IV ca. 1465, but he is not listed as such in Fryde, Greenway, 
Porter, and Roy, eds.. Handbook of British Chronology, p. 107. Carol Meale suggests that 
this manuscript may have been the "booke of Englisshe callid OcdiT that Thomasin 
Hopton bequeathed to her son in 1498; see Meale, " '. . . alle the bokes that I haue of 
latyn, englisch, and frensch'," p. 141. 
3 LALME, 1: 147. 



Remarks on the AV-1419:A(a) 

The exordium agrees well with that found in the EV-1419:A. The first 
passage on the giants, however, does not include the extra giants found in 
the EV-1419:A: 

& thei conceved & brogth for [fiirth G, H] giantes of the which men 
called on Gogmagog chef of theym all & he was fifty fote in lenght 
8c xij in bred and all [ow. G, H] the other were called dyuers names 
& dwellyd in hie hylles 8c montayns and in this maner thei came 
forth and were borne horrible giantes in Albioun 8c dwellid sum of 
theym in caves [coves G, H] 8c in hiUes at [and G, H] their lyst 8c 
had the land of Albioun vnto the tyme that Brute come 8c arrived at 
Tottnesse in the He of Albioun 8c ther thys Brute conquered and 
scomfytt theis giantes aboueseyd 8c slogh the most parte of theym as 
bokes openly declareth. [Bodl. Digby 185, collated with Glasgow 
Hunterian 83 (G) and BL Harley 3730 (H)] 

The second giants passage reads as follows: 

Also the giantes lyven by dyuers frutes grovyng ther 8c by fowles wyld 
8c tame 8c other bestes 8c in esspeciall by flesch of schep gret as 
horsses wich weren woUe as her of gete wherof thei mak theym 
slavyns. And that land is to you ordenyd by destyne 8c to your 
people. [Bodl. Digby 185] 

The name of Coryn's paramour is omitted and she is called his "leman": 

And than said Brute vnto Coryn "And yff thy leman wist |)at oon 



208 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

man farde so fowle with \>e scho wald neuer love the efter this," 
[Glasgow Hunterian 83] 

In the chapter listing the thirty-three kings of Britain in the CV and EV, 
the text is drastically shortened and the chapter reads: 

How xxxiij kinges regnede in peass. 

And efter the deith of Esidure xxxiij kinges regnede in this land 
euerichon efter othere. And J)e last of J)aim at regned was callid Ely 
and he had iij sones Lude Cassibalane and Enemyen. [Glasgow 
Hunterian 83] 

The names of Ebrak's many children (Brie 15/15-23) are omitted. 

After the death of Arthur four chapters, recounting the reign of Constan- 
tine and his war with Mordred's sons, the reigns of Adelbright and Edelf, 
the story of Conan and Argentil, and the reign of Curan (see Brie 90/28- 
92/30), are omitted, and Arthur's successor is thus Conan. (This omission 
is, of course, a distinguishing feature of four of the six AV groups and sub- 
groups.) 

The text is abbreviated in many places, such as the chapters on and 
around the reign of King John (see Remarks on the Extended and Abbre- 
viated Versions, below). 

In the chapter on the battle of Halidon Hill the parts of the Scottish 
army are enumerated in the text without any rubricated subheadings, the 
text is abbreviated, and only three wards of the Scottish army are given: 

And in pe thyrd ward was theis lordes: lames Steward of Golden 
Aleyn Steward William Habraham William Morne [Morice B] and 
many oJ)er with vij^ men of armes and xvijM' of commons so |)at per 
was iij bataiUes wele arrayed in armes to mete oure l^^ng conteynyng 
in J)e nowmbre bdijM' & Iv grete lordes lede per [this B] men so 
arrayed in thre [iiij B] bataiUes. [Glasgow Hunterian 83, collated with 
Bodl. Digby 185 (B)] 



T/}e Abbreviated Version to 1419: 
Group A, Subgroup (b) (AV-1419:A[b]) 
Subgroup (b) designates the text of BL MS. Royal 18.B.iv. 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 209 

126. BL MS. Royal 18.B.iv 

Begins imperfectly: of him had skorne and dispite and wolle not doo his wille 

[Brie 2/7-8] 
Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Ends imperfectly: And than the cite of Roan was byseged bothe be land and 

be water and whenn all this was done the shipes come vp than come the 

erle of Warwik [Brie 389/4-6] 



Remarks on the AV-1419:A(b) 

The single text of this subgroup stands apart from the texts of the preceding 
subgroup of the AV-1419:A in several respects and it may reflect an earlier 
stage of the AV-1419:A(a). However, the texts of that subgroup cannot be 
directly derived from it, for they often preserve details that are closer to the 
ultimate CV source (see, for example, the passage on Engist's heptarchy). 
The evidence for including it as a subgroup of the AV-1419:A consists of: 

(a) first giants passage: 

of the whiche men called one Gogmagog chief king of hem all and he 
was xl foote in lenghe and xij in breede and all that othre was called 
diuers names and duelled in high hilles & montains. And in this man- 
ere thei come furthe and were borne horrible giaunts in Albion and 
duelled some of hem in caves and in hilles at there luste and had the 
lande of Albion vnto the tyme that Brute come and ariyved at Totnes 
in the He of Albion. And there this Brute conquered and scomfit thes 
giants abouesaide and slogh the moste parte of hem as bookes openly 
declareth. 

(b) second giants passage: 

Also the giauntes lyven be diuers frutes grewing there and by wilde 
foule & tame and othre grete bestes and in especiall by flesshe of shepe 
grete as hors whiche weren wolle as heire of gotes wherof thei maken 
hem slavyns. And that lande to you is ordeyned by desteyne and to 
your peple. 

(c) Lud passage: 

This Lud loved more to duell at Troie than at eny othre place of the 
lande. Wherefore he commaunded that citee no lenger be called the 
Newe Troie bot Ludentoun or Luddestoune as sume bokes sayn aftre 
his name Lud for in that citee he made moste coste of byggyng. And 



210 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

there he made a gate all oute of the grounde and called it Ludgate aftre 
his owne name. And he made walle the toune and diche it also hot 
aftrewarde the name of cite was chaunged by Saxuns tonge and 
variance of lettres and was called Londoun. And yete is hot Normans 
and othre aliens callen it Loundres and clerkes callen it Ciuitas 
Londoun. 

(d) 33 kings passage: 

Aftre the dethe of Esydoure reigned xxxiij kynges in Britaine ichon 
aftre othre in peace. And the laste of hem was called Ely and he 
reigned hot vij monethes and had iij sonz Lud Cassibilan and Enem- 
ioun. 

(e) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

And Engeste seised all the lande into his hande. And in euery place 
where he come he lete caste doune churches and houses of religioun. 
And distroied Cristendome thrughoute the lande and made chaunge 
the name [the name repeated] of the lande that noman of his were so 
herdy aftre that tyme to calle this lande Britoun hot calle it Eng- 
lyslonde. And nowe by corrupcioun of tong it is called Englonde. And 
he departed all his lande to his men. And made therin vij l^oiges for to 
strength the lande that the Britonis therafter shulde neuir come therin: 
the furste kyngdome was Kent ther that Engest hymself reigned and 
was lorde and maister of all that other. And one othre kyng had Sussex 
where nowe is Chichestre; the iij had Westsex; the iiij had Essex; the 
V kyng had Estangle nowe called Norffolk and Suffolk; the vj had 
Leycestre-shir Northampton-shir Hertfordshir and Huntyndoun; the vij 
had Oxenford Gloucestre Wynchestre Warwyk and Davenshir. 

In the 33 kings passage the AV-1419:A(b) retains the length of Ely's 
reign, whereas in the Lud passage the AV-1419:A(a) preserves details that 
are closer to the ultimate CV source. 

As in the AV-1419:A(a), the names of Ebrak's children are omitted. 

In some important features, however, the text does not agree with the 
texts of other AV-1419:A subgroups: 

(a) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Than saide Brute to Coryn "yf Erneburgh thin paramoure might wit 
that one man onely ferde thus foull with the she wolde neuir love the." 

(b) Halidon Hill passage: 

the full array of the Scottish army, that is, all five wards, including the 
"5w" heading, is given.^ 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 211 



* The leaves have been bound out of order around this part of the text. 



The Abbreviated Version to 1419 y 
Group A, Subgroup fcj (AV-1419:A[c]) 
This subgroup consists of two manuscripts, BL Royal IS.A.ix and Hunting- 
ton HM 131. Although their texts are not very close, they have been 
grouped together because they both contain resemblances to the EV-1419:A 
and include the names of Ebrak's children. It is possible, however, that the 
two texts are independently derived from a form of text that underlies both 
them and the AV-1419:D; if so, then they should be assigned to separate 
groups. 

The two texts share a common chapter, based on Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth's Historian on Arthur's successor Constantine (similar to that found 
in the AV-1419:D). This chapter occurs at a point where four chapters ap- 
pear in the CV and EV. Significantly, these chapters are omitted in the 
AV-1419:A(a), the AV-1419:A(b), the AV-1419:B, and the AV-1419:C, 
suggesting that an acute scribe recognized the lacuna and turned to Geoffrey 
to supply the omission. 

127. BL MS. Royal I8.A.IX 

Heading onfol. 8: Here begynneth the kalendre of Brute in Englesshe. 

Exordium begins: Here begynneth a booke in Englesshe tung called Brute of 

Englonde the whiche dedareth of the flirste begynnyng of the lande 
Prologue heading begins: The prolog of this boke declareth howe the lande 

was called Albion after the eldest suster [sic\ of the roiall king Dioclician 

of Surre 
Text begins: Svme tyme in the noble lande of Surre 
Omits: Latin tag, "Sw" heading (see below) 
Contains: substitute chapter after Arthur, Cad, QIL 
Ends imperfectly, ther was noumbre in the citte by haraldes [Brie 390/22-23] 

Remarks: The names of Ebrak's children are given. 

The four chapters after the death of Arthur are replaced by a single 
chapter on Constantine, after whom reigns Conan (see the following text). 

The text is not directly related to the other AV-1419:A subgroups; in 
general, it seems to be most closely related to the EV-1419:A, although (as 



212 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

in the preceding group) the Latin tag on Blegabred is not found in the 
thirty-three kings passage. 

The heading is paralleled in BL Harley 24 and Addit. 12030 and the 
extra giants of the EV-1419:A appear (see below). 

The Engist passage, although extensively abbreviated, has similarities to 
that found in the EV-1419:A; the confusion of Worcester with Winchester 
found in BL Harley 24 and Addit. 12030 (but not in Rylands Eng. 105, 
Harvard Richardson 35, and the other texts of the EV-1419:A) is not made, 
that is, the text reads "Wynchestre Warwyk and Darbyshire." 

In the Halidon Hill passage there is a partial agreement with Rylands 
Eng. 105 rather than BL Harley 24 in that the Scottish army is divided into 
four divisions: "and in the laste parte of the bataill of Scotlande wer thes 
lordes: the erle of Dunbar keper of the castel of Berwyk " 

Selected textual features that agree with the EV-1419:A are: 

(a) first giants passage: 

grete gyauntes wherof one was called Gogmagog the king of theym all 
the whiche was xl fote of lenght xij of breed; and one was called Wydy 
the whiche duelled vpon an highe hille in Shropshire called the Wrek- 
en; one othre was called Oneweine le fort; one othre Bounde; and 
othre ther weren called diuers names. And thus was the gyauntes 
brought forthe in thys lande and duelled in caves and hylles and mon- 
tanes and inhabitte the lande vnto Brute come and conquered theym 
and sloughe of theym and drove many of theym owte of the lande. 

(b) second giants passage: 

And the giauntes that been ther lyve with rotes and grete bestes and 
ffowles and myghti shepe wherof they maken theym slavyns and 
clothes. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Thanne saide Brute in scorne vnto Coryne '^yi Erneborowe thine para- 
mour knewe that one man fared thus by {)e she wolde neuer loue the 
after this." 

The Brut text is prefaced by a geographical survey abstracted into English 
from Higden's Polychronicon^ beginning on fol. 2, "Primus Liber Cronico- 
rum. Ivlius Cesar a wyse manne," and ending incompletely on fol. 7v, "in 
the whiche regioune was fiirste the people of Gotelande whos "^ 



* The abstract corresponds to Churchill Babington, ed., Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 213 



Monachi Cestrensis, vol. 1, Rolls Series 41 (London, 1865), pp. 41-151. 



128. Huntington MS. HM 131^ 

Exordium begins: Here begynneth Brute in Englysshe the whiche dedareth 
and treteth of all the kinges and of all the notable actes and dedes the 
whiche hathe bene done in this lande sithe the furste begynnyng of this 
lande 

Prologue heading begins: The prolog of this boke dedareth howe this lande 
was flirste called Albioun after the eldest doughter 

Text begins: Some tyme in the noble lande & roialme of Surre 

Omits: Latin tag, "5w" heading (see below) 

Contains: substitute chapter after Arthur, Cad, Qlh 

Ends: in gouemaunce and rule. 

Remarks: The names of Ebrak's children are given. 

As noted above, this text has been grouped with that found in BL Royal 
IS.A.ix since they share (though with a number of verbal differences) a 
common chapter on the reign of Constantine. This chapter parallels closely 
the corresponding account in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia^ suggesting 
that there may have been some gap in the text (reflected in the omission of 
four chapters in several other AV groups). The substitute text is here printed 
from Huntington HM 131, with selected substantive variant readings from 
BL Royal 18.A.ix (R): 

Howe Constantyne cosyn to Arthure reigned and was werred opon by 
Mordrede two sones. Capitulo lxxix° [boodx R]. 

Aitir Arthur reigned hys cosynne Constantine. Thanne come Mor- 
dred two sonnes wyth a grete multitude of Saxouns and werred agains 
this Constantine and oftetymes dide him meche herme and hurte. 
But he prevayled vpon theym 6c drove J)at one vnto London and {)at 
othir vnto Winchestir; and in this same tyme deide Daniell the bys- 
shop of Bangoure an religious manne; and in this same tyme was the 
bysshop of London [Gloucestre R] made erchebysshop of Caunter- 
bury. And thys Constantine pursewed thes two brethre and come 
vnto Wynchestre 6c besegid it and Mordred sonne that was Jjer 
fledde into J)e churche of Seint Amphibale and atte the high altier he 
was take and slaine; and that othir fledde into an hous of ffreres atte 
London and was take and slaine also; 6c thanne this Constantine 



214 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

reigned iiij yere and was slaine of Conan and hys felyship and buried 
atte Stonehenge besyde Vter Pendragoune. 

Of king Conan howe he reigned wele and worthely and welbeloued. 
Capitulo \xxx° [boocx" R]. 

In the Halidon Hill chapter, the Scottish army is divided into three "bat- 
tles," the last of which is subdivided into two wings; the "5w" heading is re- 
placed by the words "and in |)at o|)re wyng was \>e erle of Dunbar." The 
subsequent text on the battle is abbreviated: 

and J)is was done vpon Seint Margarettes even the yere of our lorde 
M' CCC xxxij. And thanne {)es two kinges torned unto the sege of 
Barwyk and J)ei yelde vp J)e toune and J)e castell 

As in the previous text, the Huntington text must be derived from an 
earlier stage of the EV-1419:A than is represented by the extant manu- 
scripts of that group, for it shows a number of similarities to other EV and 
AV groups. 

Selected textual features are: 

(a) first giants passage: 

by straunge meanes spirites of J)e ayer diuersely hadde forto done with 
theym and procreate vpon theim grete giauntes the whiche inhabetted 
the lande after theim wherof one was called Gogmagog king of |)em all 
the whiche was xl fott of lengthe and xij in brede and one o|)er was 
called Wydy the whiche duelled vpon an highe hylle in Shropshire 
called the Wreken and one othir Onewenne le Fort and one oJ)er 
Bounde and thus \>ti were called diuers names and they duelled in 
caues and mountains and inhabited J)e lande vnto J)e tyme that Brute 
come and sloughe many of Ipem the whiche arryved atte Totenesse. 

(b) second giants passage: 

and J)at lande ys wyldiernesse and |5er be inne grete gyauntes and many 
wylde bestes and thes gyauntes maken theym slavyns of Jjer skynnes 
and lyven with ther fflesshe. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

and thanne said Brute vnto Corynne in skorne "and Erneborough thy 
paramour knewe that one manne dide so to the she woulde neuer love 
J)e after |)is." 

(d) Lud passage: 

And after J)e dethe of J)is Ely reigned Ludde hys sonne and well gou- 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 215 

erned pe roialme and welbeloued of hys people and this Ludde loued 
well to abyde atte New Troie & he commaunded it shulde nomor be 
called Newe Troie bot Luddentoune or Luddestoun and J)er he made 
grete coste for he made Ludgate and lete call it after hys ovne name 
Ludde and he made the toune to be diched and afterwarde was the 
name of London changed and called Londoun and after Normans it ys 
called Loundres and in Latynne Londonie. 
(e) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

and than Engest seised all the lande into hys hande and caste dovne 
churches and houses of religioune and distroied Cristendome and 
chaunged the name of J)e lande and called it Engesdond or Engyslonde 
and charged |)at noman shulde calle it Britaine and after {)at by correp- 
cion and brieve tonge it is called Englonde. And thanne he made ther- 
in vij kinges: the fiirste was Kent J)er himself was king; the secounde 
Sussex; the thyrde Westsex; the iiij Essex; the v Northfolk &, Suffolke 
Marcheneryche nowe Lyncoln; the yj Leycestre Northampshire Herte- 
fordshire Huntyngdon; the vij Oxefordshire Gloucestre Wynchestre 
Warwyk and Derbyshire. 



^ See Dutschke, Guide, 1: 174-75; Hanna, Handlist, p. 13. 
^ See Wright, ed., 'Historia Regum Britannie,' p. 132. 



The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group B (AV-1419:B) 

This large group consists of MSS. Glasgow Hunterian 443; BL Harley 
1337; Bodl. Hatton 50; BL Harley 6251; BL Stowe 71; Jesus CoU., Oxford, 
5; Bodl. Tanner 11; Michigan 225; Alnwick 457A; NLW Peniarth 
396D(2); Bodl. RawHnson C.901; and Bodl. Rawlinson B.190. The second 
section of the PV-1419(r&g):D (MSS. TCD 5895 and BL Harley 7333) is 
also taken from a text of this group (see pp. 268-71). 

Although this group possesses a number of distinctive features, the most 
obvious are the B-recension of the exordium, shared with the EV-1419:B 
(see Introduction, Appendix 3), and a major loss of narrative material 
around the batde of Halidon Hill in all but one text, which has probably 
switched to a second exemplar by that point. 



216 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

129. University of Glasgow^, MS. Hunterian 443 

Heading: Her begynnyth a boke wyche that ys callyd Brute of the Croneclis 

of Engelonde. 
Exordium begins: [T]J)e wych booke tretyth 8c lellyth \^sic\ of J)e kyngys and 

princypall lordys 
Prologue heading begins: Here begynnyth a prolog. [Here . . . prolog in red\ 

[T]the prolog of J)is boke dedaryth how {)is lond was callyd Albione aftyr 

\ie, heldest dou3ter 
71?^;/ begins: Some tyme in J)e nobyll lond of Surre 
Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Ends imperfectly: the capetayn come out and delyueryd f)e kayis and the cas- 

tell to our kyng 8c Bawayis 8c ^e othyr [Brie 384/21-22; the rest of the 

line and a partially decipherable catchword have been erased] 

Remarks: As in the other texts of this group, the names of Ebrak's children 
are given. 

Several kings are omitted in the thirty-three kings passage, and the omis- 
sion of the Latin tag on Blegabred in this text is probably not significant. 

The chapters around the reign of King John are heavily abbreviated (see 
pp. 241-42 below). 

The omission of the Halidon Hill chapter is part of a longer omission. 
The text breaks off in mid-sentence near the foot of fol. 133 in the chapter 
recounting the downfall and execution of Roger Mortimer. Fol. 133v was 
left blank and the text resumes at the top of fol. 134 with the chapter on the 
naval battle at Winchelsea (Brie 303/25). Such a physical break in the 
manuscript raises the possibility that a change of exemplar occurred at this 
point.^ 

The dialect is that of Central Surrey and there are orthographic similari- 
ties to manuscripts written in religious houses south of London.^ 



^ A second physical and textual lacuna occurs between fols. 165v (Brie 368/14) and 168 
(Brie 373/1: the beginning of Henry Vs reign). 

2 LALME, 1: 89, 3: 495-96. See M. L. Samuels, "Kent and the Low Countries," in 
Edinburgh Studies in English and Scots, ed. A. J. Aitken, Angus Mcintosh, and Hermann 
Palsson (London, 1971), p. 13. 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 217 

130. BL MS. Harley 1337 

Headings. Here begynnyth a book callyd the Croniculis of Englond. 

Exordium begins: This book tretith & tellith of all J)e l^oigis & principall 

lordis 
Prologue heading begins: The prologg of this booke [written as a beading] con- 

teynethe [C decorated initial] xxxv chaptirs; {)e first declarithe howe J)is 

londe was callyd Albioun aftir the eldest dou3ter 
Text begins: Som tyme in the nobill londe of Surre 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL 
Ends: in rewle and governaunce. 
Colophon: Here endith a book callyd the Croniclis of Englonde made 8c 

compilid by notabil clerkis of aventuris of kyngis J)at were in J)is londe 

and howe {)ey died. 



131. Bodleian MS. Hatton 50 

Heading. Here begynnyth a book callyd Brute of J)e Croniculys of Englonde. 
Exordium begins: This book tretith & tellith of all J)e kyngis & principall 

lordis 
Prologue heading begins: The prologg. The prologg of this book declarith 

how ^is londe was callid Albyon aftir the eldest dou3ter 
Text heading. Here begynnyth the first chaptir of this book of Croniculis. 
Text begins: Som tyme in the nobill londe of Surre 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL 
Ends: in rewle and governaunce. 
Colophon: Here endith a book callyd Brute of the Croniculis of Englonde 

made & compiled by notabill clerkis of all the actis 8c dedis of Igoigis J)at 

evir wer in this londe to take exsaumpill what fil tofore our dayes. 



132. BL MS. Harley 6251 

Heading on damaged fol 1: Here begynnyth a book call[.]d Brute [ . . . ] 

Exordium begins illegibly. 

Prologue heading begins: The prologg. The prologg of f)is book declarithe 

howe |)is londe was callid Albion aftir J)e eldist dou3tir of J)e riall kynge 

Dyoclysiane 



218 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

Text heading. Here begynnyth the first chaptir of this booke. 
Text begins: Som tyme in the nobill lond of Surre 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL 

Ends on damaged and stained folio: castell tyll [ . . . Jernaunce. 
Colophon: Here endithe the Croniculis of Englonde made and compilid be 
notabill clerkis to men to rede & to see what fill tofore in hire dayes. 

Remarks: The signature of Bartholomew Towers, dated 1614, appears on fol. 

57. 



133. BL MS. Stowe 71 

Heading on fol. 3: Assit principio sancta Maria meo. Here bigynneth the 

Boke of the Cronyculez of the kinges of Englond. 
Exordium begins: [TJhis boke tretith and telleth of all kynges and principall 

lordis 
Prologue heading (within exordium) begins: The prologge of this boke deda- 

reth how this londe was called Albyon after the eldest dowter of the riaall 

emperour Dioclisian of Surre the whiche dowter called Albyon 
Text heading. The furst chapeter of maide Albyon and of hir xxxij" susters. 
Text begins: [S]vmtyme in the nobyll londe of Surre 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag. Cad, QIL 
Ends impefectly: north side of the host whiche was byfore the forest of 

Leonez [cf Brie 390/2-3] 

Remarks: The text offers some secondary readings, as in the text heading 
above and in the following selected passages: 

(a) first giants passage: 

And they conseyved and brought furth horribyll geauntes off the 
whiche one was called Gogmagog and he was xl fote of length and xij 
fote in brede. And theise geauntez dwelled in diuerse placez in this 
londe and in othir londys in cavys and in mounteynez vnto the tyme 
that Brute come and arryved at Tottenesse that was in the He of 
Albyon. And this Brute slowe hem icheone. 

(b) second giants passage: 

And in that londe was wonte to be many geauntez but nowe J)er be but 
fewe and J)at londe is but wyldernesse and the geauntez leven by herbys 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 219 

and by rotys and with flessh as of shepe als moche as an hors. And J)at 
londe is ordeyned for yow 6c your pepyll. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

And thanne seid Brute to Coryn "if Embron thi paramour wist J)at one 
man had done the suche a velanye she wolde neuer loue the." 

(d) Lud passage: 

[AJfftyr the deth of Ely reigned Ludde his sone and gouerned the 
londe well and worthely and honoured his God and hated his wickid 

puple And than was the name of the cite chaunged hi writinge of 

clerkes and called it Villa Londonias and so the name was called Lon- 
don and Frengshmen calle it Londris. And this king lete walle and 
diche the toun abowte. 

(e) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

And Engeste went throwe the londe & sesed all the lond into his 
honde. And in euery place J)er he come he threwe doun chirchez and 
howses of religioun and distroyed Cristendome throwe-oute the lond 
and chaunged the name of this londe that noman of his were so hardy 
to calle it Breteyn but called it Engestes londe and departed all this 
lond to his men and made ^erinne vij kynges forto strength the londe 
that the Bretonys J)erafter shuld neuer come therinne. The fErst ^^g- 
dome Jjerof was Kent ther as Engest hymselff reigned Scwas lorde and 
maister of all that othir. Anothir king hadde Sussex where now is 
Chester. The third had Westsex; the iiij hadde Essex. The v hadde 
Estangyll that now is called Northfolk and Suthfolk Marche that now 
is to say the erledom of Nicholl; the sixt had Leycetershier North- 
hampton Hertford and Huntingdonshir. And the vij hadde Oxinford 
Glowcester Wynchester Warwik & Derbyshir. 

Remarks: The name of Thomas Bromley(e), dated 1576, occurs on the front 
flyleaves. 



134. Jesus College, Oxford, MS. 5^ 

Heading: Here begynneth the boke called Brute of the Cronicle of Englond. 

Exordium begins: The whiche boke tretith and tellith of all the kynges & 
principall lordis 

Prologue heading begins: The Prologe. The prologe of this booke declarith 
howe this londe was called Albioun aftir the eldest doughter of this riall 
king Dioclisiane of Surre the whiche doughter was called Albyne 



220 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

Text heading: Here begynnith the first chapiter of this boke called the Cro- 

niclis of England. 
Text begins: Svm tyme in the nobill londe of Surre 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad (see below), QIL 
Ends: in reule and gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The number of chapters contained in the text is mentioned neither 
in the exordium nor at the end of the text, where no colophon occurs. 

The Cadwallader episode is included, but the king is mistakenly called 
Cadwalyn, son of Oswyn, and the real Cadwalyn is omitted. 



^ See Ogilvie-Thomson, Handlist, p. 38. The story of Vortiger and Merlin is printed in 
E. O. Powell, "From The Brute of the Chronicle of England," Folklore 48 (1937): 91-93. 



135. Bodleian MS. Tanner 11 

Headings. Here begynnyth a book callyd the Croniclis of Englond. 
Exordium begins: Thes book tretithe of all J)e kyngis 8c pryncypall lordis Jjat 

evir weer in this lond & of aventurs 8c wondirfull thyngis 8c batayllis 8c 

o|)ir notabill actis werris conquests 
Prologue heading (within exordium) begins: And this book declarith howe this 

londe was callid Albioune aftir the eldest dou3ter of J)e riall kynge Dyo- 

clysiane of Surre J)e wich dou3ter was callid Albeyn 
Text heading: Here begynnyth J)e first chaptir. 
Text begins: Som [ . . . ] J)e nobill londe of Surre J)er was a man of grete 

renown callid Dyoclisiane 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL 
Ends: in rewle 8c gouernaunce. 
Colophon: Explicit Cronicucle \^sic\ Anglie. 

Remarks: The text, although clearly an AV-1419:B, appears to combine fea- 
tures reflecting both an earUer and a later stage of the group than the other 
manuscripts present. The wording of the exordium is textually later than 
that of the EV-1419:B or of Glasgow Hunterian 443, and the prologue 
heading is absorbed into the text. The number of chapters in the work is 
mentioned neither in the exordium nor in the brief colophon. 

Further passages also show that the text contains wording later than that 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 221 

of Other AV-1419:B texts, for example: 

(a) first giants passage: 

And they conseyvid horribill geauntis of J)e wich oon of hem was callid 
Gogmagog and he was xl foot of lengith 8cxij foot of brede. And these 
geauntis dwellid in diuers placis in this londe 8c in othir londis in cavis 
and in mownteynys onto J)e tyme J)at Brute come & aryvid at Tottenes 
J)at was in the He of Albioun and ther J)is Brute scomfitid these geaun- 
tis echon & sclou3e hem all. 

(b) second giants passage: 

And in J)at londe was wont to be meny geauntis but nowe ther been 
but fewe & J)at londe is all wildirnes. And J)e geauntis lyvyn with 
herbis and with rotis 8c with flessh of shepe as grete as an hors and {)at 
londe is ordeyned for yeur pepill. 

(d) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Than seyd Brute to Coryn "yf Emberoun J)y paramoure wist herof she 
wold nevir love the ^at o man had the so defouUd." 

(e) Lud passage: 

This kyng Lud lovid more to dwell at Troy Jjan in eny oJ)ere plase of 
the londe. Wherfore he comaundit J)at J)e cete shuld no lenger be callid 
Newe Troy but Ludstoun and ther he made a feir gate callid Ludgate. 
And after |)e name of {)is town was chaungit by variaunce of lettris 8c 
callid London. 

As in the other texts of the group, considerable material is lost around the 
battle of Halidon Hill. Unlike the other texts, however, a short bridging 
passage appears, possibly supplied to ameliorate the narrative dislocation in 
the text: 

And jjan l^^nge Edward of Scotlond toke his leve of l^Tige Edward 
and went to his own londe. 

Howe kynge Edward was crowned kyng of Scotlonde. 

Aftir it fill JDat J)is Edward Bailloll governed hym so evill among his 
lordis f)at had doon for hym that they set no price by hym. Wherfor 
atte laste he was feyn to flee Jje londe. And |)an l^Tige Edward sawe 
J)e grete stryfe {)at was in Scotlonde 8c come to \)t castell of Berewik. 
And J)an ser lohn Bailloll J)at was ^at tyme l^^ng of Scotlond con- 
siderynge howe J)at God did meny myraclis for kynge Edward of 
Englonde [etc.] [cf Brie 280/27-28, 306/30, 307/4-6] 



222 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

The fifteenth-century name "William CardynaU" on p. 212 may be that 
of the scribe. 



136. University of Michigan MS. 225^ 

Begins imperfectly: And that same nyghte they cut hir husbondis throtis [cf. 

Brie 3/27-30] 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL 
Ends: in rewle 8c governaunce. 
Colophon: Here endithe a boke callid Brute of the Croniculis of Englond 

made 8c compilid by notabill clerkis of al the actis of all J)e I^^ngis that 

evir was in this londe sithens Brute first conquerid it. 



^ See Lister M. Matheson, "A Fragment of Sir Eglamour of Artois" English Language 
Notes 17 (1980): 165-68. 



137. Alnwick Castle MS. 457A 

Begins imperfectly onfol. 48 (see below): calle them kyngis and oon of them 

men called [ . . . ]land and a nothir men called Davyller [cf Brie 22/32- 

23/1-2] 
Omits: Cad (see below), four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Latin tag, QIL 
Ends impefectly onfol 47v (see below): sir Aliaundir Nevelle archibisshop of 

York and sir Roberte Vere marquys of Develyn and the [erle of Oxinford 

catchwords] [Brie 342/13-14] 

Remarks: The manuscript consists of two long sections of text (fols. l-47v, 
48-69) written by a single scribe. As presently bound, these sections have 
been reversed in order, the later section of text appearing before the earUer 
section. 

As it stands, the manuscript begins with a fragment on the murder of 
Alured by Earl Godwin, and the present fol. 1 begins during the reign of 
King Harold, "of Englond and falslie brake his couenaunt J)at he hadde 
made afor vnto duke William" (Brie 135/23-24). This section continues to 
the now imperfect end of the text given above (fol. 47v). 

The second section begins on fol. 48 as above, and ends imperfectly on 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 223 

fol. 69v, "|)aie were discomfited and slayn and while thaie faught and \>e 
bataille endured pe kyng went prevely vnto Walis" (cf. Brie 94/29-31). The 
intervening material originally between the second and first sections, in- 
cluding the CadwaUader episode, is now lost, apart from the fragment on 
Alured. 

Other than the combination of features noted above, additional evidence 
for placing the text in the AV-1419:B includes the passage recounting Lud's 
renaming of New Troy: 

This Ludde loued more to dwell at Troy thanne in any othir place of 
J)e lond wherfor he comaunded the citee to be called no lenger New 
Troy but Ludstrun [sic] and withinne that citee he made muche 
bildyng and ther he made a gatte and lette call it Ludgatte after his 
name and he made wall the toun and diche it. And after \>e name of 
the towne was chaunged by Saxons tonge and varyeng of letters and 
called Londoun and alions and Normans callith it Loundris and 
clerkes caUith it Ciuitas Londoun and he regned xj yere and died and 
lith at Londoun withinne |)e same gatte that he lette make. 

Early names that appear in the manuscript include "Wyllyam Shelley" 
(fol. 63v), "Thomas Denny" (fol. 59v), "John Dennye of Burnewoode" (fol. 
62v). 



138. NLW MS. Peniarth 3960(2)^ 

Begins imperfectly on fol 3: And Brute and his men hem manly defendid 

[Brie 7/15-16] 
Omits: (see below) 
Contains: Latin tag. Cad, QIL 
Ends imperfectly: J)e erle of Marche J)at {)e kynge sent to skeme J)e se costes 

J)er rose soche [cf Brie 385/11-12] 

Remarks: The folio is missing that would tell who reigned after Arthur; the 
folios containing the Halidon Hill material are also lost. The evidence for 
including the text here is: 

(a) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

Than seid Brute to Coryn "if Emboron J)i paramour my3t wete J)at o 
man ferd so foule with the she wold neuer love J)e." 

(b) 33 kings passage: "after him" linkage and Latin tag on Blegabred. 

(c) Lud passage: 



224 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

This Lud loved more to dwell at Troye Jian at any oJ)er place of \>e 
londe ffor he commaundid Jjat q^e no lenger be called Newe Troye 
but London Ludston as som bookes seye after his name Lud for in Jiat 
cyte he made most byldynge. And per he made a gate owt of \>e 
grounde and callid it Ludgate after his owne name. And he made wall 
J)e towne and diche it also but afterward J)e name of J)e towne was 
chaungid be Saxonye tonge and varyaunce of letters and callid London 
and 3it is but Normans and oJ)er alyons call it Londris and clerkes call 
it Civitas London, 
(d) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

And Jje fyrst l^ngdom J)erof was Kent J)er Engest hymself regned and 
he was kynge and lord of all ^e tother. Anojser l^nige had Sussex where 
now is Chester. And J)e thyrd had Westsexe [etc.] 



^ For (1), see item 199. See Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 362-64, for a 
description and an analysis of the contents (Marx mistakenly assigns the text to my 
"Peculiar Texts and Versions"). 



139. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson C.901 

Begins imperfectly, powere and first conquered all the londe of Lygers. And 
after he wold have conqueryd all Scotlonde and Wales. But Scatere came 
with his mene and gafe hym grete bataill. [Brie 23/19-21] 

Omits: four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 

Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QIL 

Ends: in reule and governaunce. 

Remarks: In typical AV-1419:B fashion, material is omitted around the bat- 
tle of Halidon Hill (Brie 271/23-303/24). The highly cursive hand is also 
similar to that found in many of the other texts of this group. 



140. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.190 

Begins imperfectly: shamyd and abassyd and sayde al theis conducyons should 

be amendid in all thyng to ther fader [cf Brie 3/10-11] 
Omits: four chapters after Arthur 
Contains: Latin tag, Cad, QVL 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: and whilis this doyng enduryd the Englisshmen 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 225 

knavis token ther palfreys and went ther way whedir they wolde. And 
after this victory the kyng turnyd hym agayne to the sege of Berwik [cf. 
Brie 286/6-9, 291/1-2] 
Ends: And than the kyng enterid into the towne and restid hym in the castel 
into the tyme that he hade see the towne in rewle and gouernauns. 

Remarks: Ebcceptionally for this group, there is no omission of material 
around the battle of Halidon Hill. The text must, however, be included in 
the AV-1419:B on the evidence of: 

(a) Jirst giants passage: 

and they conseywide and browt forth orrybill giauntis of the whiche on 
was callid Gogmagog and he was xl fote of lengith and xij fote of brede 
and theis geauntis dwellid in diuerys placys in this londe 6c in odyr 
londys in cauys in mountaynys oonto the tyme that Brwte com arywyd 
at Tottenes that was in the He of Albyon and this Brut slou3e hem 
echon. 

(b) second giants passage: 

and in J)at londe was wont to be many gyaunttes but now ther be but 
fewe & that londe ys but wildernes and the gyauntis lewyn by erbis 6c 
be rotes and with flesshe as of shepe as moche as an hors and that 
londe ys ordaynid for 3owe 6c 30wre pepill. 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

And then seide Brute to Coryn "yf Embron thi paramowr wist that 
oon man had do the soche a welony she wolde neuer loue the." 

(d) 33 kings passage: "after him" linkage and Latin tag on Blegabred. 

(e) Lud passage: 

And this l^nig Ludd lowyd more to dwell at London then in any oder 
place in the londe and therfore he wolde that cete shulde no more be 
callid Newe Troy but Ludston and then he mad most byldyng in that 
towne. And ther he let make a gate owte of the grounde and let cal hit 
Ludgate after his name and then was the name of the cete changid be 
writyng of clerkys and cald it Villa Londoniarum and so Jje name was 
callid London and Frenchemen call it Loundrys and this Igoig Ludd let 
wall and deche the towne all abowth. 

The incomplete beginning has been supplied by a modern transcript from 
a manuscript in the Cambridge University Library, other missing material 
has been supplied by Thomas Hearne from Bodl. Ashmole 793. The 
original hand is very similar to that of Glasgow Hunterian 443. 



226 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



It is possible that this text represents a blend of an AV-1419:B text with 
a CV text (see Remarks on the AV-1419:B below) and that it should be 
considered under the texts of the Peculiar Versions. 



Remarks on the AV-1419:B 

With the exception of Bodl. Rawlinson B.190, the manuscripts of the AV- 
1419:B form a relatively homogeneous group. Although they appear closely 
connected, textual comparison shows that a number of intervening texts have 
been lost. Certain conclusions can, however, be drawn about the likely de- 
velopment of the text. 

Since the other EV and AV groups state in the exordium the number of 
chapters contained, we can infer that Glasgow Hunterian 443, which does 
likewise, represents a more original state of the text at this point than the 
remaining (complete) manuscripts do, for they either extract this small piece 
of information and use it as a colophon or they omit it entirely. 

The omissions around the battle of Halidon Hill are suggestive of the de- 
velopment of the group, and are presented below: 



MS. 

Hunterian 443 
Hatton 50 
Harley 1337 
Harley 6251 
Stowe 71 
Jesus Coll. 5 
Tanner 11 



Michigan 225 
Alnwick 457A 
Peniarth 396D(2) 
Rawlinson C.901 
[Harley 7333, 
TCD 5895 



breaks off 
Brie 271/30 
Brie 280/26 
Brie 280/31 
Brie 280/13 
Brie 280/26 
Brie 280/26 
Brie 280/28 



Brie 280/26 
Brie 280/26 
[fols. missing] 
Brie 271/23 

Brie 280/26 



restarts 

Brie 303/25 

Brie 304/13 

Brie 304/22 

Brie 304/22 

Brie 304/7 

Brie 304/7 

Brie 306/30 (plus a 

short bridging passage, 

then Brie 307/4) 

Brie 306/30 

Brie 306/30 

Brie 303/25 

Brie 305/11] 



Bodl. Rawlinson B.190, of course, omits no material at this point and 
could therefore represent the earliest stage of the internal development of 
the AV-1419:B group. In textual details, however, this text is further 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 227 

removed from the CV or the EV-1419:B than is, for example, Glasgow 
Hunterian 443. Accordingly, it cannot be the precursor of the group, from 
which the other texts have derived. 

It is possible that Bodl. Rawlinson B. 190 is a witness of an early exemplar 
closer to the original CV and EV wording, but it is equally possible, if the 
medial omission is an original feature of the AV-1419:B, that the scribe of 
Bodl. Rawlinson B.190, finding a gap in his AV-1419:B exemplar, changed 
to a CV exemplar for the remainder of his text. It may be significant that 
chapter headings are not inserted for several chapters from the start of the 
reign of Edward II, though the hand of the text remains the same. 

The extent of the omissions suggests that BL Stowe 71 and Jesus Coll., 
Oxford, 5 represent an earlier stage in the group than the other texts since 
they omit the least amount of material, and the omissions found in the other 
manuscripts (with the exceptions of Glasgow Hunterian 443 and Bodl. 
Rawlinson C.901) can be contained within the scope of their omissions. 
However, as suggested above, Glasgow Hunterian 443 may be based on 
exemplars from two groups, and since it contains the phrase noting the 
number of chapters contained in the work, it can therefore be considered as 
indicative of (though not identical with) the earliest development of the 
group. 

Except for Glasgow Hunterian 443, none of the other extant manuscripts 
tells in the exordium how many chapters were in the original text, but BL 
Harley 1337 and Bodl. Hatton 50 append a short colophon based on 
phrases taken from the exordium. This seems to represent a stage following 
on that represented by Glasgow Hunterian 443. The lack of colophon in 
Jesus Coll., Oxford, 5 may be an individual peculiarity, since in respect of 
the medial omission the text appears earlier than that of Bodl. Hatton 50. 
In this regard, BL Harley 1337 must represent an earlier stage insofar as it 
continues the text farther than the other manuscripts at the onset of the 
omission, but at the same time it does not restart the text until a later point 
than the other manuscripts. 

One possibility is to suppose an original text that broke off at the same 
point as BL Harley 1337 and Harley 6251 (Brie 280/31), recommenced at 
the same point as BL Stowe 71 and Jesus Coll., Oxford, 5 (Brie 304/7), and 
contained the fiill exordium of Glasgow Hunterian 443, that is, that did not 
append the colophon. 

The extant manuscripts divide into the following subgroups: 

a. Glasgow Hunterian 443; 



228 THE ABBREV IATED VERSION 

b. Bodl. Rawlinson C.901 (restarts at same point as a); 

c. BL Harley 1337 and Harley 6251 (break off before Halidon Hill at the 
same point as e and f; restart at the same point); 

d. Stowe 71; Jesus Coll., Oxford, 5; and Michigan 225 (break off at the 
same point as e, f, and g; restart at the same point); 

e. Bodl. Hatton 50 (breaks off at the same point as d, f, and g); 

f. the AV-1419:B text that underHes TCD 5895 and BL Harley 7333 of 
the PV-1419(r&g):D (breaks off at the same point as d, e, and g); 

g. Alnwick 45 7A (breaks off at the same point as d, e, and £); 
h. Bodl. Tanner 11. 

There are similarities among the hands in which a number of the manu- 
scripts of this group are written. Glasgow Hunterian 443, BL Harley 1337, 
BL Harley 6251, and NLW Peniarth 396D are all written in extremely 
similar cursive hands with similar chapter rubrication and decoration and 
coloring of chapter initials. Jesus Coll., Oxford, 5 is written in a hand 
similar to those of the corrector and rubricator in Glasgow Hunterian 443. 
Bodl. Hatton 50 and Rawlinson B.190 are written in similar hands which 
have some likeness in style to the hands of the other manuscripts of the 
group. 

It is possible that these manuscripts are the product of one scriptorium or 
"school" of writing, perhaps in the London area, and are in fact representa- 
tives of a primitive type of "mass-production" of cheap, quickly executed 
texts to meet public demand for what was an extremely popular work. That 
a number of Brut manuscripts were produced in such a manner could ac- 
count in part for composite texts or texts that appear to have anomalous fea- 
tures within a particular group. 



The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group C (AV-1419:C) 

Group C, which begins similarly to the EV-1419:C, consists of MSS. Bodl. 
Ashmole 793 and Illinois 82(1). 



141. Bodleian MS. Ashmole 793 

Exordium begins: Here begynneth a booke in Englishe tong callid Brute of 
Englond or the Cronycles of Englond compilyng and tretyng of the said 
land 

Prologue heading begins: The prologge of this booke declareth and telleth 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 229 

howe this land was furste called Albioun aftre the eldeste doughtir of the 

roiall I^Tig Dioclician of Surre called Albyne 
Text begins: Some tyme in the noble lande of Surre 
Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur, "Sw" heading 
Contains: Cad, QIL 

Ends: and manfully countred with our Englisshe men. 
Colophon: Heere endeth the Booke of Cronycules. 



142. University of Illinois MS. 82(1)^ 

Exordium begins in first handonfol. 8: [H]ere begynneth a boke of Englisch 

tong callid Brute of Englond or the Croniclez of Englond compilyng & 

tretyng of the seid lond 
Prologue heading begins: [T]he prolog of Jjis boke dedareth &, telleth how {)is 

land was first called Albyoun after |)e eldest doughter of Jie roial l^Tig 

Dioclician of Surre called Albyne 
Text begins: [S]ome tyme in the noble land of Surre ther was a noble & a 

worthi man callid Dioclician a grete conquerour & a myghty man 
Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
First hand ends onfol. 164: 8c grete luffe betwene J)e l^Tig 8c his lordes [Brie 

248/12-13] 

Remarks: A second (and then a third) hand takes up the narrative at the end 
of the AV-1419:C text just before the batde of Halidon Hill, copying from 
a new exemplar, a text of the PV-1437. There is a narrative dislocation in 
the text at the point of change to the new exemplar. 

Fols. 1-7 contain various historical memoranda in at least two hands, in- 
cluding lists based on the Brut text of significant dates and events from 1042 
to 1461. The hand that adds the Latin headings at the beginnings of the 
reigns of Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI writes a similar note on the 
coronation of Edward IV and a short account (fols. 6-7) of Edward's vic- 
tories in \A7\} 



^ For (2), see item 166. The manuscript is misbound throughout; a typewritten chart 
gives the correspondences between the (correct) medieval foliation and the (incorrect) 
modern foliation of the volume as now bound. 
2 See p. 285. 



230 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

Remarks on the AV-1419:C 

The names of the extra giants found in the EV-1419:A and the EV-1419:C 

occur. 

Unlike the EV-1419:C, the name of Coryn's paramour is given, as in other 
EV and AV groups. She is called his "leman," as in the EV-1419:C; both 
name and designation are paralleled in the AV-1419:A(a) and the AV- 
1419:D: "Than said Brute 'if Erneborowe thi lemman wiste that one man had 
putte the to such a rebuke she wolde neuer love the' " (Bodl. Ashmole 793). 

Unlike the EV-1419:C, the names of Ebrak's children are listed. 

The 1419(men) conclusion to Bodl. Ashmole 793 is unparalleled among 
other complete EV and AV texts and may indicate that an AV was origin- 
ally made from the hypothetical EV-1377, to which the continuation to 
1419(men) was first added. (However, it is possible that the scribe's exem- 
plar was incomplete and that he changed at some point to another text con- 
taining the 1419[men] continuation.) 



The Abbreviated Version to 1419, Group D (AV-1419:D) 

This group, which contains a new exordium that is not paralleled in a cor- 
responding EV group, consists of MSS. BL Stowe 70, University Coll., Ox- 
ford, 154, and CUL Hh.6.9(l). 



143. BL MS. Stov^ 70 

Exordium begins: [T]he first inhabityng of J)is lande hou women first inhabit 

it and aftir J)at Brute inhabit it & conquered jje gyauntes 
Prologue heading begins: [T]he prologe of J)is boke declareth hou this lande 

was callid Albyon aftir J)e eldest dou3tre of |De roiall Ig^ng Dioclician 

whiche was callid Albyne 
Text begins: [S]ome tyme in J)e lande of Surre 

Omits: Latin tag, "5w" heading (see Remarks on the AV-1419:D below) 
Contains: substitute chapter after Arthur, Cad, QIL 
Ends: in gouernaunce and reule and cried his peace amonges the citezeins 

&c. 



144. University College, Oxford, MS. 154^ 

Exordium begins: The furste inhabityng of this lande howe women furste in- 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 231 

habit it and after that Brute inhabit it and conquerid the gyauntes 
Prologue heading begins: The prologge of this boke declareth howe this lande 

was called Albioun aftir the eldest doughter of the royall king Dioclician 

the whiche was called Albine 
Text begins: Some tyme in the lande of Surre 
Omits: Latin tag, QIL (but see below), "Sw" heading (see Remarks on the 

AV-1419:D below) 
Contains: substitute chapter after Arthur, Cad 
Ends: in gouernaunce and rule and cried hys peace amonges J)e citezeins 6cc. 

Ejcplicit. 

Remarks: The folios are missing that would have contained Queen Isabella's 
letter. 



^ See Ogilvie-Thomson, Handlist, p. 121. 



145. Cambridge University Library MS. Hh.6.9(1)* 

Exordium begins: The first inhabytynge of |)is lande how women first inhabit 

it and after that Brute inhabit it and conquered the geauntes 
Prologue heading begins: The prologe of this booke declareth hou J)is lande 

was callid Albion after the eldest doughter of the royall l^nig Dioclician 

the which was callid Albyn 
Text begins: Some tyme in the lande of Surre J)er was a myghty & a roial 

l^^ng callid Dioclisian 
Omits: Latin tag, "Sw" heading (see Remarks on the AV-1419:D below) 
Contains: substitute chapter after Arthur, Cad, C^L 
Ends onfoL 158: in gouernaunce and reule and cried his peace amonges the 

citezeins &c. 

Remarks: The AV-1419:D text is followed by a JP:C continuation, written 
in the same hand (item 82). 



* For (2), see item 82. 



Remarks on the AV-1419:D 

Details of the AV-1419:D are as follows: 



232 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

(a) first giants passage: 

Of |)e which oon was callid Gogmagog |)e which was maister of theme 
all. And he was fourty foote of lengh & xij of brede. And an other was 
callid Widy 8c thes geauntes duelleden in diuers contreis 8c montayns 
8c hilles 8c lyued of rutes and with herbes 8c wilde bestys 8c wild 
foules. And thei regned in Jjis lande vnto |)e tyme jjat Brute come and 
conquered them 8c inhabit it and made townes 8c cites. [CUL Hh.6.9] 

(b) second giants passage: 

J)ou shalt fynd an ile callid Albion compassid with ^e see so ^at no 
maner thyng may com vnto it bot foules })e which is wildirnes 8c in- 
habited with grete geauntes the which lyven dyuersly with herbis 8c 
rutes 8c flesh of grete shepe 8c J)is land is ordenyd for the 8c thi mene. 
[CUL Hh.6.9] 

(c) Coryn 's paramour passage: 

and \)0 saide Brute in skorne of him "if Erneburgh thy lemman wiste 
{)at oon man dide so vnto thee Coryne she wolde neuere loue J)ee." 
[BL Stowe 70] 

The names of Ebrak's children are given. 

As in the AV-1419:A(b), though in slightly more confused form, the four 
chapters after Arthur are replaced by one chapter on Constantine, after 
whom reigns Conan: 

Howe kyng Arthur delyuerde the roialme vnto Constantyne his 
cosynne |)at was Cadors sonne. 

And after this Arthur reigned his cosyn Constantyne. Than come 
Mordredis two sonnes with a grete multitude of people of Saxouns 
ageyns Constantyne 8c faught with hym bot Constantyne ouercome 
theme 8c drove theme vnto London. And J)at one flede |)er and |)at 
other vnto Wynchestre. And in this same tyme died J)e bishoppe of 
Baungor 8c that tyme J)e bishoppe of Baungour was made bishoppe 
of London. And than this Constantyne pursued Mordrede sonnes 8c 
found theme J)at [read at] Wynchestre 8c besegid it. And oon of 
theme fled into a chirch 8c J)er he was taken in the chirche of Seinct 
Amphybale at high awter 8c slayn 8c f)at other fled into [a chirch 
del.] an house of religione of freres 8c their he was take 8c slayne. 
And this Constantyne was aftirward slayn at Conan Meredok 8c his 
felishippe 8c buiyed at Stonheng beside Vter Pendragoune. 

How Ig^ng Constantyne was werred vpon by Mordredis two sonnes. 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 233 

And than reigned [repeateii] Conan a wondre proude manne 8c a wickid 
[CUL Hh.6.9] 

In the Halidon Hill chapter, much of the text is abbreviated. The battle 
itself is highly abbreviated and the nobles comprising the wards of the 
Scottish army are not named, the relevant sections being totally omitted: 

And than vpon Seint Margaretes even \>e yere of our lorde M' iij^ 
xxxij the Scottes come fersely in thre batailles welle arraied in here 
wynges at evensongtyme and at |)at tyme was floode at Berewike J)at 
no man myght wende ouer neither on hors ne vpon foote. And pe 
water was betwixe J)e two kynges 8c Englande so J)at they must nedes 
fight or be drownede. And than kyng Edwarde of Englande 8c l^Tig 
Edwarde of Scotlande maid f)ere batailles redy 8c J)er wynges of \>e 
prisest 8c J)e best archers that J)ei myght fynd in all pe hooste. And 
\>t Scottes were nombrede vij'" thousandes and whanne the English- 
men met pe Scottes our archers shot sharply 8c sore vnto pe Scottes 
and ouerthrewe thousandes of theme 8cshote so faste that the Scottes 
myght nott helpe themeself so J)at many of theme were killid 8c slayn 
there. And oure Englishmen pages toke pe Scottes mennes hors whan 
their maisteres weren dede. And J)an kyng Edwarde of Englande 8c 
kyng Edwarde of Scotlande J)ankede allmyghty God of J)at glorious 
victorie ffor J)e Scottes hadden no more strength agains pe English- 
men than fyue shepe agains a woulfe. And |)is bataill was doon vpon 
Hollydoune Hille wher were slayn xxxvM' v^ 8c xx Scottes and of 
Englishmen but vij. [CUL Hh.6.9; cf Brie 283/14-286/4; 286/4-9 
are omitted] 

The three texts correspond well in content, but cannot be directly derived 
one from another, as, on a simple level, the respective headings of the chap- 
ter following that on the battle of Halidon Hill show: 

Hou kinge Edwarde made a duchie of pe erledome of Cornewaill. 

[BL Stowe 70] 

How that kyng Edward made meny lordis and how he was mevid off 

the title off Fraunce. [CUL Hh.6.9] 

Howe king Edwarde made one erle duchie of pe erledome of Corne- 

wayll and of J)e flirste chalange of Fraunce. [University Coll., Oxford, 

154] 

Each preserves something of the wording of the original CV heading: 



234 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

Hov King Edwarde made a Duchye of J)e Erldom of Cor[n]waile; 8c 
also of vj. ojjere erles |)at were newe made; 8cof jje ferste Chalangyng 
of J)e reaume of Fraunce. [CCCC 174: Brie 292/26-28] 

The three texts are very close, however, and could easily have derived 
from a common original. 

Remarks on the Extended and Abbreviated Versions 

Brie assumed a simple relationship between the groups of the EV: that the 
EV-1419:A as typified by BL Harley 24 was the earliest stage after the EV- 
1377, the probable erstwhile existence of which Brie recognized; that the 
EV-1419:B was derived directly from the EV-1419:A; and that the EV- 
1419:C was very close to the EV-1419 A. He further assumed a simple one- 
to-one relationship between the EV and AV texts: that the AV-1419:A was 
derived from the EV-1419:A; the AV-1419:B from the EV-1419:B; the 
AV-1419:C from the EV-1419:C; and the AV-1419:D from a supposedly 
lost group, the EV-1419:D.^ 

However, a comparison of texts from different groups shows that the rela- 
tionships are far more complex on account of discrepancies between the 
"corresponding" EV and AV groups and similarities between supposedly un- 
related groups. As a standard of comparison we can use the CV-1333 and 
other CV texts containing later continuations. The relationships between the 
groups are difficult, and the evidence is often capable of more than one in- 
terpretation, but the following discussion represents the development that 
seems most plausible. 

The Exordia of the Extended Version and the Abbreviated Version 
The exordium of the hypothetical EV-1377 was partly based on the expan- 
sion of two short passages in the body of the CV text that describe chroni- 
cles written in English during the reign of King Ossa (i.e., Offa) and a 
chronicle made by (or at the instigation of) King Alfred. The details from 
the CV and the corresponding passages in the EV and AV exordia are laid 
out in Tables 1 and 2, which appear on pages 235 and 236. 

Comparison of the passages in Tables 1 and 2 suggests that there is a 
highly complex textual history underlying the extant manuscripts and groups. 
The erstwhile existence of a number of lost groups or complicated crossing 
between groups must be posited to account for the readings of the extant 
groups. 



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THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 237 

Thus in the first detail the EV-1419:A and the EV-1419:B keep the 
words "adventures, things [surely a corruption of "kings" in the CV], battles" 
in the same order as the CV, but the EV-1419:C has the phrase "J)at haue 
been doon in the same lande," which is found in the CV, There is a cross- 
group correspondence between the EV-1419:B and the AV-1419:B on one 
hand and the AV-1419:A(a) on the other in the use of the words "won- 
derfiil" and "notable." The AV-1419:D retains the phrase "J)at were doon 
wij) in |)e lande," as does also the AV-1419:C, and the former group also 
adds a phrase taken from the second detail in the CV, "hou longe pei 
regned." 

Indeed, in the second detail the AV-1419:D preserves best the wording 
of the original CV source, which must indicate the one-time existence of 
earlier groups since the AV-1419:D cannot underlie the EV texts. Yet — ad- 
mittedly a minor and perhaps coincidental point — the EV-1419:A text of 
Rylands Eng. 105 retains the definite article in the last phrase, "and lete 
calle hem the Cronicles." 



Tbe Extended Version Groups 
Brie does not explicitly state that the EV-1419:C is based on the EV- 
1419:A, but he implies this when he says of the former that "Diese Gruppe 
steht A sehr nahe. Der Hauptunterschied besteht in einer grossen Reihe ab- 
weichender Lesarten, die sich durch den ganzen Text verstreut finden. 
Ausserdem sind die lateinischen Worte in Kap. 34 fortgefallen" ("This group 
stands very close to A. The main difference consists of a great series of vari- 
ant readings that are found scattered throughout the whole text. Moreover, 
the Latin phrase in chapter 34 has been omitted.")^ It is, however, clear that 
the A and C groups must have developed separately out of the EV-1377 
and that they cannot be directly connected, as the following comparisons 
suggest. 

Of the three extant EV groups, only the A group contains the original 
CV giants, although it is possible that lost texts of A (and possibly Rylands 
Eng. 105) contained a list of giants more like that surviving in the C group 
and that the extra details of BL Harley 24 and Addit. 12030 are secondary 
and peculiar additions: 

CV Gogmagog . . . Laugherigan . . . &so J)ei were nompned by diuers names 
[Brie 4/27-29] 



238 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

EV-1419:A EV-1419:B 

Gogmagog chef l^^ng of Jjem Gogmagog [BL Harley 4827] 

alle . . . Wydy . . . Onewen le fort 

. . . Bonde at the bmgge ende EV-1419:C 

. . . Laugherygo . . . grete multitude Gogmagog chief of hem all . . . 

moo of giauntes that weren Wydy . . . Oneven . . . Bounde . . . 

callede many dyuers names [BL And many other ther were and 

Harley 24] called dyuers names [TCC 0.9.1] 

Similarly, in the addition of details from the Short English Metrical 
Chronicle, the A texts have clearly preserved the wording of the original verse 
text in the Chronicle more closely. 

On the other hand, the C group preserves more closely the wording of 
the CV in a number of instances, for example, the account of the epony- 
mous naming of London by Lud. The CV-1333 text reads: 

This Lud louede more to duelle at Troye J)an at eny ojjere place of {)e 
lande; Wherfore J)e name of Troye was lafte, and J)o was callede {)e 
citee of Ludstan; but now J)at name is chaungede {)rou3 variance of 
lettres, and now is callede London, and J)is kyng made in the citee a 
faire gate, and callede it Ludgate, after his name; and \>t folc of J)e 
citee lete hight Loundres. [Brie 31/18-24] 

The C group, although it presents some changes, mainly of a minor 
nature, is close to this and is certainly much closer to it than the corres- 
ponding section in the A group. The reading of the C group is given first: 

This Lud loued more to dwell at Troye then in any other place of the 
lande. Wherfore the name of Newe Troye was loste and then was the 
cite called Luscan \^sic\. And that name is chaunged thurgh variance 
of letter and now is callid London. And this ^ng made in the cite a 
feyre gate and called it Ludgate after his name. And folk of the cite 
let calle hit Loundiys. [TCC 0.9.1] 

This kyng Lud loved more to dwell at Newe Troye Jien in any o|)er 
place of J)e land; wherefor he commaundid that J)at cite shuld not no 
lenger be called Newe Troy but Ludentoun or Ludestoun as sum 
bokes seyen after his name Lud for in J)at cite he mad most cost of 
byldyng. And ther he mad a gate al oute of J)e ground and lat hit to 
be called Ludgate after his name and he lat walle |)e toune and dike 
hit also but afterwardis \)t name of J)is cite was chaunged with Saxons 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 239 

tonge and by variaunce of lettres and was called London and 
Normandis and Frenchemen and oJ)er alyauntes call it Loundris and 
these clerkes call it in Latyn Ciuitas Londinarum. [Bodl. Rawlinson 
B.187; in Bodl. Tanner 188 the last words {these clerkes . . . Londi- 
narum) are omitted] 

Also, the Latin tag associated with King Blegabred is not found in the C 
group, as it is not found in Rylands Eng. 105, which may represent an ear- 
lier form of the A group than BL Harley 24 and Addit. 12030, and this 
correspondence may suggest that the tag was not found in the EV-1377. 
Similarly, the name of Coryn's paramour is omitted in both Rylands Eng. 
105 and in the C group. 

The EV-1419:B, however, does appear to have been based on some early 
form of the A text rather than on some form of the C text, although it can- 
not be directly derived from any of the extant A manuscripts. In general, as 
illustrated in Tables 1 and 2 above, the exordium of the B group is closer to 
that of the A group than to that of the C group. However, the additional 
details given below show, first, a parallel (perhaps fortuitous) between B and 
C rather than between B and A; second, an instance of independent omis- 
sion in B; and third, a further instance in which B is closer to A than it is 
toC: 

(a) A: Here begynneth a boke in Englysshe tunge called Brute [Rylands 

Eng. 105] 

B: Here bigynneth a book whiche is callid Brute the Cronicles of 
Englond [BL Harley 4827] 

C: Here begynneth a booke in Englissh tonge called Brute of Eng- 
lond or the Cronicles of Englond [TCC 0,9.1] 

(b) A: howe it was first wildernesse [Rylands Eng. 105] 
B: [omitted] 

C: how it was first a wilderness and forletten [TCC 0.9.1] 

(c) yl: And this boke is called Brute afi:er hym that made the boke and 

inhabite this lond whos name was Brute the which lete calle the 

lond Bretayne after his owne name [Rylands Eng. 105] 
B: And this lande is callid Bretaigne aftir him J)at first enhabited it 

whos name was callid Brute [BL Harley 4827] 
C: This booke is called Brute after Brute J)at first conquered this 

lande and let calle this lande Bretayn after his name [TCC 0.9.1] 



240 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

The Lud passage again shows that the B group is closer to the A text 
than to the C text (see the parallel A and C passages quoted above): 

this king Lud lovede more forto dwelle at Newe Troye ^ane at any 
o^er place of J)e londe wherfore he commaundid J)at the cite of Newe 
Troye be callid noo more |)at name but calle it Ludston &, somme 
bookes sey aftir his name Lud for in [)at cite he made most byeldynge 
8c Jjere he made a gate out of ^e grounde 8c callid it Luddis gate aftir 
his owne name 8c he dede doo make cite wallid 8c dyke it al aboute. 
But aftirwarde the name of this cite was chaungid by sownyng of 
tungis 8c by varyaunce of lettris and callid it London 8c 3it oJ)ir 
naciouns callith it 3it into this day London 8c clerkes callith it Ciuitas 
London. [Glasgow Hunterian 230] 



Further points supporting a close connection between the A and B groups 



are: 



1. Except for Bodl. Rawlinson poet. 32, the B group texts give the name 
of Coryn's paramour, as do the majority of the A texts. 

2. Similarly, the B texts contain the Latin tag on Blegabred, as do the 
majority of the A texts. 

3. Like BL Harley 24, an A text, most (though not all) of the B texts 
insert ^0(9<a? into the phrase ending the text to 1419, and sometimes add 
Deo gracias, for example: 

in ruele and good gouernaunce. Deo gracias. [BL Harley 24] 
in good rule 8c gouernaunce. Deo gracias. [Glasgow Hunterian 

230] 
in reule and in gode gouernaunce. [BL Harley 2182] 

The B group contains a number of details that show that it is derivative 
and not the direct line from the EV-1377 through which the other EV 
groups are connected to the original EV group. The enumerations of the 
British kings and of the kingdoms of Engist's heptarchy are both further 
from the original CV text than the corresponding A and C texts. In addi- 
tion, there are numerous verbal differences and alterations, some of which 
are illustrated below in the discussion of the relationship of the EV-1419:B 
and the AV-1419:B (see pp. 243-46). 



T/je Abbreviated Version Groups 
The single text of the AV-1419:A(b), that of BL Royal IS.A.bc, can be de- 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 241 

rived from a text of the EV-1419:A, although once more we must assume 
one or more lost texts that united features now found only in separate texts 
of the A group. Thus we note the following correspondences between BL 
Royal IS.A.ix and features contained in the A-group texts: 

1. The heading of the text is paralleled in BL Harley 24 and Addit. 
12030, the only EV texts to have this heading. 

2. The exordium is that of the A group. 

3. The extra giants resemble those in the EV-1419:C and to some extent 
those in BL Harley 24 and Addit. 12030, and possibly approximate 
more closely to those that were once contained in Rylands Eng. 105, 
although "Laugherigan," one of the original CV giants, is not found. 

4. The name of Coryn's paramour is paralleled exactly in Bodl. Rawlinson 
B.187 (although it is also paralleled in the EV-1419:B). 

5. The lack of the Latin tag on Blegabred is paralleled in Rylands Eng. 
105. 

6. The chapter on the kings of Britain is not abbreviated as it is in the 
AV-1419:A(a) and therefore corresponds to the normal text found in 
the EV-1419:A. 

This group has been treated first among the AV groups because it does 
not partake of the striking agreements between the rest of the AV groups 
that lead to the conclusion that there is a far more complex relationship be- 
tween them than a simple one-to-one relationship with the EV groups. 

The formal textual feature that is most immediately striking is the omis- 
sion of four chapters after the death of King Arthur so that Conan succeeds 
to the throne instead of Constantine (see ftirther below). This feature occurs 
in the AV-1419:A(a), the AV-1419:B, and the AV-1419:C, but is not 
paralleled in the EV. It is not found in the AV-1419:A(c) and the AV- 
1419:D, which resemble one another at this point. 

Equally significant is the close verbal agreement between the AV- 
1419:A(a) and the AV-1419:B in those chapters that occur after the open- 
ing sections of the text. This agreement is well illustrated in the narrative 
recounting the reign of King John, where the texts of both AV groups agree 
against the texts of the EV and C V and must therefore be related. The fol- 
lowing extract from Glasgow Hunterian 83, a text of the AV-1419:A(a), is 
collated with Michigan 225 (M), a text of the AV-1419:B, and should be 
compared with the CV as printed by Brie (155/9-156/22): 

How king lohn was rebell agans \>t pope. 



242 THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 

[A]nd att ^e [atte M] last J)e pope sentt by hys autorite 8c enioyned 
two bischops of England |)at yff king lohn wold nott cesse of his [the 
M] persecucioun J)at he did to [vnto M] holy chirch ne vnderfong 
maister Steven Langtoun ne the prioure 8c his monkes |)at thei suld 
do \>e generale enterdyting yff it wer nede [om. M] and enionede iiij 
bischopes to flilfill itt. I*e first was \>t bischop of London; J)e [and the 
M] ij'= J)e bischop of Ely; \)t nf [the add. M] bischop [of add. M] 
Wauter; and J)e iiij^ bischop Giles. And J)es foure come to pe king 
knelyng vpon there kneys full sore wepyng besechyng J)e king to doon 
J)e popes commandementes [commaundement M] and schewed him 
J)e bulles of \)t enterdyting bott for no prayer pt king wald nott [om. 
M] consent J)erto. And than thes iiij bischopes seyng this on pt 
morow [on . . . morow om. M] after pe annunciacioun of oure lady 
pronounsed |3e enterdyting throughoute England so J)at all [the M] 
chirch dores wer schut 8c closid through [thurughoute M] England. 
And king lohn seyng this toke [he toke M] into his handes [honde 
M] all pt possessiouns of holy chirche throute pe realm and ordenyd 
men for to kepe hem. And than pe. bischopes accursed [cursid M] all 
hem J)at medeled with holy chirch goodes ayenst pe will of hem. And 
when ^e [om. M] king wold nott cess of his malace pe iiij bischopes 
went hem oure pe see to J^e archebischop of Canterbury and take 
[tolde M] hym all pe doing. And pe archebischop heryng hereof bad 
tham goo agayn to Canterbury and he wold come theder to Jjam 
[thider hemselfe M] or send suche as suld do as [so M] muche as 
himself there. And thei come agayn to Canterbury. And than come 
thithinges to pe king that pe [om. M] iiij bischopes wer comen agayn 
and for-as-mich as he micht nott come himself he sentt theder lordes 
both temperell and spirituell [spirituell and temporall M]. And so the 
king was entrered [sic; entretid with M] to vnderfong the arche- 
bischop [bisshoppe M] and pe prioure also and his monkes and that 
he suld neuer after that tyme tak [do M] no thing of [ayenst M] holy 
chirch ayenst the will of hem |)at awed pe [om. M] goodes. And also 
that pe king suld mak full amendes to hem of whom he had take any 
goodes. And J)at holy chirch suld have all ffraunches [hir ffraunchisis 
M] in likewis as itt was [he had M] in king Edwardes tyme pe con- 
fessour. [Glasgow Hunterian 83] 

Despite this correspondence, however, one cannot simply assume that the 
AV-1419:A(a) and the AV-1419:B are the same text to which the exordia 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 243 

of different EV groups have been added. The earlier portions of the AV- 
1419:B are inextricably linked to the EV-1419:B, not only on account of 
the exordium but also on the verbal level. The composition of the opening 
chapters of the AV-1419:B is demonstrated by the following analysis of the 
text in which the EV-1419:B group is represented by BL Harley 4827 and 
the AV group by Glasgow Hunterian 443. References are given to the cor- 
responding text in the CV printed by Brie. The evidence for connecting the 
EV-1419:B and the AV-1419:B consists of: 

1. Similar omissions in the EV-1419:B and the AV-1419:B of CV- 

1333 phrases or sentences, such as the following examples quoted 

from Brie: 
(i) so J)at he conquered alle Jje landes abowte hym [Brie 1/8-9] 
(ii) & pert pey lyved in ioy and merthe y-now, that it was wonder to 

wete [Brie 1/21-22] 
(iii) p2it it was wonder to wete [Brie 2/10-11] 
(iv) 8c byhestes, & also for siftes, and warnyd hem in fayr maner vpon all 

loue and frenschipe J)at pei scholde Amende hir lithir condicions 

[Brie 2/13-16] 
(v) wherfore \>o xxxiij kynges, vpon A tyme, and often-tymes, beten here 

wyfes, for \>ey wende that |5ei wolde haue Amended here tacches and 

here wykkyd thewes; but of such condicions J)ei were Jjat, for fayr 

speche &, warnyng, J)ei deden the wors, 8c for betynges eft-sone mych 

wors. [Brie 2/17-22] 
(vi) 8c {)o made voide al f)at were J)erin, so {)at no lyf was among hem but 

sche 8c here sustres y-fere [Brie 3/13-14] 
(vii) seth \>zt I am come of a more hyere kynges blod |)an my housband is 

[Brie 3/18-19] 
(viii) fill wel y wot, fayr sustres, J)at oure housbandes haue playned vnto 

owre fadir vpon vs, wherfore he hath pus vs foul reproued 8c dispised 

[Brie 3/20-23] 
(ix) J)at was here fadir [Brie 3/36-4/1] 

(x) 8c be-toke alle her frendes to Appolyn, {)at was her god [Brie 4/3-4] 
(xi) with al his mayn [Brie 5/8] 
(xii) and hym withhelde [Brie 5/14] 
(xiii) 8c a worthy of body and of his dedes [Brie 5/15-16] 
(xiv) in his werre; 8c schortly for-to telle, so weel 8c worthyly he ded, {)at 

he [Brie 5/17-18; both groups replace this by the one word anci\ 
(xv) all here lyvys tyme [Brie 5/22] 



244 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



(xvi) as God wolde [Brie 5/23] 

(xvdi) vnwetyng his fadir, 8c a3ens his wyl [Brie 5/28] 

(xviii) whan god wolde [Brie 6/4-5] 

(xix) |)at was Sylveynes sone [Brie 6/7] 

(xx) 8c [so] schul men of {)at Cuntre be called for euermore [Brie 11/20] 

2. Similar readings in the EV-1419:B and the AV-1419:B that disagree 
with the CV-1333 reading (the last three examples are taken from a 
later point in the texts): 



CV-n33 

A noble l^^ng and 
myghty, 8c a man 
of grete renoun, J)at 
me called Dyocli- 
cian [Brie 1/5-7] 



EV-1419:B 
a man of grete re- 
noun callid Diocli- 



sian 



AV-1419:B 
a mane of gret re- 
noun callyd Diocli- 
ciane 



almoste all |)e 
kynges of jje world 
to hym were enten- 
daunt [Brie 1/9- 
10] 

at A certayn day, as 
in his lettres was 
conteyned, to make 
A ryal feste [Brie 
1/17-18] 



almooste all J)e 
l^^nges not Cristen 
to him weren con- 
tributours and obe- 
dient 

at a certeyn day at 
which day he wolde 
make a riall ffeste 



all most all |)e 
kyngys Crystyne 
wher to hyme con- 
tributours and to 
hym obbedyente 

att a sertyn day at 
wyche day he wyD 
make a ryall fest 



And hit byfelle |)us 
aftyrward [Dat [Brie 
2/5-6] 



And aftirward 



And aftyrward 



Wherefore J)e l<yng 
J)at hadde wedded 
Albyne, wrote |)e 
tacches 8c [je con- 
dicions of his wyf 
Albyne, 8c {)e lettre 



wherfore |)ese xxxiij 
kynges bi her com- 
on assent wrote Jje 
euel tacches of her 
wyues vnto her 
fadre Dioclisian bi- 



wherfor J)es xxxij 
[sic\ kyngis by her 
comen asente vrote 
the evyll techys of 
her viuis vnto her 
fader Dyoclisian 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



245 



sent to Dioclician, 
her fader. And 
whenne J)e other 
kynges herde that 
Albynes lord had 
sent lettre to Dio- 
clician, anon pey 
sente lettres enseled 
with here seeles 
[of] J5e condicions 
and {)e tacches of 
here wyfes. [Brie 
2/22-27] 



sekyng hym to sett 
a remedye in J)is 
matere 



beseken so [sic] sett 
remedy in thes ma- 
ters 



he was sore a-scha- 
med, 8c bycome 
wonder Angry 8c 
wroth toward his 
doughters [Brie 
2/29-30] 



he was wondre 
wroth toward his 
dou3tres 



he was wondyr 
wrote toward hys 
dou3tors 



Jjer was a noble 

knyght 8c a my- 
ghty, 8c a man of 
gret power, {)at me 
callyd Eneas [Brie 
5/5-6] 



J)er was a mi3ti 8c a 
manly kny3t y- 
callid Eneas 



was a my3ty and a 
manly kny3the 
called Eneas 



lost 8c dystroyed 
[Brie 5/7] 



destroied 



dystroid 



he had herd of 
hym, and wyst wel 
{)at he was a noble 
knyght [Brie 5/14- 
15] 



he herde muche 
worship of him and 
pat he was a noble 
kny3t 



he herd muche wor- 
scip of hyme and 
J)at he was a nobyll 
kny3th 



in beryng of hym 
[Brie 5/35-6/1] 



in childyng of hym 



in chyldyng of hym 



246 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



his Arwe mys- 
happed 8c glacede; 
And so there Brut 
quelled his fader. 
[Brie 6/9-10] 

an hauene of Tot- 
nesse [Brie 10/29- 
30] 

\>e sawte of Gog- 
magog [Brie 11/17] 



and clymede vnto 
J)e mount; but 
when J)ai saw [Brie 
61/31-32] 

and come a3eyn in- 
to {)is lande [Brie 
62/3] 

for euermore [Brie 
62/8] 



his arowe glaunsid 
aside and killid his 
fadre J)er for|)-ri3t 



an hauen |)at is 
now callid Tote- 
nesse 

\>e mounte of Gog- 
magog or elles it is 
callid Gogmagoges 
lepe 

a-whanne Jjey came 
vp to pt toppe of 
J)e mounte J)ei 
seigh 

and so \>ei brou3t 
hem into Ip'is londe 



and so it is callid 
3itte into |)is day 



his harrow clenchyd 
and l^^llyd his fadyr 
J)er forth-rythe 



ane hawyne jjat ys 
now callyd Toten- 
nas 

the monte of Gog- 
magog or ells Gog- 
magoges lepe 



And when J)ay com 
vppon J)e topp of 
J)e monte J)ay sey 



and so \>ey brouth 
heme into this lond 



and so yt ys into 
J)is day 



These selected examples show that the EV-1419:B and the AV-1419:B 
are closely connected, for they agree in making the same omissions from the 
CV-1333 text, and they further agree in possessing similar readings which 
disagree with the CV-1333 text. However, a further set of readings, taken 
from the same early and later extracts as the above examples, show that the 
two groups cannot be directly related, that is, the AV-1419:B cannot be 
derived simply from the EV-1419:B because the readings of the AV-1419:B 
correspond to or are closer to the readings of the CV-1333. 

3. Dissimilar readings in the EV-1419:B and the AV-1419:B, where the 
AV-1419:B reading corresponds to or is closer to the CV-1333 read- 
ing in some respects (in a number of instances the AV-1419:B presents 
a blend of CV and EV-1419:B readings): 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



247 



CV-1333 

At which day, |)edir 
pey comyn, & 
brought with hem 
Amyralles, Piynces 
& Dukes, &. noble 
Chiualrye [Brie 
1/19-20] 



EV-1419:B 
and ^ei came at his 
comaundement and 
also dukes & erles 
and ojjer peple 
wi{)oute nombre 



AV-1419:B 

At wyche day J)ey 

comen bo the 

kyngis dukys and 

erllys and much 

o])yr pepyU out of 

nombyr 



among all ^o 
knyghtys [t;r. 
l^ges] J)at tho 
were at that so- 
lempnite [Brie 
1/24] 



vnto all J)ese kynges 
assembled at J)is 
grete solempnite 



amongis all {)es 
kyngis assembeledd 
at J)is solemnite 



And all her other 
sustres, eche on 
here hem so euel a- 
yens here lordes 
[Brie 2/9-10] 

And for-as-mych as 
hem thought J)at 
here housebondes 
were not of so hye 
parage comen as 
here fadyr [Brie 
2/11-12] 



8c alle her oJ)er 
sustres deden in J)e 
same manere 



and for-also-muche 
as her lordes weren 
of lower degree ^an 
J)ei were [)ei were 
J)e more stoute 



and all f)e o{)ir 
sustyrs bare heme 
in J)e same maner 



and for theyr lordys 
wer of lowere par- 
age J)ane Jjey wer 
J)ey wer {)e stouter 



& whan sche had 
so seyd, all here 
sustres seyd J)e 
same [Brie 3/19- 
20] 



and J)anne all Jje 
sustres promysed ^e 
same 



And all her sustyrs 
sayd J)e same 



so {)at {)ei neuere 
schulde come a3en; 
& so he dede [Brie 
3/35-36] 



and so he exilid 
hem oute of his 
lande 



And so he dede 



248 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



\>ei fedde hem with 
erbes 8c frutes in 
seson of pe 3eer 
[Brie 4/17] 

and bycomen won- 
dir fatte [Brie 4/19] 



J)ei fedden hem all 
wi^ herbes 8c 
fruytes |)at J)ei 
founden many daies 

and so \>ei wexid 
wondre fatte 8c 
rank 



\>cy feddyne hym 
opon herbys 8c 
frutys in J)e seson 
of J)e 3er 

and wondyr fat 
wexen [ins. alcove] 



Whanne J)e Deuyll 
that perceyued 
[Brie 4/24] 



kyng Latyme 3af al 
J)at land ^at was 
Turocelyns, 8c 3af 
it to Eneas in man- 
age with Lamane, 
his doughter, the 
moost fayr creature 
put eny manne 
wiste [Brie 5/19- 
21] 

in ioy 8c myrthe 
[Brie 5/22] 

And whan Asqua- 
nius his fader yt 
wyste [vr. wist J)er- 
of], anon he lete 
enquere [Brie 
5/31-32] 

he went vpon A 
day with his fadir 
to pley 8c solace 
[Brie 6/7-8] 



And whanne pe 
feend conceyued pe 
corragiouste of J)ese 
wymmen 

kyng Latym gaf all 
J)at londe to Eneas 
and maried his 
dou3ter Lema vnto 
him whiche was a 
faire creature 



in ioie 8c blisse 



And his fadir As- 
quanius herde here- 
of and leete en- 
quere 



he went vpon a day 
wij) his fadre to 
wodde forto hunte 
and disporte him 



And when pe [ins. 
above] develis J)is 
consayuyd 



l^^ng Latyme gaflf 
al pe. lond to Eneas 
in maryage with 
Leman hys dou3tyr 
a fayr creaturr 



in ioy and myrth 



And when hys fad- 
yr Asquanius wyst 
Jjerof he lett enquer 



he wente oppon a 
day with hys fadyr 
to wood forto play 
and solas 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



249 



&, therfore he 
nome all his men, 
& went vnto \»e 
See, 8c hadde wynd 
&. wedir at wille 
[Brie 10/27-29] 



wherfore anoon he 
ordeyned all his 
men to pe shippes 
and sailed forjje in 
J)e see and |3ei had 
wynde and wedre 
at her wille 



and Jjerfor he toke 
all his men and 
went into J)e see 
and had wynd and 
weddyr at wyll 



&c |>er \>cy founde 
neij)er man ne wo- 
man [Brie 10/30- 
31] 

J)o was Brut 

wonder glad [Brie 
10/34] 

When \>e Britons 
hade herde of J)is 
J)ing, |)ai went and 
sworen ifere 
amonges ham, J)at 
J)ai wolde gone to 
seche \>e stones 
[Brie 61/23-25] 



and J)ei founden 
nei{)er man woman 
nor childe 



f)anne was Brute 
wondre gladde &, 
ioyflil of hert 

And whanne \>e 
Bretons herden 
telle of [)ese mer- 
veilous stones pei 
saiden amonges 
hem J)at Jjei wolde 
goo in to Yrlonde 
8c sechen pese 
stones 



and pti pey fonden 
ne[)yr man ne vom- 
mane 



Thane was he [ins. 
alcove] wondyr glad 



When the Brutons 
herd of this tyd- 
ynges J)ei went and 
swore amonges 
hem p2it J)ey wold 
see and serch the 
stonys 



and toke wijj ham 
Vter, pe kynges 
bro{)er, to bene 
here cheueteyne, 8c 
XV M' men; and 
Merlyn conseilede 
ham forto gone 
into Irlande and so 
J)ai deden. [Brie 
61/25-27] 



and toke wij) hem 
Vter pe l^Tiges 
bro{)er 8c Merlyn 
to ben her chieften 
and her counseilour 
and toke also wij) 
hem XV M' of men 
and wenten Jjidre. 



8c toke with hym 
Vter pt kynges 
brother to be her 
cheveten and xv M' 
men with hem and 
Merlyn conceilyd 
hym to gone to Ir- 
lond and so pay did 



J)ai saw pe stones, 



[)ei seigh pe stones 



pay sey pe stonys 



250 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



and J)e maner how 
J)ai stoden, J)ai had- 
den grete mervail 
[Brie 61/32-33] 

and saide bituene 
ham J)at noman 
shulde ham remeve, 
for no strenghe ne 
engyne, so huge |)ai 
weren, and so long 
[Brie 61/33-62/2] 



and when J)e l^^ng 
saw {)at it was 
made, he J)ankede 
Merlyn [Brie 62/5- 
6] 



stonde merveil- 
lously 



and saide amonges 
hem J)at no man 
shulde remeve hem 
J)ei were 6c huge 
and so longe 



and whanne \>e 
kyng saugh jjat it 
was doo aftir his 
entent he {)anked 
Merlyne 



and pe maner how 
J)at [sic] stonden 
and merweyll grett- 
ly therof 

and sayd bytwene 
heme J)at noman 
shull remeve hym 
of \>t place neythyr 
be strynth eiethir 
be engyne so hug 
and so long 

and whene J)e kyng 
saw J)at yt was mad 
he thanl^^d Mer- 
lyne hugely 



Although in the examples cited the AV-1419:B has details that are closer 
to the CV, there are also many cases where the AV-1419:B reading appears 
to partake of both the CV and EV-1419:B readings. That it agrees with the 
CV indicates that the AV-1419:B cannot simply have passed through the 
EV-1419:B stage. It could quite easily, however, be a compilation made 
from both the CV and the EV-1419:B texts. We have already seen the 
agreement between the AV-1419:B and the AV-1419:A(a) in the King 
John chapters, but in many of the examples in (3) above the AV-1419:A(a) 
has readings which are dissimilar from those of the AV-1419:B and are also 
further from the CV readings. Accordingly, it cannot be assumed that the 
AV-1419:B is a compilation formed from the EV-1419:B and the AV- 
1419:A(a). The same can be said of the AV-1419:C, in which verbal differ- 
ences from the above AV-1419:B readings are again found. 

The AV-1419:A(a) cannot be derived purely from the text of BL Harley 
24 and Addit. 12030, primarily because it does not show any traces of any 
of the peculiar features associated with these texts. Whether it was taken 
from one of the other EV-1419:A texts is more difficult to decide as these 
texts are incomplete, and in any case it has already been suggested that some 
texts of this EV group have been lost, texts that once exhibited a slightly 
different form of certain features from that contained in the extant manu- 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 251 

scripts. Verbally, the AV-1419:A(a) would seem within the limits of textual 
variance for the EV-1419:A, but there has clearly been contact with some 
other AV group, as the common omission of chapters after Arthur and the 
verbal agreements with the AV-1419:B described above attest. The question 
is, in which dire».tion were the AV texts influenced, and which group first 
made these omissions and verbal changes? Further questions occur, whether 
there was an AV made from the EV-1377, and whether the common fea- 
tures of the AV groups should be attributed to this. 

The unusual point at which the AV-1419:C ends (see p. 230) might sug- 
gest that this text was derived from an original AV ending in 1377 to which 
a 1419(men) continuation was added. If this is so, however, then the AV 
ending in 1377 must have differed considerably from the AV-1419:C, for in 
its present state it could not have been the basis of the AV-1419:A(a) or 
AV-1419:B, both of which have readings that are closer to the CV source. 
Once more, the AV group cannot be simply an abbreviation of the EV 
group, as there are a number of correspondences with other AV and EV 
texts in features that are not contained in the EV-1419:C, for example: 

1. Lud's naming of London has affinities with the EV-1419:A (see pp. 
238-39) and the AV-1419:B (see p. 240): 

This Lud loued to abide atte Troie more than at any othre place of the 
land. Wherfore he commaunded it shulde no lengir be called Newe 
Troie but Lodentoun or Ludestoun as some bokes sayn aftre his name 
Lud for in that cite he made moste costes. And ther he made a gate 
oute of the grounde and called it Ludgate. And he made walle the 
town and dich it. And aftre this the name of the cite was chaunged by 
Saxons tong and variaunce of lettres and was called London and yit is 
but Normandes callen it Loundres and Frenshmen and clerkes Ciuitas 
London. [Bodl. Ashmole 793] 

2. Coryn's paramour's name is given. 

3. Conan reigns after King Arthur. 

On the other hand, the King John chapters do not correspond to the 
AV-1419:A(a) and the AV-1419:B, which suggests that if these groups are 
to be closely connected, then the AV-1419:C would have to precede the 
others, for in these chapters it corresponds closely to the CV text. In its 
present form the AV-1419:C text cannot underlie the other AV groups, as 
a number of its readings are at a further remove from the ultimate CV 
source than those preserved in other AV groups, but this may point to an 



252 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



earlier stage of the EV or AV texts than those preserved in the extant 
manuscripts. 

Further evidence for the existence of an EV or AV "Ur-text" is provided 
by the AV-1419:A(c) and the AV-1419:D. These groups are related 
through a common chapter on Constantine (based on Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth's Historia), who is succeeded by Conan, thus omitting Adelbright, 
Edelf, and the Havelok story. That this occurs where other AV groups omit 
four chapters suggests that some ancestral text was defective around this 
point. 

Brie assumed that the texts of the AV-1419:D were derived from a now 
lost group D of EV texts, that is, an EV group with the D exordium, but 
there is no evidence to support this, and the apparent symmetry between the 
EV and AV groups has been shown above to be false. Certainly the group 
appears to have been based on some lost form of EV or AV text, for unlike 
in the other AV groups — apart from the AV-1419:A(c) — Constantine fol- 
lows Arthur and the King John chapters, although abbreviated and altered 
verbally, are not the same text as that of the AV-1419:A(a) or the AV- 
1419:B. 

It seems most probable that the AV-1419:D is based on some precursory 
form of the EV, for it shows a number of features now found separately in 
other EV texts and in AV groups that are apparently related either to this 
lost group or to the extant AV-1419:D. The following similarities and 
points of contact occur: 

1. The exact wording of the present form of the D exordium may be an 
original feature of the AV-1419:D, but it is clearly based on an early 
EV exordium and retains reminiscences and verbal variations of phrases 
in extant EV groups, in, for example, the details in Tables 1 and 2 
above and the following additional details: 



AV-1419:D 
And {)is Brute bi- 
ganne first J)e citee 
of London and 
callid hit Troye in 
remembraunce of 
grete Troye fro J)e 
whiche he and his 
lynage come 



EV-1419:A 
And this Brute 
bigan first the cite 
of London the 
whiche he leete be 
called Newe Troye 
in remembraunce 
of grete Troy from 
whens he and alle 



EV-1419:B 
8c J)is same Brute 
biganne first |)e 
citee of London {)e 
whiche he lete calle 
|)at tyme Newe 
Troye in J)e re- 
membraunce of J)e 
olde Troye ffrom 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 



253 



and arryued vp into 
^is lande and in- 
habited it and lyued 
straungely where- 
inne weren no crea- 
tures but wilde 
beestes and briddes 
and fowles a lande 
desolate. And aftir- 
ward it was inha- 
bited with giauntes 
til J)e tyme J5at 
Brute come [BL 
Stowe 70] 



whens he & his 
lynage weren come 

and arrived in this 
londe casuelly 
where in was no 
lyuyng creature but 
wilde beestes. And 
hou vnclene spirites 
lay hi hem and \>ei 
brou3t forth horri- 
ble geauntez and 
Brute killid hem 
[BL Harley 4827] 



his lynage were 
comen 

And they arryved 
in this lond casuelly 
where none lyvyng 
creature was at that 
tyme but wilde 
bestes and alle wil- 
dernesse. And 
houghe thay lyved 
by herbes and rotes 
and other manere 
frutes. And houghe 
the spirites ley by 
hem in mannes lik- 
nesse and gate vp- 
pon hem horrible 
giauntes the whiche 
reigned here in this 
lond to Brute cam 
and drove hem 
owte and sloughe 
of hem many oon 
[Rylands Eng. 105] 

The phraseology used to describe and name Coryn's paramour — 

Emeb(o)urgh thine/thy lemman — resembles that employed in the AV- 

1419:C and parallels the Short English Metrical Chronicle. 

As in some texts of the EV-1419:A and in the EV-1419:C, the Latin 

tag on Blegabred is not found. 

There are suggestions of the EV-1419:A text in the passage describing 

the naming of London by King Lud: 

Aftir the dethe of Ely reigned hys sonne Ludde the whiche gouerned 
the lande wele and worthely and was welbeloued and he made in Newe 
Troie an gate called Ludgate and for he loued that cite of London so 
moche and abode ther he made it be called Luddentoune or Luddes- 
toune aftir hys name Ludde and he made moche werke aboute London 
and diched it and dide called it London by Saxouns tung and Nor- 



254 THE AB BREVIATED VERSION 

mandes calle it Loundres. [University Coll., Oxford, 154; c£ the A text 
given on pp. 238-39 above, especially that of Bodl. Tanner 188]. 

5. There is a slight hint of the EV-1419:B in the passage naming the 
kingdoms of Engist's heptarchy, where the AV-1419:D reads: 

and this Engest made many kinges in the lande as was afore tyme: the 
furste was Kent there he reigned himself The secounde was Chiches- 
tre; the threde Westsexe; the fourte Estsexe; the v Norffolk and Suffolk 
and Lyncolne; the vj Leycestir Northampshire Hertford and Hunting- 
dounshire; the vij Oxenforde Gloucestir Wynchestir Warrewyk and 
Derbyshire. [University Coll., Oxford, 154] 

The ellipsis of the subject after the furste is reminiscent of the EV- 
1419:A, for logically the subject must be "kingdom" and not "king," 
but the subsequent use of was and not had is closer to the type of con- 
struction used in the EV-1419:B (see the EV-1419:A and EV-1419:B 
texts on pp. 182, 183-84, 193 above). 

6. There are similarities in the Halidon Hill chapter to texts of various 
groups. Like Bodl. Rawlinson poet. 32 and all but one of the AV- 
1419:B texts, material is omitted around the battle. However, like the 
AV-1419:A(a), only three wards of the Scottish army are listed, al- 
though the phraseology is different, and the AV-1419:D simply says 
that "the Scottes come fersely in thre batailles welle arraied in here 
wynges," whereas the AV-1419:A(a) lists the wards and the lords 
contained in each. 

The verbal affiliations of the AV texts to the corresponding EV texts, that 
is, those that contain a similar exordium, show that the inception of the AV 
texts must have been a complex compilation system in many instances, 
crossing texts of different groups and using such texts for purposes of col- 
lation. The best example of this is the complexity of the relationships be- 
tween the earlier parts of the AV-1419:B and the AV-1419:A(a) texts and 
their EV counterparts. 

In view of the "poor" nature of the final texts in terms of fidelity to the 
basic CV text, it is perhaps surprising that such great effort has gone into 
the blending of different groups, for not only complete sections of text have 
been extracted and fitted together, but there also seems to have been an 
attempt to blend texts on the verbal level. Nevertheless, codices such as 
Bodl. Ashmole 793 and Digby 185 show that well-executed manuscripts 
were being prepared of AV texts. 



THE ABBREVIATED VERSION 255 

The evidence presented above suggests strongly that a number of texts 
have been lost, and whether the exact interrelationships of the EV and AV 
groups can now be established is difficult to predict. It is quite possible that 
the skill shown in crossing and collating texts, together with the loss of 
manuscripts, has obscured the precise lines of relationship to such an extent 
that complete disentanglement is impossible. There is some evidence of cen- 
ters of production for Brut manuscripts (for example, the manuscripts and 
texts of the AV-1419:B), and within these there was undoubtedly a circula- 
tion of both texts and ideas in an apparently professional setting which could 
produce, if required, high-quality manuscripts, probably in response to speci- 
fic orders. 



^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 82-85. 
^ Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 84. 



IV. Peculiar Texts and Versions 



This general grouping covers manuscripts that contain individual or peculiar 
texts, including several groups that are related to the textually complicated 
nexus of Latin Brut texts. ^ Also included here within the extended family of 
Middle English Brut texts are several works that were translated back into 
EngUsh from the Latin Brut% and short works, often no more than king- 
lists, based on Brut texts. These texts can be roughly divided into the 
following categories: 

1. Reworked texts and versions of all or part of a Brut text, sometimes 
abbreviated or expanded by interpolations from other works. Such texts 
often include added materials of historical or literary interest and occa- 
sionally include continuations beyond the 1419 ending that is common 
among CV texts. 

2. Material of an individual nature forming a section of a longer Brut text 
that belongs to an otherwise distinct group. (Where such sections 
themselves belong to distinct groups, as, for example, when a recog- 
nizable change of exemplar has occurred, then they have been treated 
under the appropriate group.) 

3. Appendages to some work other than the Brut. 

4. Very brief works that have used the Brut as a primary source. 

5. The second translation of the Anglo-Norman Brut, attributed to John 
Mandeville. 

In the case of individually reworked texts, it is likely that there was only 
one copy of many of such versions, that is, the text we now possess. It is 
also quite likely that other similarly individual texts once existed but are now 
lost. Where related groups of texts occur, their textual affiliations often re- 
quire the assumption of lost groups or texts that would explain the relation- 
ships of those that survive. 

The texts are organized below according to the categories noted above. 
Identifiable groups and individual texts are distinguished as PV-[date], that 
is, Peculiar Version, ending in [a specified year]; texts to 1419 that reached 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 257 

the (men) or the (r&g) endings are so denoted when such can be deter- 
mined. Unrelated groups or individual texts that end (or originally ended or 
may have ended) at the same point are further distinguished by the addition 
of A, B, C, etc. They are generally ordered here within the general cate- 
gories outlined above by their actual or presumed ending date, unless they 
are closely associated with a distinct version that ends in an earher year. 



^ Kennedy has treated some of these works under headings separate from the Brut, see 
Manual, pp. 2636-40. 

Reworked Texts and Versions 

T^e Peculiar Version to 1377, 

with a continuation to 1419 ending "in rule and governance" 

(PV-1377/1419fr&gJJ 

146. fiARVARD UNIVERSITY MS. ENG. 530(1)^ 

Heading onfol. 59: Loo heer my lordes maystres and felawes may yee see a 
truwe and brief abstracte of J)e Cronycles of J)is reaume of England frome 
pt tyme J)at euer ma[n]kynde enhabited hit into pe tyme of J)e laste Ed- 
warde: reede{)e or heerej)e \>t so|)e here filowing. 

Text begins: [I]n J)e noble land of Sirye |)er was a worJ)y kyng and mighty 
and a man of huge renoumee |)at men cleped Dyoclycyan 

Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading (see below) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: P>is bataylle and descounfiture byfell vpon Saynt 
Magretes even in J)e yeere of oure lorde M' CCC xxxij. Ne doutejje it not 
but amonges alle f)oo men |)at were lefft deed in pt feelde of J)e Skottis 
{)e pillours ande |5e poure men of Jj'Englishe partye gate gret goode. 
Whane p\s descounfiture was {)us doone and eonded J)e l^mge of Eng- 
lande retourned ageyne vnto J)e seegge of Berewyk [cf Brie 286/4-9, 
291/1-2] 

Text to 1377 ends onfol. 180v: pc whiche l^nige Edward whane he had J)us 
nobuly regned and possessed J)e coroune with muche knightly labour and 
lytell rest lyche as yee haue herde J)is cronyde more pleynly declare and 
specefye oon and ffyffty yeeres and more J)e xj kalendes of luyn he dyed 
in his manoyre at Sheene worshipfully entered and buryed in J)'abbay of 
Westmynstre vpon whos soule Ihesu lorde haue mercy for thyn greuous 
gret and pytous passyoun. 



258 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Subheading on fol. 180v: Nowe my gracyous lordes and feyre ladyes my 
maystres ande specyall ffreendes and goode fFelawes vouchesauf here now 
I beseche yowe to here J)e cronycle of |)is sayde Richarde J)e Secounde 
sone and heyre to prynce Edward and heyre to J)is same I^nge Edward; 
J)e whiche Richard of his nobley and prouidence had ferme pees ande 
loue with alle J)e Crysten prynces; howe riche he was howe noble howe 
loued and howe dredde thoroughe alle J)e reaumes & provynces and howe 
J)at ffame 8c ffortune by f)eyre cruwell werre subuerted al his estate royall 
into mysery to |)e lamentacioun and pytous compleynt of euery gentill 
herte; f)e whiche cronycle was lamentabuly compylled at Parys by hem of 
Fraunce in J)eyre wolgare langage and nowe translated by daun Johan 
Lydegate J)e munk of Bury. 

Chapter headings. And aftir kynge Edwarde the iij*^' that was borne at 
Wyndesore regned Richard of Burdeux that was prynce Edwardes sone of 
Wales whiche prynce Edward was sone and heyre of kynge Edward of 
Wyndsore. 

Text to 1419 begins: [A]nd affter J)is kynge Edward the iij'^* {)at was borne 
at Wyndsor regned Richard J)e secunde J)at was prince Edwardes sone of 
Walls 

Text to 1419 ends on fol. 204: And thane the l^nige entrid the towne 8c 
rested hym in the castell til the towne was sette in goode rule and goode 
gouernaunce. Deo gracias. 

Remarks: The manuscript is associated with John Shirley (died 1456) and 
also contains The Complaint of Christ, Lydgate's Guy of Warwick, The Three 
Kings of Cologne, The Governance of Princes, and Lydgate's Serpent of 
Division? 

The first part of the Brut text has been copied from a CV text ending in 
1377, supplemented by the 1377 to 1419 continuation from a text that 
ended in 1419(r8cg), here attributed by Shirley, at least in part, to John 
Lydgate. The reference to "J)e laste Edwarde" in the heading is to Edward 
III and not Edward IV. 

At some point after 1480 material copied from Caxton's 1419 to 1461 
continuation in his Chronicles of England (item 85) has also been added. 

The wording of the Brut text has been altered throughout, usually slightly 
though sometimes more extensively, by the use of what Shirley must have 
thought more colorful language and by the addition of reflexive references 
to the work (as in the short prologue and the end of the 1377 text quoted 
above). 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 259 

The battles and wards of the Scottish army at Halidon Hill are renamed; 
the fifth ward becomes "J>e skurage" (fol. 165, margin) and the "5w'' heading 
is replaced by the following: "Pis is {)'arraye of J)e skuroures ande J)e renners 
for J)e sauegarde of {)eos bataylles." 

The 1377 to 1419 continuation is written in the same hand as the text 
preceding it; the form of that text and the added subheading, however, in- 
dicate that a change of exemplar has taken place. The attribution to John 
Lydgate may be Shirley's genuine error, but it could also be a deliberate pro- 
motional ploy.^ 



' For (2), see item 93. 

^ On Shirley, see Doyle, "More Light on John Shirley," pp. 93-101. For a fuller account 
of the contents, see Voigts, "Handlist," pp. 17-22. 

^ See Henry N. MacCracken, ed. The Minor Poems of John Lydgate, Part I, EETS e.s. 107 
(1911), p. xii; Walter F. Schirmer, /o>&n Lydgate: A Study in the Culture of the XVth Cen- 
tury, trans. Ann E. Keep (London, 1961), p. 82 n. 1. 



The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group A (PV-1419:A) 
The Peculiar Version to 1451/1460 (PV-145 1/1460) 
Cleveland Public Library MS. White W q091.92-C468 and TCD MS. 489 
contain the same PV text up to 1333, after which point the Cleveland text 
continues to 1419 while the Dublin text continues its narrative to 1451 and 
then adds a document of 1460. 

147. Cleveland Public Library MS. John G. White Collection 

W a091.92-C468^ 

Heading by first scribe on fol. 13v (first oftwofols. numbered 13): Here folow- 

ith the Cronicles of Englond shortly abreggid. 
Text begins on fol. 13 (second of two fols. numbered 13): Dioclisian sumtime 

the mighti king of Surry 
Contains: Cad 

Omits: QIL (see below), "5w'' heading (see below). 
First scribe ends on fol. 75v: And eche of thees capteins had vM' men of 

armis which proued manfiill men when thei issuid [u by corr. above] out 

of the cite both on hors bak and on fote. [cf Brie 390/21-26] 
Second scribe begins on fol. 75v: & at J)e fyrste cominge of oure kinge ther 

wer nombred to be within Jje citie of menn women 8c children by her- 



260 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

audes CCC Ml And this sege of Roone endurid xx" weekes. [cf. Brie 
390/22-30] 
Second scribe ends onfol. 75v\ in goode rule & governance. Deo gratias. 

Remarks: An introductory text begins on fol. 1, "losephus of lewis the noble 
was the first auctour of the book of Policronica," and ends on fol. 13v (the 
first of two folios numbered 13) "whos names beth in the begynnyng of the 
first book of Policronicon more pleinly rehercid and the scriptur and chapi- 
ters accordyng to the same." This piece is "more shortly drawen out of PoUi- 
cronicon," and, after briefly indicating the contents of the seven books of 
Higden's Polychronicon, it gives a general geographical survey of the world, 
especially of the biblical lands, culled from that work. 



^ For a description, see Phyllis Moe, ed., The ME Prose Translation of Roger d'Argenteuil's 
Bible en Franfois, Middle English Texts 6 (Heidelberg, 1977), pp. 9-13. 



148. Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 489^ 

Brut texl begins imperfectly. [ . . . ]euer. These women londid in Devenshyre. 
And [ . . . ] Englond Jjat tyme was wyldernes and woodes full [ . . . ] wylde 
bestis and venemous serpentes 

Contains'. Cad, QIL 

Omits'. "5w" heading (see below) 

Changeover, 1419 to 1451: And with hem cam a kny3t of Fraunce. He 
brou3t J)e keyes to J)e kynge and 3ilde vp J)e towne vn Seynt Wolstons 
day in lenyver |)e yere of owre lorde M' CCCC° xviij". And J)at seege en- 
durid XXV weekes saf a day. And whan J)e kynge leide fyrst seege to Rone 
J)er was within CCC M' people of men women and chyldren but f)er 
dyed for hunger J)e iiij'*^ parte beside hem were slayne. Tho was Jie cyte- 
zens raunsom at fyfty M' li. to pay at serteyn dayes. I>e duke of Excestyr 
was made capitayne of Rone. And so J)e kynge restid hym J)er awhile and 
all his oost. And whan he had conquerde aU Normandye tho wente he vp 
in to Fraunce and conquerd grete parte of the londe for all J)e townes and 
holde he cam by J)e Frenshmen 3ilde it vp and Mewes Embry and Parise 

Narrative text ends on p. 206: Anno M' CCCC Ij" l^^nge Herry Jse yj fel in 
mervellous infyrmyte whiche endurid xviij monythis in so moch Jiat he 
my3t not helpe hymself ne know ^e peple abowt hym. Anno M' CCCC 
lij" Edward ^e son of Herry |)e yj'*' was born at Westmynster in J)e ffeste 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 261 

of Seynt Edward pe Confessour. Anno M' CCCC liij" The batayle of 
Seynt Albones where ^at a grete parte of pe kynges people were slayne 
|)at is to sey Edmonde duke of Somerset Herry erle of Northhumberlonde 
lord Chfford &c. Anno domini Millo. CCCC W At Bloreheth was slayn 
lord Audeley and xxiiij^' kny3tis with hym. 

Accord (1460) between Henry VI and Richard, duke of York, begins on p. 207: 
Blyssid be Ihesu in whos hande and bounte restith and is f)e pees and 
vnyte betwix princes and J)e wele in euery reame 

Accord ends on fragmentary p. 213: And that no lettyrs patent riallex of record 
nor act iudiciall made or done afore this tyme not repellid nor reveocid ne 
oJ)er wise voyde by the lawe by {)e preiudiciall or hurt by J)e present act. 
[cf. Rotuli Parliamentoruniy vol. 5, pp. 378-79] 

Remarks: The Brut is prefaced by a copy, imperfect at both beginning and 
end, of the same introductory text found in the previous manuscript. It be- 
gins, "Exherses J)e kynge made a bridge be crafte of J)e devils to werre vpon 
Greece," and ends, "In Rome was [ . . . ]age syttynge vn an hors of iren {)e 
ima[ . . . ]e hors weyed xv M^ li. and be crafte wa[ . . . ]de." 



^ Kennedy, Manual, p. 2820, dates the manuscript to the sixteenth century, I date it to 
the late fifteenth century. 



Remarks on the PV-1419:A and the PV-1451/1460 

In both manuscripts, the Brut text is preceded by a short geographical text 

that was intended as a loosely connected introduction. 

After the Albina story at the beginning of the Brut occurs a chapter, en- 
titled "The genologie of Adam" in the Cleveland text, which traces the de- 
scendants of Adam through (amongst others) Noah, Saturn, Jove, Trogens, 
his son Ilus (founder of Ilea, later changed to Trogea "Troy"), Achilles, his 
son Eneas, his son Ascanius, his son Siluis, to his son Brutus.^ This chapter 
may also be based on the Polychronicon, Book 2? 

The Brut text is almost entirely changed verbally and is often much ab- 
breviated in favor of augmentations from other sources. In the early chapters 
proper names are given in Latinized forms and many legendary details are 
added to the already legendary narrative of early kings from another source 
that occasionally resembles material found in the PV-1422:A or the PV- 
1437:A. Several details apparently taken from romance sources appear in the 



262 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Dublin text's narrative of Arthur, and both texts contain a short version of 
the romance story of Havelok. 

The verbal differences and textual alterations continue in the later parts of 
the text also, as seen in the articles of treason brought against Thomas of 
Lancaster, which are given point by point. 

Queen Isabella's letter to the citizens of London occurs in the Dublin text 
but does not appear in the Cleveland text. However, the wording of the 
chapter in which it would have occurred in the latter suggests that it was 
present in the text that was the ultimate basis of this version; its omission is, 
therefore, a secondary development. 

The texts of the two manuscripts correspond up to 1333 but diverge 
widely thereafter. The starting point of this divergence occurs just before 
the battle of Halidon Hill, and the relevant passages in the two texts are as 
follows: 

At midsomer then aftir Englishmen toke up alle the ffeyre of Had- 
ington in Scotlond and toke and slou3 a [ins. above\ grete nombre of 
Scottes. This werre was in Scotlond in the viij yere of [the del.] kyng 
Edward aftir the conquest of Englond J)e {)ird. Then king Edward 
ordeyned a gret counseil at London and purueid him a gret host & 
com to Berwik upon Twede and leid his sege therto. And to him 
come sir Edward Bailol king of Scottis with anothir power of Scottes 
to strength the king and then shotte thei her gunnes and engines into 
the toun and destrued many housis and slue much peple which long- 
tyme continued til at last com the Scottes out of Scotlond in iiij ba- 
teils wel arraied in armes. Then l^ng Edward of Englond and Ed- 
ward king of Scottes appareild her peple in oJ)ir iiij bateils. And on 
Halidon Hille beside the toun of Berwik metten thees two hostis to- 
gider. King E. discumfitid the Scottes and slue of them xxxvM* 8c 
vijC. This victorie done the king retourned to his sege of Berwik and 
thei yildid the toun and |)e castell vnto the king. [Cleveland White 
W q09L92-C468] 

At the missomer than aftyr Englissh toke vp all the feyre of Hund- 
yngton in Scodonde and toke and slewh grete nombre of Scottes. This 
warre was in Scodonde in J)e xiij 3ere of kynge Edward J)e iij''^ after \>t 
conquest of Englonde. And after in his tyme he had grete werre with 
Fraunce and Scodonde. And ser Edward his fyrst begoten son toke J)e 
kynge of Fraunce in batayle. And J)is ser Edward dyed prince and lyeth 
at Caunterburye. He had a son callid Richard [TCD 489] 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 263 

This and the succeeding narrative in the Cleveland text almost certainly 
represents the original reworking of the Brut, whereas the immense abbrevi- 
ation of the rest of Edward Ill's long reign is secondary and possibly even 
unique to the Dublin manuscript, which also seems to change exemplar at 
this point. 

The ending-point of the first scribe in the Cleveland text suggests 
strongly that the ultimate CV base was a text of the CV-1419(men):A; to 
this the second, later scribe added from a text ending in 1419(r&g), abbre- 
viating slighdy and omitting a sentence already covered in the first scribe's 
work, as can be seen from the changeover lines given above. 

After the sudden abbreviation of the reign of Edward III, the account of 
Richard II in the Dublin manuscript is much closer to the CV text, though 
some abbreviation continues to occur. Details in the siege of Rouen narrative 
suggest that the basis for this section of the text was the CV-1430 con- 
taining John Page's poem. The material that follows the end of the siege, 
though heavily abridged, has verbal agreements with both the 1430 and 
1461 continuations but agrees entirely with neither: it is based on a London 
civic chronicle similar to that found in BL Cotton Cleopatra Civ, as a 
number of common entries with identical wording show, and the material 
was converted into narrative Brut format.-' The documentary material from 
the Rolls of Parliament that concludes the manuscript was probably intended 
as a suitable ending to the increasingly sketchy notices of batties in the Wars 
of the Roses. 



^ Cf. a similar interpolated chapter in Lambeth 84 (item 178). 

^ See Churchill Babington, ed., Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden Monach't Cestrensis, vol. 2, 

Rolls Series 41 (London, 1866), pp. 219-445. 

^ Printed in Kingsford, ed., Cbrons. London, pp. 117-52. 



Tbe Peculiar Version to 1419: Group B (PV-1419:B) 

149. Rylands MS. Eng. 207^ 

First scribe begins imperfectly, heir vnto the roialme hot he was not of 

strengthe. Bot nevirthelesse this Donebande [cf Brie 23/16-18] 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Omits: "Sw" heading (see below) 
First scribe ends imperfectly onfol. lOJv: lyke vnto tourmentours more thanne 



264 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

vnto Crystenmen and heaven [cf. Brie 297/4-5] 
Second scribe begins on fol. 105: Englond. The xx yer off Icymg Edward he 

wente ouer in to Bretayn &. in to Gascoyn [Brie 297/11-13] 
Second scribe ends imperfectly: J)er wer not dede not passed xxxvj bodies 

thonket be Ihesu. Anone J)e kynge [cf. Brie 379/26-29] 

Remarks: The change of scribes is marked by a change from vellum to paper, 
the intervening blank leaf being of the latter. As it stands, the manuscript 
was patched together some time before 1749 from two originally discrete, 
though perhaps both incomplete, manuscripts. 

The first part of the text, written by the first scribe, is much changed ver- 
bally from the CV-1419 from which it is probably derived, and there are 
some similarities to EV texts, though the Latin tag associated with King 
Blegabred is not found. 

In the chapter on the battle of Halidon Hill only four divisions of the 
Scottish army are found (see below), and a substitute for the "5w" heading 
occurs in the text: "And of J)e iiij bataille was thes captains " 

Examples of verbal changes and abbreviation are: 

(i) 33 kings passage: 

The fiirst was called Gorbodian and he reigned xij yere. Aftir him 
Morgan ij yere. Aftir him Eighnaus vj yere. Aftir him Idwalier viij yere. 
[etc.] 

(ii) Engist's heptarchy passage: 

The fiirste was Kent wher himself was king and maistir. The secounde 
was Sussexe and Chichestir. The thrid Westsex. The iiij Essex. \etc^ 

(iii) Halidon Hill passage, with the end of the 1333 text and the beginning of 
the 1377 continuation: 

And thanne king Edwarde of Englonde & king Edwarde of Scotlande 
apparayled ther people into four batailles and euery bataill of Englesshe 
hadde two wynges of price archiers the whiche provid themself goode- 
men that daye ffor thei shotte so that J)e Scottes myght not helpe 
themself and ther was slaine of the Scottes partie xxxvM' v^ 6c xij and 
of Englysshemenne hot vij and at this bataill the Englysshe pages pur- 
sewed the Scottes as they wolde haue fledde. And whenne thei of the 
toune of Berwyk sawe the scomfayture of the Scottes Jjei yolde vp Jje 
tovne wyth the castell wherof the king ordeyned & made to be kepers 
the same sir Edwarde Ballol with othyr worshipfiill menne ffor himself 
come into Englonde wyth a glorious victorie. And in the yj''"' yere of 
hys reigne he wente into Scotland againe in the wynter tyme and the 



P ECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 265 

Scottes come dovne and obeyed him in all thing, [cf. Brie 285/7- 
291/14] 



^ See Lester, Handlist, pp. 51-53; Tyson, "Hand-List," p. 186. 

The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group C (PV-1419:C) 

150. BL MS. Additional 70514 

Begins imperfectly: [A]nd in the reialme of Fraunce aftir the desese of Seint 
Lewes and Philipp le bele his sonne 

Chapter ends and Brut text begins: One Philippe the sonne of Charles count 
of Waloys and the 3onger brof)er of kynge Philipp le bele by vsurpacon 
withoute title of right toke vppon hym the croune of Fraunce ffrome 
whome ben descendid all the Frenche kynges sen J)at tyme. 

Of kynge Edwarde the thride aftre the conqueste. Capitulo CC xij**. 

And aftre this kynge Edwarde of Carnervan reigned ser Edwarde of 

Wyndesoure his sonne [cf. Brie 247/20-23] 
Contains: "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: withoute eny chalange of eny man. Deo gracias. 

And so aftre |?is gracious victorie the kyng turnede hym a3ane to the 

same sege of Berwike 
Ends imperfectly with catchwords (last page extremely rubbed): cause [ . . . ] he 

shuld make [Brie 352/6] 

Remarks: In this fragment of a longer compilation the Brut text is aug- 
mented from another source with material on French history at the imper- 
fect beginning of the text (cited above). 

Fourteen lines of additional material praising Edward III is appended 
after his death (after Brie 332/19), though the text is not that of the "De- 
scription of Edward III" (Brie 333-34). 

From the foot of fol. 29v to fol. 32 appears a genealogical narrative vnth 
roundels of Edward Ill's descendants. The set of roundels that concludes the 
pedigree of Edmund, earl of March, was originally only partially filled in, 
ending with the children of Richard, duke of York (died 1460): King Ed- 
ward, Edmund, and George, duke of Clarence (so created in 1461), but pos- 
sibly not including Richard, created duke of Gloucester towards the end of 



266 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

1461, who may have been added later along with Ann, Elizabeth, and Mar- 
garet. 

After two and a half folios of pedigrees, the narrative returns to the Brut 
on fol. 32v with the accession of Richard II, numbered chapter 239 (Brie 
335/1), finally ending incompletely during the reign of Richard II in chapter 
241. 

On fol. 32 occurs an obit for Sir Robert Hill: "Robertus Hill armiger pa- 
ter subscripti Egidij Hill obijt in anno domini millesimo quadrugentesimo 
octuagesimo et tercio decimo. M*' CCCC° bcxxxiij°." Further obits then ap- 
pear for Egidius (died 1546) and his wife Agatha (died 1552), who were 
buried at Nettlecombe in Somersetshire. 



The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and governance": 
Group A (PV-1419[r^gl:A) 

151. Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 733 

Begins on fol 18: In the noble lande of Surrie ther was a noble king and also 

a myghty and of grete renoune that men called Dioclician 
Contains: Cad, "5w" heading 
Omits: QIL 
Ends: in rule and gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The text must be the result of the crossing of texts of at least two 
groups. The introductory chapters show the lexical alterations of the CV- 
1419 (Leyle), but since Lear is correctly named, the exemplar must have 
changed by that point. The combination of the inclusion of the Cadwallader 
episode and the omission of Queen Isabella's letter is unusual (though not 
completely unknown) and may indicate that a second change of exemplar 
has occurred, possibly after the 1333 ending "withoute ony chalenge of ony 
man. Deo gracias." The manuscript is well-written and handsomely illus- 
trated with miniatures, and this may be indicative of a desire to produce a 
"presentation" copy with a carefully selected text. 

The Brut text is preceded on fols. 1-1 7v by an illustrated treatise on arms 
written by the same scribe.^ 

The name "Elizabett Dawbne" (possibly fifteenth-century) occurs on the 
first flyleaf, that of "George lord Bergevenny" on the second. It is noted on 
fol. 17v that the volume belonged to W. Woods, clerk of the Privy Council, 
in 1586. 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 267 



1 This work also occurs in BL Addit. 34648, fols. 3v-8v, and BL Harley 6097, fols. 1-10 
and 12-49v, all three texts are printed in Evan John Jones, ed., Medieval Heraldry: Some 
Fourteenth-Century Heraldic Works (CardifF, 1943), pp. 213-20. 



The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and governance': 
Group B {PV-1419[r&gJ:B) 

152. Bodleian MS. e Musaeo 39 

Heading: Here may men here and knowe how England ferst beegan and was 

klepid Albioun &, by whom it resseyuede that name. 
Begins: In thee noble land of Svrrye theer was a worthy kyng myghtty and 

ryght riche and of greet renown that heyghtte Diadisian 
Omits: Cad, "5w" heading (see below) 
Contains: QIL 
Ends: in rule and in governavnce. 

Remarks: Although the combination of the omission of Cad and the inclu- 
sion of QIL can be paralleled in the CV-1419(men):B and the CV-1419 
(Leyle), the text is much altered verbally and probably represents an indi- 
vidual reworking of a CV-1419 text. Thus, for example, the chapter on the 
thirty- three kings begins with the standard CV "after him" type of linkage 
(cf Brie 30/23-27), but quickly shifts to a simpler listing: 

Thee ferste l^^ng of thee xxxiij his name was hoten Gorbodian and 
hee regnede xij yeer. And after hym regnede Morgan ij yeer. And 
thanne Eighnaus yj yeer. Idwalan viij yeer. Rohugo xj yeer. [etc.] 

There are only four divisions of the Scottish army at Halidon Hill and a 
rubricated substitute heading appears: "And in thee fourthe batatayle [sic] of 
Scotlonde in that warde theeroffe weren thus manye of lordys ore more." 

The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and governance": 
Group C (PV-1419[r&gJ:C) 

153. Lincoln College, Oxford, MS. Lat. I5l^ 

Heading: Here may a man here how Englond was first called Albioun and 
thurgh whom it had the name. 



268 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Begins: In the noble lond of Sirrie there was a noble kyng and a myghty and 

a man of grete renowne that men called Dioclisian 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 
Ends on rubbed leaf, and rested hym in the castell till J)e [ . . . ] was sette in 

reste and in governaunce. 

Remarks: The text is written in two hands. Although the point of change- 
over (on fol. 78; Brie 161/18, "And when") is of no textual significance, 
there may have been a change of exemplar to a text that contained a defec- 
tive continuation from 1333 to 1377. Chapter headings and numbering are 
sporadic after the change of scribe. 

There are considerable omissions of material, including complete chapters, 
from the narrative on the reign of Edward III, including the chapter on the 
battle of Halidon Hill. The omissions occur at the end of the text to 1333 
and in the continuation from 1333 to 1377 (but they do not belong to the 
short continuation to 1377 [see pp. 90-92]). 



^ See Ogilvie-Thomson, Handlist, p. 42. The manuscript is also described, with an ac- 
count of the omissions, in Ker, MMBL III, p. 642. Ker notes the presence of a possessive 
on fol. 175v in the description of the retinues camped before Rouen — "my mayster Nevell 
J)e erlis sone of Westmerlonde" (cf Brie 388/13-14) — but this reading occurs in other 
texts. 



The Peculiar Version to 1419, ending "in rule and governance": 
Group D (PV-1419[r^g]:D) 
Two manuscripts, TCD 5895 and BL Harley 7333, contain a text that is a 
blend of a CV text with one of the AV-1419:B. 

154. Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 5895 

Begins imperfectly on fol 3: him in his chambre. And whan thei were come 

he spak to hem of her wickidnes [Brie 3/5-6] 
Omits: Latin tag, four chapters after Arthur, Halidon Hill material 
Contains: Cad, QIL 
Ends: And than the l^Tig entrid into the towne and restid him in the castell 

til the towne was sette in rule and gouernaunce agayne. 
Colophon: Expliciunt Cronicul. 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 269 

155. BL MS. Harley 7333^ 

Begins imperfectly, him prevelyche vnto Southamptoun to mete {)ere J)e too 
bretherin [Brie 126/26-27] 

Omits: Halidon Hill material 

Contains: QIL 

Ends imperfectly on fol 24v: in |)e yer of the incarnacioun of oure lorde 
Ihesus Criste a M^ iijC iiij'" xj wherof J)e peple wer sor agaste [6c dred J)at 
wengeans shold com sone catchwords] [cf. Brie 338/8-10] 

Remarks: The scribe who wrote the Brut was one of (at least) sbc scribes re- 
sponsible for writing the manuscript, which is an anthology of verse and 
prose works compiled over some period of time. His work accounts for over 
half the surviving text. A number of the works have textual or spelling simi- 
larities to texts associated with John Shirley, and the manuscript may have 
been owned by the Augustinian abbey of St. Mary de Pratis in Leicester."^ 
The dialect of the scribe who wrote the Brut (and also fols. 94-97, analysed 
by the editors of LALME) is that of the northern part of Hampshire.^ 



^ See Seymour, "The Manuscripts of Hocdeve's Regiment of Princes" pp. 269-71, and 
John M. Manly and Edith Rickert, eds., The Text of the Canterbury Tales, 8 vols. (Chi- 
cago, 1940), 1: 207-18, for descriptions, the Leicester associations, and detailed Usts of 
the contents, which include works by Chaucer, Lydgate, Burgh, Hoccleve, and Gower 
and the Gesta Romanorum. Manly and Rickert call the manuscript "[a] hbrary of secular 
literature, in 7 'books' " (p. 207). See also BofFey, Manuscripts of English Courtly Love Ly- 
rics, p. 17, where it is suggested that this "enormous library of material . . . probably served 
the needs of a rehgious community." 

^ See Manly and Rickert, Canterbury Tales, 1: 212-13; Seymour, "Manuscripts of Hoc- 
deve's Regiment of Princes" p. 271. 

^ LALME, 1: 113 (first entry on BL Harley 7333), 3: 161. The dialects of other scribes 
are also assigned to northern Hampshire; see LALME, 1: 113 (second and third entries 
on BL Harley 7333), 3: 159-^0. 



Remarks on the PV-1419{r&g):D 

Although the imperfect text of BL Harley 7333 begins past the point of 
changeover from a CV to an AV-1419:B text, it can be grouped with TCD 
5895 on the basis of distinctive correspondences with the later text (see 
below). Textual comparisons show, in fact, that BL Harley 7333 preserves 
the wording of the group more accurately than TCD 5895. 

The text of this group is an amalgamation of a CV text with a text of the 



270 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

AV-1419:B, within which additional omissions of material have occurred. 

The added details about the giants do not occur in TCD 5895, and the 
passage concerning Lud's naming of London corresponds to the text of the 
CV. In the chapter recounting Arthur's return to England to meet the threat 
of Mordred, however, the text begins to correspond to that of the AV- 
1419:B (around Brie 89/12). Arthur is succeeded by Conan, who is suc- 
ceeded in turn by his son "Crofte" (CV and AV-1419:B "Certif," Conan's 
cousin). 

A considerable omission, typical of the AV-1419:B, occurs in the texts of 
both manuscripts around the chapters that include the battle of Halidon 
Hill: 

And Jjat same tyme it fille J)at Ipe kyng of Englond helde his 
parlement atte Castel vpon Tyne. And ser Edwarde kyng of Scotlond 
come J)ider and did to him feaute 6c homage for \>t reame of Scot- 
lond the which quene Isabel and Mortemer toke awey |)orou3 her fals 
counsail. 

And in J)e xxx^ yere of his reigne about Witsontide he ordeyned a par- 
lement at Westmynster. And J)ere it was certified J)at Philip J)e l^Tig of 
Fraunce was dede. [TCD 5895; cf Brie 280/17-26, 305/11-13] 

Following a process already begun in the AV-1419:B, there are further 
omissions of text, often of narrative that relates overseas events, as, for 
example, in the chapter that begins with the great windstorm of 1362: 

Off \>e grete wynd. 

And aboute Seint Mawrus day aboute evynsong tyme Ipere rose suche 
a wynde oute of the south with sich a fersnes |)at it blewe downe 
howsis 8c chirchis 8c towres to the grounde 8c stepelis 8c othir strong 
[J)inges add. TCD]. And all olpert workes that stode still were soo i- 
shake J)at ben yit sene that shall euermore be febeler and this wynde 
lastid vij dayes withoute sesynge. And aftir there folowed suche 
wateres in hey tyme in harveste J)at all felde werkes were much lefte 
on-don. And than prince Edward toke the lordshipe of Guyen 8c did 
to his ffadir fealte 8c homage 8c went ouer the see into Gascoyn [wij) 
add. CV] his wyf and his childerin [wyf . . . childerin om. TCD]. And 
anon aftir the kyng made his sone sir Leonell duke of Clarens 8c sir 
Edmond his othir sone erle of Cambrigge. And than come into Eng- 
londe iij kynges f)at is to sey pe kyng of Fraunce the kyng of Cipris 
8c the kyng of Scotlonde to speke with the Ig'^ng of Englonde and 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 271 

thei had gret worshipe. And when \>ty had ben here longe tyme ij of 
hem went home ageyne. But the kyng of Fraunce thorow grete seke- 
nesse was lefte in Englonde. And in the xxxix yere of his reigne was 
an huge froste and hit lasted from Seint Andrewis-tide till xiiij 
calendours of Aperill and Jjan they telled & sewe. & in the xl yere of 
kynge Edwarde was borne Edward prince Edwardes sone. And in the 
xlj yeere of kyng Edwarde was borne at Burdewx Richard the seconde 
son of prince Edward whiche Richarde was kynge of Englonde 
aftirwarde as ye shaull here. 

Of the batell of Spayne betwene prince Edward 8c Harry the bastarde 
of Spayne. [BL Harley 7333; cf Brie 314/32-320/2 (315/15-18, 315/ 
31-316/8, 316/ 10-24, 316/29-319/34 are omitted)] 



Tbe Peculiar Version to 1422: Group A (PV-1422:A) 
The Peculiar Version to 1437: Group A (PV-1437:A) 
The Peculiar Version to 1437, 
with a continuation to 1461 fPV-143 7/1461) 
These three groups are closely related one to another and to the Latin Brut 
texts. However, several texts present considerable difficulties of affiliation, 
both within the individual groups and in the relationships between the 
groups themselves and to other groups of texts. The degrees of their related- 
ness differ greatly, and there may well have occurred some collation and 
combining of texts. Alternatively, it is possible that fuller forms of the text, 
now lost, ended in 1422 and (as suggested by the Latin Brut) in 1437, and 
that the surviving texts are offshoots of these and of subsequent subgroups. 
Speaking of certain representatives from these groups, Kingsford rightly re- 
marks that "[t]he overlapping and interlacing of these Chronicles makes the 
history of their development a difficult problem."^ In this respect they are 
similar to the various chronicles of London.^ 



^ Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 128. 

^ See Gransden, Historical Writing II, pp. 228-230; Thomas and Thornley, eds., Great 

Chronicle, pp. xxv^-xxix; McLaren, "Textual Transmission," pp. 55-56. 

The Peculiar Version to 1422: Group A (PV-1422:A) 

The group contains MSS. Bodl. Laud Misc. 550, Coll. of Arms Arundel 8, 



272 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

TCD 506, and BL Sloane 2027. The central section of the composite text 
in Bodl. MS. Rawlinson poet. 32 also belongs to this group. 

156. Bodleian MS. Laud Misc. 550 

Heading: How this land was first callid Albion and of whom it had that 
name ye shal here as foloweth aftirward. 

Begins: In the yeer fro J)e begynnyng of Jje worlde M^M'M' booodx^ Jjer was 
in J)e noble lond of Grece 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad (see Remarks on the PV- 
1422:A below), QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see following) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: Aftir this king Edward wente into Scotland and 
besegid jje toun of Berewic and hadde a gret bataille with [)e Scottis on 
HaHdoun Hil beside J)e toun of Berewic at whiche bataille were slayn of 
J)e Scottis xxxvM' vij^ xij and this was on Saint Margaretis eve in the yeer 
of our lord M* CCC xxxij and in ^e morow aftir the bataille was don J)e 
Scottis dehuerid J)e toun of Berewic to king Edward. And J)e xj yeer of 
his regne was seen and apperid in J)e firmament a lemyng sterre that was 
calHd Stella Comata [cf Brie 272/3-286/9, 291/1-292/18] 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: Whanne the king hadde entrid J)e toun and restid 
hym in {)e castel til J)e toun were set in rewle and gouernaunce thanne 
Cawdbeek and othir garisons Jjere nygh were yolden vnder the same ap- 
pointement. t>anne J)e dolfmes ambassiatours as it was before accorded 
with fill power to do al thing as he were there himself cam to J)e king to 
Roon [cf "Davies's" Chronic/e, p. 48] 

Ends on damaged fo/. 120v: and thanne a sore 6c [ . . . ]uent malady him 
assailid and fro day [ . . . ]y him vexid til he deide in pt castel of Boys 
Vincent J)e laste day of August whanne he hadde regned ix yeer v 
monthes iij wokes and iij dales and is buried at Westmynstre. On whos 
soule Ihesus Cr[ . . . ] haue mercy. Amen. [cf. "Davies's" Chronic/e, p. 52] 

Remarks: From William Rous on, each succeeding reign generally begins on 
a new page. 

In 1605 the manuscript belonged to Richard St. George, Norroy Herald, 
as a note of ownership attests. 



157. College of Arms MS. Arundel 8 

Heading. How thys londe was forste calde Albyon 8c of whom hit had that 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 273 

name ye shall here as hit ffoUowyth afterward. 

Begins: In the yere from the begynyng of the worde M'M^M' DCCCC there 
was yn the noble londe of Grece a worthi kyng & a myghty and a man of 
grete renowne that was calde Dyoclusyan 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad (see Remarks on the PV- 
1422:A below), QIL 

Omits: "Sw" heading (see following) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: and for his treson he wasse drawen & honged 
and on Seint Andrwes day nexte after the kinge wente into Scottlonde & 
besegid the towne of Berwyke 8c had a grete batell with the Scottes at 
Halydoune Hyll besides the towne of Berwyke at {)e whiche batell weren 
slayne of the Scottes xxxvM' DCCxij and this wasse on Seinte Margaretes 
even the yere of oure lorde Ihesu Criste M' CCCxxxij and on the mor- 
rowe aftre that the batell wasse don the Scottes delyuered the towne of 
Berwyke to kinge Edwarde. The xj yere of his regne wasse sene 8c ap- 
pered in the firmament a lemyng sterre Jjat wasse calde Stella Comata [cf. 
Brie 272/3-286/9, 291/1-292/18] 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: 8c when jje kinge had entred the cite he rested 
hym in {)e castell tyll hit wasse sette in rwle 8c gouernance. Then Cavde- 
becke 8c oder garnysons there ny3e weren yolden vndre J)e same appointe- 
ment. Then the dolfyns embassettours with ftill power as he wer himselfe 
presente comen to the kinge to Rouen [cf "Davies's" Chronicle, p. 48] 

Ends on fol. 68: but thenne a sore 8c a fteruent malladye hym assayled 8c 
dayle hym vexed till he deyd yn the castell of Boyse Vyncente the laste 
day of Auguste the ix yere v monythes iij wokes and iij dayes of his regne 
8c ys buryed at Westmynstre. [cf "Davies's" Chronicle, p. 52] 

Remarks: The text is written by two scribes, but the point of changeover is 
of no textual significance. 

The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V begin on new pages. 



158. Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 506 

Begins imperfectly: regned alone in Englond Walis and Scotland as right heir 
and he was the firste that euyr werid croune in this lond. He made also 
a statute and a lawe [cf Brie 23/27-31] 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad (see Remarks on the PV- 
1422:A below), QIL 

Omits: "Sw" heading (see following) 



274 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: and for his treson he was drawe and hangid on 
Saint Andrewes day. Aftir this king Edward wente in to Scotland and be- 
side \^sic\ the toun of Berwic and hadde a greet bataille with {)e Scottis on 
Halidoun Hil beside f)e toune of Berwic. Atte whiche bataille were slayn 
of J)e Scottis xxxvM* vij^ xij and this was on Saint Margaretis eve in jje 
yeer of our lord M' CCC xxxij. And in J)e morow aftir ^e bataille was 
don J)e Scottes deliuered the toun of Berewic to king Edward. And J)e xj 
yeer of his regne was seen and apperid in |)e firmament a lemyng sterre 
that was callid Stella Comata 

Ends imperfectly: And |5e said ser Harri Percy leet ciye openly and saide jjat 
he was chief cause that king Richard was deposid and most helper to king 
Harry for to brynge him in wenyng f)at he wolde haue amendid J)e gou- 
ernaunce and J)e rewle of the reme and now king Harri rewlith worse [cf. 
"Davies's" Cbronic/e, p. 28] 

Remarks: Each section in the heptarchy material that follows the Cadwalla- 
der episode is given a separate chapter number. 

The beginning of the reign of Richard 11 is accorded a new page, as is 
also true of the reigns of several kings after William the Conqueror. 

The text ends in a passage based on the continuation to the Eulogium 
Historiarum that describes incidents preceding the battle of Shrewsbury. 

159. BL MS. Sloane 2027 

Begins onfol. 96v: In the yer ffro the begynnyng off the world M'M'M' ixC 

Ixxxx*^ ther was yn the noble land of Grece a wurthy kyng and a myghty 

8c a man of grete renoune 
Prologue ends onfol 97 v, mid: and callid this land Bretayn as ytt shal be 

seide her afftirwarde. 
Text resumes onfol 170: Whan kyng lohn had don hys curage the enterdyt- 

yng was relesyd thurgwh all Englond the vij'*^ day of lull [cf Brie 166/4, 

16-18] 
Ends imperfectly on fol. 188v: the erle of Dunbarre become ys man & the 

kyng yaff ym the [cf "Davies's" Chronicle, p. 22] 

Remarks: The Brut is used to frame the B version of Robert of Gloucester's 
rhymed Chronicle, which ends on fol. 169v with the ascent to the throne of 
Henry III.^ The dialect of the Robert of Gloucester text is that of Warwick- 
shire, while the language of the Brut, written by the same scribe, is "slightly 
more northerly."^ On fol. 96 appears the early ownership signature of "W)d- 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 275 

liam Braundon of Knoll [Knowle, south-east of Birmingham] in the counte 
of Waruyke" (repeated elsewhere).'' The name and date "lohn Osbvrn 1546" 
occur in the margin of fol. 97. 

Other works in the manuscript are the 1408 English translation of Vege- 
tius's De Re Militari (fols. l-36v), John Russell's Boke of Nurture (fols. 37- 
52v), and Lydgate and Burgh's Secrees of Old Philosoffres (fols. 53-92v).'* 



' See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2617-21, 2798. 
2 LALME, 1: 116, 3: 526-27. 

^ See Meale, "Patrons, Buyers and Owners," pp. 216, 233-34 n. 88. 
■* Listed in Charles R. Shrader, "A Handlist of Ebctant Manuscripts Containing the De Re 
Militari of Flavius Vegetius Renatus," Scriptorium 33 (1979): 303; described in Geoffrey 
A. Lester, ed.. The Earliest English Translation of Vegetius' 'De Re Militari', Middle Eng- 
lish Texts 21 (Heidelberg, 1988), p. 19. See also Frederick J. Furnivall, ed.. Early English 
Meals and Manners, EETS o.s. 32 (1868), pp. 117-99 (John Russell); Robert Steele, ed., 
Lydgate and Burgh's 'Secrees ofOldPhilisoffres, EETS e.s. 66 (1894). 



160. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson poet. 32(2)^ 

PV-1422:A text begins on fol. 116-} How William Bastard duk of Normandy 
came into this land & slow king Harold. 

Contains: QIL 

Omits: "5w'' heading (see following) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: And for his tresoun he was drawe and honged. 
And on Seint Andrew dey after this kyng Edward went into Scotland and 
besegid J)e toune of Berwik and had a gret batell with the Scottes on 
Halydom [jzV] Hull besides {)e toun of Berwik at wich batell were slayn of 
\)t Scottes xxxvM' vij^ xij and this was on Seint Mergeretes eve in the yer 
of our lord M' CCC xxxiij. And in the morwe after the batell was don 
the Scottes deHuered the toune of Berwik to king Edward. And in the xj 
yer of his reign was sen &, apered in the firmament a lemyng stere J)at 
was called Stella Comata 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: When J)e king had entred in J)e town & rested 
him in J)e castell til |)e castell were sett in rewle and gouernance then 
Caudebek 8c o|3er garisons J)er negh were yelden vnder J)e same apoynt- 
ment. Then |)e dolffen inbasitours as it was afore acorded with full power 
as he wer J)er himselff came to |)e king to Roon 

PV-1422:A text ends on fol 151: and then a sore a feruient malady hym 



276 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

asoiled and from dey to dey hym vexed till he died in the castell of Boys 
Vincent the last dey of August when he had reyngned ix yere v monythes 
and iij wekes and iij deys and is buried at Westminster. 

Remarks: The changeover from an EV-1419:B exemplar to one of the PV- 
1422:A has resulted in some small overlap of narrative material concerning 
the arrival of William the Conqueror and the death of Harold. 

Almost all of the continuation to 1422 is the work of one scribe. A 
change of hand occurs at the top of fol. 151, and a new scribe completes the 
text to 1422 before proceeding with the CV-1461 continuation, copied from 
Caxton's Chronicles of England. At least this last section of the composite 
Brut text must, therefore, have been written after the publication of Caxton's 
edition in 1480. 



^ For (1), see item 115; for (3), see item 90. 

^ Fol. 116 also has the heading "Willielmus Conquestor Raigne." 



Remarks on the PV-1422:A 

The text of this group exhibits both abbreviation of the basic Brut text 
throughout and the addition of material from other sources. Examples of 
each kind that characterize the group are as follows: 

(a) Dioclician is identified as king of Greece rather than of Syria, though 
the version of the Albina story is of the "Syrian" kind in which the sis- 
ters' plot succeeds. 

(b) The thirty-three British kings are listed mainly by name and length of 
reign: 

The firste king of tho xxxiij kinges me callid Garbodia and he 
regned xij yeer. Morgan regned ij yeer. Eighanus yj yeer. Idwalan 
viij yeere. [etc.] [TCD 506] 

(c) The short account of Engist's naming of the land and of his heptarchy 
is omitted in the abbreviated narrative of Vortiger (see Brie 55/6-14; 
see also [g] below). 

(d) The dealings between Vortiger and Merlin are reduced to one chapter. 

(e) Constantine reigns after Arthur, but the two CV chapters are reduced 
to one. 

(f) Constantine is succeeded by "Aureli Conand," "Vortiperi," and 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 277 

"Malgon" before returning to "CortiP; the two CV chapters relating 
the reigns of Adelbright and Edelf are omitted. 

(g) After Cadwallader occurs an expanded account, based on a short refer- 
ence in the Cadwallader narrative, entitled "Of pe departing of the vij 
kyngdomes" (Bodl. Laud Misc. 550), which treats the lines of kings in 
each of the seven kingdoms of Engist's heptarchy. This account is fol- 
lowed by king "Alfray" (that is, Alfred); the five intervening CV 
chapters are omitted. 

(h) A number of details and minor stories, often of a religious character, 
are added to the reigns of the Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings (for 
example, to Athelstan, Eldred, Edwin, Edgar, Edward the Confessor, 
Edmund Ironside, Harthaknut).^ Unlike the CV, Athelstan, Edmund, 
Eldred, and Edwin receive separate chapters. 

(i) The foundation of the New Forest is transferred from William Rous to 
his father, William the Conqueror, with an added comment: "Pe 
comyn English Cronide saith that William Rows made this forest but 
it is vntrewe" (Bodl. Laud Misc. 550). Additional material after the 
, death of William the Conqueror includes the story of his father's 
meeting with his mother and the latter's dream while pregnant. 

(j) St. Anselm sees William Rous's death in a vision of all the English 
saints, including St. Alban, who flings an arrow of fire to earth. 

(k) Henry II has a miraculous encounter at Cardiff" with an old man who 
warns him to ban Sunday markets. Rosamond and the finding of the 
bones of Arthur and Guinevere at Glastonbury are also noted under 
Henry II. 

(1) The reigns of Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, and, to a lesser extent, 
Edward III are abbreviated. 

(m) The battle of Halidon Hill is abbreviated, as given above. 

(n) Merlin's prophecies regarding Henry III, Edward I, and Edward II are 
omitted. 

(o) Details from the continuation to the Eulogium Historiarum (such as a 
mention of the ampulla containing the coronation oil and Richard's 
resignation speech) occur in the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV. 
The cause of Richard's death is not given. 

(p) For the majority of kings after William the Conqueror, detailed notes 
of their marriages and issue are made at the end of their reigns. 



^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 93-94. 



278 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

The Peculiar Version to 1437: Group A (PV-1437:A) 
The Peculiar Version to 1437, with a continuation to 1461 (PV-1437/1461) 
The PV-1437:A, which shows considerable internal crossing of texts, con- 
tains MSS. Nottingham County Council DDFS 3/1, TCC O.ll.ll, Taka- 
miya 18, Harvard Eng. 750 (both texts), Illinois 82(2), and TCD 505. The 
texts of the PV-1437/1461 (Bodl. MS. Lyell 34 [known from its editor and 
former owner as "Davies's" Chronicle] and the composite NLW MS. 
21608D) should also be considered here, since all of the former and part of 
the latter are based on a text ending in 1437 to which a continuation from 
1440 to 1461 has been added. 

In a number of instances, text from an exemplar ending in 1437 with the 
murder of James I of Scotland has been grafted on to or into a text copied 
from an exemplar that belongs to some other recognized group (see the 
remarks on individual manuscripts and on the PV-1437:A below). Material 
from the PV-1437:A is used in the final section of the PV-1436:A (see pp. 
296-301). 



161. Nottingham County Council MS. DDFS 3/1 

Heading on fol 4: Of the first enhabityng of the He o Albion and of whom 
hit had that name. 

Begins: In the noble londe of Surre ther was a noble kynge and a myghti a 
man of grete renowyn called Diaclusian 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see following) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: And for his tresoun he was drawyn and honged 
and on Seint Andrews day aftir kynge Edward went ynto Scotlond and 
bisegid the towne of Barwik and had a grete bataille with the Scottes at 
Halydoune Hill besyde the towne of Barwyk at the whiche bataille weren 
slayn of the Scottes xxxvM' DCCxij and this was yn Seint Margaretis day 
evyn the yere of oure lord M' CCCxxxij. And yn the morowe aftir the ba- 
tell was done the Scottes delyuerd the towne of Barwik to kynge Edward. 
And {)e {ins. above] xxj yere of his reigne was sene and appered yn the 
firmament a lemynge sterre that was callid Stella Comata 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: Whan the l9nige hadde entred the citee and 
rested him yn the castell tyll it were sette yn reuUe and gouernaunce. 
Than Cawdebecke and oder garresons there nyghe were yolden vnder the 
same appoyntement. Than the dolfyns embassatoures with full power as 
he were there himselfe came to the kynge to Roone 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 279 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437: And than a sore and a feruent maledy him as- 
sayled and dayly him vexsed till he deyd yn the castell of Boys Vyncent 
the last day of August the ix yere v monythes iij wekys and iij daies of his 
reigne and ys buryd at the chirch of Westmynster. 

Of ^Tige Harry the sixt the son of kynge Harry [ins. above] the \^ after 
the conquest. 

After the noble and victorious prince l^Tige Harry the v* reigned his son 
l^Tig Harry the yj''' [cf. "Davies's" Chronicle, pp. 52-53] 
Ends: the seid James kynge of Scottis goynge toward his bedde havyng no 
more clothes on him but his shurte cruelly was slayn and as it was seid he 
hade xxx woundes of the which viij [sic\ were dedely &c. And [cf. 
"Davies's" Chronicky p. 56] 

Remarks: Despite the concluding "And," the rest of the final folio is left 
blank and the text is complete as it stands. 

In a number of important ways the Nottingham text stands apart. The 
beginning of the text is unique among PV-1422:A and PV-1437:A texts in 
the wording of its heading, the lack of an introductory date, and the desig- 
nation of Dioclisian as king of Syria rather than of Greece. 

Further differences from the PV-1422:A and other PV-1437:A texts, in 
which the Nottingham text agrees more closely with the ultimate CV 
source, are that the short account of Engist's heptarchy appears and that 
Constantine's reign is recounted in two chapters. 

Given the generally derivative relationship among the other texts of the 
PV-1437:A and the PV-1422:A, these differences presumably mark a sec- 
ondary development peculiar to the Nottingham text. It is possible that it 
represents a combination of texts in which the point of changeover occurs 
after Constantine, since the subsequent text agrees with that of the other 
members of the group. 

The Brut is prefaced (fols. 1-4) by a brief Latin account of world history 
from the Creation to Brutus and subsequent English history to Henry II, 
followed by two short accounts, also in Latin, of the spread of Christiamty 
and religious sites. 



162. Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. O.ll.ll^ 

Heading. How this lond was first callid Albion and of whom it hadde that 
name ye shall here as foloweth aftirward. 



280 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Begins: In \>e yeer fro ^e begynnyng of J)e worlde M'M'M' ix^ Ixxxx ther was 
in the noble lond of Grece a worthi l<yng and a myghty 6c a man of greet 
renoun that was callid Dioclician 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see following) 

ChangeoveVy 1333 to 1377: and for his fals treson he was drawe and honged 
on Saynt Andreux day. Anno vij. [marg.] Aftir this kyng Edward wente 
into Scotland and besegid J)e toun of Berewic and hadde a greet bataille 
with the Scottis on Halidoun Hill beside J)e toun of Berewic at whiche 
bataille were slayn of Ipe Scottis xxxvM' vij^ xij. And this was on Saynt 
Margaretis eve in ye yeer of our lord M' CCC xxxij. And on the morow 
aftir the bataille \>t Scottis delyuerid the town of Berewic to kyng 
Edward. Anno xj°. [marg.] The xj yeer of kyng Edward was seen and ap- 
pend in the firmament a lemyng sterre that was callid Stella Comata 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: Whanne J)e kyng hadde entrid the toun and 
restid him in |)e castell til J)e toun were set in rewle and gouernaunce 
thanne Cawdebek and othir garisons there nygh were yolden vnder the 
same appoyntement. Thanne |)e dolfinez ambassiatours as it was before 
accorded with full power to do all thyng as he were there himselff cam to 
J)e I^oig to Roon. 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437: and thanne a soor and a feruent malady him as- 
saillid and fro day to day him vexid til he deide in f)e castel of Boys Vyn- 
cent J)e laste day of August whanne he hadde regned ix yeer v monethis 
iij wolds and iij daiez and is buried at Westmynstre. [fol. 128v; fol. 129r 
left blank] 

[AJftir the noble and victorious prince l^^ng Harri J)e v regned his sone 
kyng Harri |)e vj that was bore at Wyndesore 

Ends: J)e said kyng of Scottis as he was goyng toward his bed hauyng no 
more on him but his shirte cruelly and vnmanly was slayn and as it was 
told he hadde on him xxx" woundis wherof vij were dedly &c. 

Remarks: From the accession of William the Conqueror each reign begins 
on a new page, and after each of the reigns of Arthur and of Henry V a 
page is also left blank. 

In the left margin at the end of the text occurs an addition in a different 
hand: "Y dar say no more."^ 



^ See Ker, MMBL II, pp. 261-62; Mooney, Handlist, p. 150 (Mooney ascribes the final, 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 281 



marginal addition to "the hand of the main scribe"). 

^ A later, sixteenth-century addition is attributed to "John Ardyns sunns" writing; see Ker, 

MMBL U, p. 261. 



163. Takamiya MS. 18 

Heading onfol. 2: Cronica Bruti in Anglicis D[ . . . Jcianus Rex. Prima. How 
this londe was first callyd Albyon and of whom hit hadde that name ye 
schal here as fFolwith aftyrwarde. 

Begins: In the yere flfrom the bygynnynge off the worlde iijM' ix^ iiij* x there 
was in the noble lorde [sic\ off Grece a worthy kynge and a myghty and 
a man of gret renoun |)at was callyd Dioclisian 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad, QIL 

Omits: "Sw" heading (see following) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: And for his false treson he was drawe and hangid 
on Seynt Andrewis day. Aityr f)is kynge Edwarde wente into Scotlonde 
and beseghid the towne of Berwic and hadde a gret bataile with {)e 
Scottes on Halydounhill beside the towne of Berwic. Atte wiche bataile 
were slayne of |5e Scottes xxxvM^ vij^ &xij. And J)is was on Sent Marga- 
retis eve in J)e yere of oure lorde M' iij^ xxxij. And on J)e morwe after J)e 
bataile f)e Scottes delyueryd J)e towne off Berwic to Ignige Edwarde. The 
xij yere off kynge Edwarde was seen and apperid in J)e firmament a lem- 
ynge sterre J3at was callid Stella Comata 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: And whanne |)e kynge hadde entryd the towne 
and restyd hym in |)e castell tyll {)e towne were set in rule and gouer- 
naunce. Thanne Cawdebek a[nd] oJ)ere garysons {)ere nygh were yoldyn 
vndir the same appoyntement. Thanne |)e dolfynez enbassatours as hit 
was bifore acordid with ffiill powere to do all thynge as he were there 
hymselffe cam to {)e l^nige to Roon 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437: And |)anne a sore and a fervent maladye hym 
assaylid and fro day to day hym vexid tyll he deyde in the castell off [By 
del^ Boys Vincent the laste day off August whanne he hadde regnyd ix 
yere v monthis iij wyks and iij dayez and is buryed at Westmynster. 

Off kynge Harry |)e sexte afiir the conquest. 

Aftir the noble and victorious prynce kynge Harry J)e v** regnyd his sone 
kynge Harry the sexte J)at was bore at Wyndssore 
Ends: And aftirwarde abowte |)e monthe off Marche be exitacion off jj'erle 



282 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

off Athell and othir the seyde l^^nge of Scottes as he was goynge towarde 
his bed hauynge no more on hym but his scherte cruelly and onmanly was 
slayne; as hit was tolde he hadde on hym xxx woundis where-ofFvij were 
dedly. Y dar say [ . . . ]ore. [Y . . . ore marg.] 

Remarks: The manuscript is written in a late, unprofessional hand. Fol. 1 
contains an astrological item on the distance between the earth and the 
moon. The name of Francis Welles appears at the foot of fol. 3. 

The final, marginal comment should be compared with the final, marginal 
comment added to the preceding manuscript. 



164. Harvard University MS. Eng. 750 (nRST text) 

Heading on fol. 8: How thys lond was first callyd Albion and of whome yt 
hadde yat name ye shall heare as folowyth afterward. 

Begins: In the yere from the begynnyng of the world 3990 there was in the 
noble lond of Grece a worthy kyng and a myghty and a man of great re- 
noun that was called Dioclycian 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see following) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: for his treson he was drawne and hangyd on 
Saynt Andrewys day. After thys kyng Edward went ynto Scotland and be- 
segyd the towne of Berewic and had a great bataylle with the Scottes on 
Halidoune Hyll bysyd[ . . ] the towne of Barwic [and had . . . Barwic ins. 
in top marg.] at which bataylle were slayne of the Scottes [of the Scottes 
ins. in marg.] xxxvM' vijC xij and thys was on Saynt Margaret[ . . ] eve in 
the year of ower lorde M' iij*^ xxxij and on the mor[ . . ] after the batayll 
was done the Scottes deliueryd the towne of Berewic to the kyng Edward; 
and the xj year of kyng Edward was seyn and apieryd yn the firmament 
a lemyng sterre that was caullyd Stella Cometa 

Changeover, 1419 to 1437: Whan the kyng had entryd the town and restyd 
hym yn the castell tyll the towne were set yn ordre and gouernaunce than 
Cawdebeec and other garisounes there nygh wer yeldyd vnder the same 
apoyntmen(?) \badly written]; thanne the dolfynes ambassiatours as yt was 
befor accordyd wyth full power to all thyng as he were thear hymself 
came to the kyng to Roone 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437: and than a soore and a fervent maladie hym as- 
sailled and from daye to daye hym vexid tyll he died yn the castell of Bois 
Vincent the last daye of August whan he had reignyd ix yeares v moneths 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 283 

iij wekes and iij dayes and ys buried at Westmynster on whose soule Ihesu 
Crist haue mercy. Amen. 

Of kyng Harry the yj* 

After the noble and victorious prince kyng Harry the v* reigned his sonne 
kyng Harry the yj'*^ that was borne at Wyndsore 
Ends onfol 69v. the sayd kyng of Scottes as he was goyng to hys bede hav- 
yng no more on hym but hys shirte cruelly and vnmanflilly was slayne and 
so as yt was told he hadde on hym xxx woundes which vij were dedly. 

Remarks: After the Cadwallader episode occurs the additional heptarchy ma- 
terial, here entitled "Of the departyng and boundyng of the vij kyngdomes," 
separated into sections on each kingdom. The other additional details found 
in Bodl. Lyell 34 — for example, the remark on the New Forest and the story 
of William the Conqueror's conception — also occur. The reigns of Henry 
III, Edward I, and, to a lesser extent, Edward II and Edward III are abbre- 
viated. 

The hand of the text belongs to the very late fifteenth or, more probably, 
sixteenth century. The first folios of the manuscript contain various his- 
torical notations and chronologies; after this first Brut text occur fiirther 
historical notes and extracts, a second Brut text (see below), Roger of 
Wendover's Flores Historiarum, a short account in English of the retinue of 
Edward III at the siege of Calais, and Nicholas Trevet's Chronicle. 

165. Harvard University MS. Eng. 750 (second text) 

Heading on fol. 82: How William Basterd duk off Normandy cam in to 

England and kylyd king Harold. 
Begins: Whane duke Wylliam off Normandy herede yt Harold was crowned 
Contains: QIL 
Ends onfol. lOlv. they were clepyed a people without a heade the which did 

muche harme in the parties of Fraunce [Brie 314/24-25] 

Remarks: This second, excerpted Brut text is written in a hasty sixteenth- 
century hand and agrees textually with the first text in the manuscript, from 
which it was presumably copied. 

166. University of Ilunois MS. 82(2)^ 

Second hand begins onfol 164v: And sone after was the olde kyng Edward 
his fader translated fro Jje castel of Kyllyngworth into the castell of 



284 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Berkley & {)er thoro treasoun of ser Roger Mortimer he was sleyn with a 
sprite of copir brenyng put in at his fondement 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: wherfor he was drawe 8c hangyd on Seynt An- 
drews day. 

Anno vij°. [marg.] After this kyng Edward went into Scotland 8c 
beseg[ . . ] the toun of Berwic 8c had a grete batel with Ipe Scottes on 
Halidoun Hille beside \>e toune of Berwic at which batell wer slayn of the 
Scottes xxxvM^ vijC [ . . . ] 8c f)is was on Seint Margaretes evyn in the yer 
of our lord M' CCC xxxij. And on the morowe after Ipe batell the Scottes 
delyuerd the toun of Berwic to kyng Edward. Anno xij°. [marg.] The xj 
3er of kyng Edward was [ . . . ] 8c apperid in the firmament a lemyng 
sterre J)at was callede Stella Comata 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422'. Whan J)e l^nig had entrid J)e toun 8c restid hym 
in J)e castill tyll the toun were sette in rewle 8c gouernaunz than Cawd- 
beke 8c oJ)er garisones {)er negh aboute wer yolden vnder J)e same compo- 
sicioun. Than {)e dolffyns ambassetores as it was befor accorded with fiill 
poar to do all thing as he wer ther himselff cam to J)e l^nig to Roon 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437: And J)an a sore 8c a feruent malady hym assaylid 
and ffrom day to day hym vexid tyl he deid in the castill off Bois Vincent 
the last day of August safe oon the ix*^^ yer v monethis iij wekys 8c iij 
dayes of his rayn and is buried at Westmynster. On whos soule Ihesu 
Crist haue mercie. Amen. 

Sequitur de Henrico sexto. Henricus sextus incipiebat regnare vltimo die 
Augusti anno domini millesimo quadrugentesimo vicesimo secunda 8c 
regnabat triginta 8c octo annis 8c dimidio anno 8c tribus diebus videlicet 
usque quartum diem Marcij anno domini millesimo quadrugentesimo 
sexagesimo. 

[0]ff I^Tig Harry the vj^^ the sone of kyng Harry the v*''. Affter the nobil 
8c victorios prynce kyng Harry the v*^*^ reigned his sonne kyng Harry the 
vj**^^ Jjat was bore at Wyndesore 
Third hand ends: the said kyng of Scottes as he was goyng to his bed hafyng 
no mor vpon hym but oonly his shyrt cruelly 8c vnmanly was slayn and as 
it was saide he had on hym xxx woundes wheroff vij wer dedely. I dar 
write no fferther. [I . . . fferther marg.] 

Remarks: This section of text is written by two scribes, but the point of 
changeover has no significance and there has been no change of exemplar. 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 285 

The PV-1437:A text has been added to a text of the AV-1419:C, with 
some narrative dislocation at the point where the change of exemplars 
occurred. The final comment of the text suggests that it is connected with 
that of TCC O.ll.ll (see above). 

The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V are prefaced by headings in Latin 
similar to that before Henry VI's (for which, see above); these headings are 
later additions in the same hand that writes several of the historical memo- 
randa at the beginning of the manuscript.^ 



* For (1), see item 142. 
2 See p. 229. 



167. Trinity College, Dublin, MS. 505^ 

Heading on p. 87: How thys lond was fyrst callyd Albyon and of whom hyt 
had that name he [5/V] schal here as folowthe afiyrward. 

Begins: In the here [sic] fro the begynnyng of the world M'M'M' ix^ J)er was 
in J)e nobull lond of Grece a worthy kyng and a myghty and a man of 
grete renwne that was callyd Diclycyan 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see Remarks below) 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: And euery man toke whatt he myght and with- 
oute chalenge of ony man. With Deo gracias. [With . . . gracias in red] 
And also aftyr this gracious victorye the l^Tig turned hym ayein vnto the 
sege of Berewyk 

Changeover, 1419 to 1437: And att euery gate iij or iiij M' of gud mennes 
bodies well armyd and manfully countred with owre Englissmen. And in 
|)e vij yere of this same kyng Herry he lay att the segge of Roan. And the 
xvij day of lanue 1 \sic\ hitt was yolden to owre kyng. And thys sege 
lasted xxj wel^^. And then cam J)e capitaines and browght J)e keys to 
owre kyng and delyuered hym the toune. And all the Frensch sodyers 
where voyd owte of the toune with heyre horse and hemes. And the co- 
mynnes of the toune abode styll payng yerely vnto the kyng for all maner 
costommes fermes and quatrimes xxM' marke. And when the kyng had 
enterid the toune and rested hym in the castell tyll the toune where sett 
in rewle and gouernaunce. And then \ins. above] tythingis cam to London 
the yj da \sic] of Feuer. And then the duke of Bedford with a fayre mayne 
of Englond 



286 PE CULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Text to 1422 breaks off imperfectly on p. 284 during "Coronation of Queen 

Katherine": The kyng of Scotlond in his astate on the liffte side of the 

quene wych att euery course was serued aftyr J)at the quene and the 
Text to 1437 begins on p. 285: Aftyr the nobull and victorious prince kyng 

Herry the v*^ regned his sonne l^ng Herry the vj^^ that was borne att 

Wyndesore 
Text to 1437 ends: The seid kyng of Scottis as he was goyng to his bede 

hauyng no more on hym bott his schert cruelly and vnmanly was slayne. 

And as hitt was tolde he had oon hym xxx wondes where-of vij where 

dedely. 

Remarks: This text is a careful blend of texts from two groups, evidently in 
order to produce as full a version as possible. Up to the reign of Henry III, 
the text follows that of the usual PV-1437:A. Accordingly, the narrative 
contains the text on the heptarchy after the Cadwallader episode, followed 
by the chapter on King "Alfray" and other additional details found in, for 
example, Bodl. Laud Misc. 550. 

However, since the reigns of Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, and Ed- 
ward III are abbreviated in the PV-1437:A, at or about the accession of 
Henry III the scribe switched to a CV text similar to (but somewhat fuller 
than) that found in Pennsylvania State MS. PS. V-3A, including the con- 
tinuation beyond 1419 found therein (items 32 and 181). Thus the abbre- 
viation found in the later chapters of the PV-1437:A is not found and Mer- 
lin's prophecies regarding Henry III, Edward I, and Edward II appear. The 
full text of the reign of Edward III is given and the array of the Scottish 
battles at Halidon Hill is included. Instead of the normal "5w" heading 
occurs the heading "How the erle of Dumbar holped the Scottes at {)is 
bataill," which is also found in the CV-1419(men):A(b).^ 

The scribe continued to use this second, CV text into the narrative of 
Richard II's reign but clearly had his PV-1437:A text available for consulta- 
tion, for on p. 256 he adds a minor detail in the margin from the PV- 
1437:A, that Queen Anne knelt before the lords appellant in a vain effort to 
save the life of Sir Simon "Beuerle" (i.e., Burley). Pages 257-58 are a stub 
containing narrative from the PV-1437:A that is not present in the main 
text. Deficiencies in the CV exemplar must have become apparent, for the 
scribe continued with the PV-1437:A text for the end of Richard's reign (in- 
cluding the ampulla reference and a full account of Richard's resignation of 
the crown). 

For the reigns of Henry IV and Henry V the scribe combined what he 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 287 

considered the fullest or most accurate material from his two exemplars. The 
account of the siege of Rouen is primarily from the CV exemplar, followed 
by an imperfect copy of the continuation to 1422 found in Pennsylvania 
State PS. V-3A. A page is missing after the beginning of the chapter on 
Queen Katherine's coronation, and the text resumes with the accession of 
Henry VI, taken from the PV-1437:A. 

The manuscript also contains Latin genealogical chronicles from Noah to 
Edward IV (with drawings, roundels, and commentary to Edward I; pages 
6-56), from Adam through Old Testament figures and Roman rulers (pages 
59-62), emperors and popes (pages 63-78), and archbishops of Canterbury 
(with roundels and commentary, pages 79-83). The first of these genealo- 
gical works notes Edmund, son of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, as earl of 
Huntington, a title he held from 1471 to 1475. In the last work, the entry 
on Thomas Bourghier, archbishop of Canterbury from 1454 to 1486, has 
been erased. 

The Brut is immediately prefaced by a full-page drawing, with informa- 
tional roundels, of buildings and rural scenes representing England (page 86). 

The manuscript has sixteenth-century Welsh associations: on page 1 occur 
Welsh verses on the zodiac, dated 1593, attributed to and in the hand of 
Lewys Dwnn, a deputy herald.-' Page 2 contains early-seventeenth-century 
notes on the Chicester family. 



^ See Marvin L. Colker, Trinity College Library Dublin: Descriptive Catalogue of the Medi- 
aeval and Renaissance Luitin Manuscripts, 2 vols. (Aldershot and Brookfield, 1991), 2: 935- 
38. 

^ See pp. 100-104. 
^ See Colker, Descriptive Catalogue, 2: 938. 



168. Bodleian MS. Lyell 34 {'Davies's" ChronicleY 

Heading: How this land was first callid Albion and of whom it hadde |)at 

name and how j^e geauntez were ygote ye shul here as foloweth afterward. 

Capitulum primum. 
Begins: In pe yeer fro pe begynnyng of {)e worlde M'M'M' bc*= per was in pt 

noble lond of Grece a worthi kyng and a my3ti and a man of gret renoun 

{)at was callid Dioclician 
Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad, QIL 
Omits: "Sw" heading (see following) 



288 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: Thanne wente kyng Edward in to Scotland forto 
helpe J)e said Edward and besegid J)e toun of Berewic and J)e Scottes cam 
doun and faught with J)e kyng at a place callid Halidoun Hill beside 
Berewic and at J)at bataille were slayn of ^e Scottes vij erlis M'ccc hors- 
men and of oJ)er peple xxxvM* vij^ xij. And of Englishmen |)at marvail is 
to wite were ded a kny3t a squyer and xij foot men and nomo and this 
was on Saint Margaretis eve in J)e yeer of our lord M' CCC xxxij and J)us 
was J)e toun of Berewic yolden to J)e l^oig and J)e castel also. And aftir- 
ward J)e said ser Edward Bayloll as right here of Scotland dede his hom- 
age too kyng Edward of Englond at New Castel vpon Tyne. And aftir J)is 
J)e Scottis rebellid ayens kyng Edward wherfore in Jje hard frosty wynter 
he wente in to Galoway and wastid all J)e cuntre vnto J)e Scottissh Se and 
abood in J)e castell of Rokesburgh all the wyntertyme. t>e xj yeer of l^ng 
Edward in J)e moneth of luyn was seen and apperid in J)e firmament a 
lemyng sterre J)e whiche clerckis callid Stella Comata and J)at sterre was 
seen in dyuers partiez of J)e firmament, [cf Brie 281/21-286/9, 291/1- 
292/19] 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: Whanne the king hadde entrid the toune, and 
restid him in the castel til the toun were set in rewle and gouernaunce, 
thanne Cawdebeek and othir garisons there nyghe were yolden vndir the 
same appoyntement. Thanne the dolfynees ambassiatours, as it was before 
acordid, with fill power to do all thyng as he were there himself, cam to 
the king to Roon ["Davies's" Chronicle, p. 48] 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437'. and thanne a sore and a feruent maladie him as- 
saillid, and fro day to day him greuousli vexid; til he deide in the castelle 
of Boys Vincent, the laste day of August, whanne he hadde regned ix yeer 
V monethis, iij wikis, and iij daie3, and is buried at Westminstre: on who3 
soule Almyghti God haue mercy. Amen. 

Of kyng Harry the vj" aftir the conqueste, sone of kyng Hard the v'***, 
and of the bataille of VernuUe, Sec. 

Aftir the noble and victorious prince kyng Harri the V, regned his sone 
l^^ng Harri the yj^^, that was bore at Wyndesore ["Davies's" Chronicle, pp. 
52-53] 
Continuation to 1437 ends: the said kyng of Scottis, as he was goyng toward 
his bed, hauyng no more vn him but onli his shirte, cruelli and vnmanli 
was slayne; and as it was said he hadde on him xxx woundis, wherof vij 
were dedly. ["Davies's" Chronicle, p. 56] 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 289 

Continuation from 1440 to 1461 begins: The xix yeer of kyng Hani, the 
Friday before midsomer, a prest callid ser Richard Wyche, that was a 
vicary in Estsexe, was brend on the Tourhille for heresie ['DaviesY 
Chronicle, p. 56] 

Continuation to 1461 ends: and the Wennesday next after, vppon the morow, 
Edwarde the noble erle of Marche was chosen Igmg in the cyte of Lon- 
doun, and began for to reygne, Sec. ["Davies's" Cbronicle, p. 110] 

Remarks: The manuscript is written by two scribes, but the point of change- 
over, on fol. 189v, in the year 1450, does not seem to indicate a change of 
exemplar at that point. The death of James I of Scodand in 1437 does, 
however, mark a break in the text and probably a change of exemplar since 
the ensuing narrative continues with the year 1440. 

The text to 1437 is closely related to those of the PV-1422:A and the 
PV-1437:A and contains many of the distinguishing features and details 
noted above under the PV-1422:A. Thus the extended heptarchy material 
occurs after the Cadwallader episode and the additional anecdotes appear 
under the reigns of Athelstan, Edmund, Eldred, and Edwin, who each re- 
ceive a separate chapter. 

Some differences in the arrangement of materials occur, for example, in 
the narrative on William the Conqueror. The foundation of New Forest is 
credited to William the Conqueror, but the comment concerning the "com- 
mon English Chronicle" does not appear; William's conception and his 
mother's dream are present, though at a different point in the chapter than 
in the related texts. 

The text cannot, however, be directiy derived from the PV-1422:A or the 
PV-1437:A, for in a number of features it is closer to the original CV. 
Thus, the short account of the establishment of Engist's heptarchy appears; 
Merlin's dealings with Vortiger are recounted in several chapters (rather than 
one conflated chapter); the reign of Constantine is accorded two chapters; 
and Constantine is followed by the CV succession of Adelbright and Edelf. 

Compared to texts of the PV-1422:A and PV-1437:A, the text of Bodl. 
Lyell 34 is consistendy expanded throughout from sources such as the Po/y- 
chronicon and saints' legends, as the following examples show. 

The second chapter is headed "How |)e iij sones of Noe departid al J)e 
worlde betuene thaym and how Brut was gote and bore and how he slow his 
moder and afrirward his fader and how he cam in to this lond." The narra- 
tive begins "Hit is ywrite in J)e cronidez of {)e Grekis J)at J)e iij sones of Noe 
aftir Noez flood . . ." and ends "Anchisez gat Eneas J)at was a worthy knyght 



290 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

and a man of greet power and duelde in \>e cite of Troie." 

Similar additions include an account of the visit to Britain of Joseph of 
Arimathea under the reign of Cymbeline, an account of the destruction of 
Jerusalem during the reign of Westmer (called "Marms" in this text), and an 
account of tlie death and assumption of the Virgin attributed to St. Eliza- 
beth (that is, Elizabeth of Schonau). 

Unlike the PV-1422:A, the text is not heavily abbreviated for the reigns 
of Henry III, Edward I, and Edward 11. Similarly, the reign of Edward III 
is abbreviated but not as heavily as in the PV-1422:A, as is shown by the 
Hahdon Hill passage cited above where several verbal details are closer to 
the CV. 

Although a number of leaves are now missing, the reign of Richard II 
contains the added details from the continuation to the Eulogium Histori- 
arum in addition to material that is unique.^ The continuation from 1440 to 
1461, found in full in this manuscript and in part in the next, has no direct 
relationship to the corresponding text in Caxton's Chronicles of England. 

Like Bodl. Laud Misc. 550, Bodl. Lyell 34 allows a new leaf for the be- 
ginning of each king's reign after Richard II. 

The dialect of the text is that of Surrey.^ 



^ See de la Mare, Catalogue, pp. 85-87. The text from 1377 to 1461 (from the accession 

of Richard II to the accession of Edward IV) is printed in John Silvester Davies, ed., An 

English Chronicle of the Reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI Written 

Before the Year 1471, Camden Society o.s. 64 (1856); quotations are, where possible, taken 

from this edition. 

^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 122-24, 127-29. 

3 LALME, 1: 150, 3: 499. 



169. National Library of Wales MS. 216080^ 

Table begins on fol. 1: Tabula huius libri &c. How this londe wasse firste 
called Albioun and after whan yt hadde that name and howe the gyaunte 
wasse geton ye shall here as folowethe after. Capitulum primum. 

Table ends on damaged fol 8: Off kynge Harry |)e sexte [of del.] after |)e 
co[n]quest the sonne off l^nge Harry the v'^ and off f)e bataille &c. and 
of many oJ)er thynges. 

Heading on fragmentary foL 11: Assit principio sancta Maria meo. 

How this lond was first called Albio[ . . . ] had J)at name and how the 

giau[ . . . ] here as folowthe after. 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 291 

Text begins on fragmentary fol. 11: In the [ . . . ] 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Omits: heptarchy material after Cad 

Changeover, 1333 to 1377: and this victory fell to the Englissh men opon 
Seynt Margretes eve in the yere off our lorde Ihesu Criste M° CCC xxxij 
and whilis this wasse doynge the Englissh knavez toke the pelage off^ the 
Scottes that were killed eueryman that he myght take withoute knawelage 
off eny men. Deo gracias. And so after this gracius victory the kynge 
retourned agayne vnto the same seege off Berwicke 

Changeover, 1377 to 1419: And when this noble kynge Eduuarde hadde 
regned Ij yere and more the xj kalend off luyn he died in his maner off 
Shene and ys worshupfliUy buried atte Westmynstre on whosse soulle all- 
myghty Godde haue mercye. Amen. 

And after kyng Edward J)e iij'*^ J)at was born at Wyndesore rengned [sic\ 
Richard of Burdeux J)at was prince Edwardes sonne and of the debate |)at 
was betwen ij esquierez and |)e lord Latymer for J)e erle of Dene the 
bisshop of Northwdche wente vnto Flaundres and how kyng Richard was 
wedded and how he wente vnto Scotlond and how he made nve dukes 
and erles and of oJ)er thynges &c. 

After kynge Eduuard the iij that wasse born atte Wyndesor regned Ri- 
charde the secunde 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422 continuation: Then the kynge entered the tovn and 
rested hym in the castell till the tovn were sette in rule and gouernaunce. 
And anon Cawdebec and o{)er garisons ther nygh were yolden vndir the 
same appoyntemente. And then the dolfynes ambassitoures as yt wasse ac- 
corded befor with full power to do all thynge as he were hymselfe ther 
came vnto the kynge to Roon 

Continuation to 1422 ends and "Coronation of Queen Katherine" begins: and 
{)en a soore and a fervente malady hym assaylled and fro day to day grev- 
osly hym vexed till he died in the castell off Boys Vyncente the laste day 
of Auguste when he hadde regned ix yere v monethes iij wekes and iij 
dayes and ys buried atte Westmynstre on whose soulle allmyghty Godde 
haue mercy. Amen. 

Off {)e coronacyoun of queyn Kateryn. 

The yj" day of Feueryere J)at fell opon a Sonday in Lent dame Kateryn 
wasse crovned quene atte Westmynster 



292 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

"Coronation of Queen Katherine" ends on fol. 181'. z. tigre and Seynt George 
ledyng yt &c. 

Continuation to 1437 begins on fol. 182: Of kyng Henry the yj" after jje con- 
queste J)e sonne of kyng Henry J)e v'^ and of the bataill of Vernull and of 
{)e sege of Caleyse and of J)e sege of Rokesburgh and of \)t deth of |)e 
Ignig of Scottes and of Alynour Cobham 6cof maister Roger Bolyngbroke 
and of lacke Cade of Kente and of the deth of the duke of Suthfolke and 
mony other thynges. 

After the noble and victorius prince kynge Herry the v*^ regned his sonne 
kynge Henry the yj^' J)at wasse borne atte Wyndesore 

Continuation to 1437 ends: J)e forseide Igoige as he wasse goynge towarde his 
bedde havynge nomore on hym but only his shirte cruelly and vnmanly 
[out(?) del.^^ by William Grame wasse slayn and as yt wasse seide 8c tolde 
he hadde on him xxx" wondes wherof vij were dedly. ["Davies's" Cbron., 
p. 56] 

Continuation from 1440 to 1461 begins: Anno ix"° [marg.] The ix yere of |)is 
kynge Herry the Sonday before mydsomer a preest called ser Richarde 
Wyche {)at wasse vicar in Essex wasse brente opon the Toure Hyll for 
heresy ["Davies's" Chron., p. 56] 

Ends imperfectly: the duke off Southefolke William de la Poolle and oJ)er of 
his assente hadde made delyueraunce of Angeo and [cf. "Davies's" Chro- 
nicle, p. 68] 

Remarks: Internal features in the earlier and later portions of the text 
generally agree with those of the preceding text in Bodl. Lyell 34. The cen- 
tral part of the text, however, does not agree with the Lyell text, since it 
omits the additional account of the heptarchy and also contains the "5w'' 
heading. The wording of the changeover from 1333 to 1377 suggests that 
this central portion has been taken from a CV text ending in 1377, after 
which the compiler returned to a text of the type of Bodl. Lyell 34. The 
account of the coronation of Queen Katherine seems to be an independent 
interpolation (though cf item 166). The text for the reign of Richard II is 
complete and can thus supply the defective text found in the preceding 
manuscript. In its complete state the text probably ended at the same point 
as Bodl. Lyell 34, in 1461. 

Fol. 181v contains an epitaph on Matthew Gogh, whose death in 1450 is 
noted in the text on fol. 189.^ 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 293 



' See Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 373-76, for a description and an analysis 

of the contents. 

^ See Maix, "Middle English Manuscripts," p. 382 n. 42. 



Remarks on the PV-1437:A and the PV-1437/1461 

As noted above, it is difficult to account for the text of Nottingham County 
Council DDFS 3/1, which may be the result of a combination of texts. The 
full texts of the PV-1437:A found in TCC O.ll.ll, Takamiya 18, and 
Harvard Eng. 750 could be derived from the PV-1422:A, with which they 
share a set of common features and additions (see pp. 276-77), to which has 
been added a continuation from the accession of Henry VI (1422) to the 
murder of James I of Scotland (1437). 

An alternative possibility should, however, be noted: that the PV-1437:A 
might have been the source of the PV-1422:A, which deliberately omitted 
the narrative on Henry VI (perhaps because it was compiled at a politically 
uncertain time in the late 1450s or early 1460s). If this were the case, then 
the presumed precedence of the English PV-1437:A over the second version 
of the Latin Brut would need to be re-examined. 

In addition to independently interpolated material, the PV-1437/1461, as 
represented by Bodl. MS. Lyell 34, shares a number of augmentations with 
the PV-1422:A and the PV-1437:A: for example, the extensive narrative on 
the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy that occurs after the Cadwalla- 
der episode (with the omission of five chapters found in the CV); the anec- 
dotes in the reigns of Athelstan, Edmund, Eldred, and Edvnn, to each of 
whom is devoted a separate chapter, additional material on William the 
Conqueror (though reordered); Anselm's vision; and the Rosamond story. 

Yet in other respects, the PV-1437/1461 is closer to the CV: for example, 
the inclusion of the short account of Engist's heptarchy, two chapters on 
Constantine and the normal CV succession thereafter; and additions in the 
reigns of Richard II and Henry IV. The text of the PV-1437/1461 is not 
heavily abbreviated for the reigns of Henry III, Edward I, and Edward II. 
Although the Halidon Hill narrative is considerably shortened, it is not as 
truncated as that found in the PV-1422:A and the PV-1437:A, and in a 
number of verbal details the passage is closer to the CV original. 

The CV-1437/1461 in Bodl. Lyell 34 cannot, therefore, be directly de- 
rived from the PV-1422:A or the PV-1437:A. Its basis is either a combina- 



294 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

tion of texts of the PV-1437:A and the CV, or (less probably) it reflects in 
its narrative to 1422 an earlier, more expanded version of the PV-1422:A 
than that contained in the surviving manuscripts of that group, to which the 
continuation to 1437 was appended. (Under the alternative possibility, that 
the PV-1437:A precedes the PV-1422:A, then one could perhaps view the 
PV-1437/1461 as an offshoot of an early stage of the PV-1437:A.) What- 
ever the immediate source or sources, the basic text was then augmented by 
some reordering in the narrative, by further interpolations, and by the con- 
tinuation from 1440 to 1461. 



The Peculiar Version to 1422: Group B (PV-1422:B) 
This small group, which has no direct connection with the PV-1422:A, 
consists of MSS. NLW Peniarth 397C and Bodley 754. 

170. NLW MS. Peniarth 3970^ 

Begins imperfectly: north countre and wolde ben avenge of his fadres deth 
Vortiger [Brie 62/15-16] 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Changeover, 1419 text to 1422 continuation: And there he made for hym a 
riall and a solempne ternement and beried hym by quene Anne his wyfF 
as his owne desir was on the further side of Seynt Edwardes shrine in the 
abbey of Seynt Petris of Westmynster. In this same yere the lorde Cob- 
ham that is to saye sir lohn Oldecastell was idampnyd for a loller [cf Brie 
373/13-16, Kingsford, ed., Chrons. London, p. 69] 

Ends: Also the laste day of Auste in the x yere of his reigne the forsaide 
noble kyng Henrye the v endid his lyf at Boys Seint Vincent beside 
Paryse. Also in the vij day of Novembre he was nobly enterid at West- 
mynster on whos soule Ihesu haue mercy, [cf Kingsford, ed., Chrons. 
London, p. 74] 



^ See Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 364-69, for a description and an analysis 
of the contents. 



171. Bodleian MS. Bodley 754 

Begins imperfectly on foL 2: And to her fFadir said thay wold make all 
amendis [Brie 3/10-11] 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 295 

Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 

Changeover, 1419 text to 1422 continuation: And there he made for him a 
solempne terment and byryed him by quene Anne hys wyfe as his own 
wyll was on the souf)e syd of Seynt Edwardes shryne in the abbey of 
Seynt Petrus at Westminster. In J)is same yere the lord Cobham that is to 
say ser lohn Oldcastell was dampned for a loller [cf Brie 373/13-16, 
Kingsford, ed., Chrons. London, p. 69] 

Ends on damaged fol. 154: [ . . ]rry the fyfte dyed [ins. above] at Boys Seint 
Vincent by side Pares als[ . . . ] Novembre he was noble entyred at West- 
minster on whose soule [ . . . ] Amen. Explicit, [cf. Kingsford, ed., Chrons. 
London, p. 74] 

Remarks: The missing first folio and other missing text have been supplied 
at a later date. 



Remarks on the PV-1422:B 

The basis for the text to the beginning of the reign of Henry V is a CV- 
1419. The narrative for the reigns of the kings from Edward the Confessor 
to Henry III has been much expanded by the interpolation of secular and 
religious anecdotes, Latin verses, visions, physical descriptions of the kings, 
and so on, occasionally attributed to Marianus Scotus but in fact taken from 
the Chronicon ex chronicis attributed to Florence of Worcester and from 
Eadmer's Historia Novorum in Anglia.^ The compiler may also have used the 
Poly chronicon. A typical addition is that of the story of Rosamond, the 
mistress of Henry 11:^ 

Tho he grewe opon and boldely mysvsid a damysell called Rosa- 
mounde for whom he made a bovr at Wodstoke in the parke of a 
mervellous werkyng lyke to Dydalis bovr that the quene shulde not 
welle fynde hir but she dyed withinne a while and was buried in the 
nonery of Godstow. And hathe wreton vppon hir toumbe these 
verses — 

Hie iacet in tumba Rosamundy non rosa munda 

Ron redolet set olet quod redolere solet — 
That is as moche to say in Englisshe "here lythe in the tumbe nat the 
clene rose but Rosamunde; she stynkith and not smellith soote that 
somtyme smellid withovte goostly boote." 

From the reign of King John to Richard II the normal CV-1419 text is 



296 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

followed; Henry IVs reign, however, is heavily abbreviated. The account of 
the final imprisonment and death of Richard II (Brie 360/8-26) is moved 
forward to the end of his reign, thus allowing the reign of Henry IV to 
begin neatly on a new leaf. 

Soon after the beginning of the reign of Henry V, the compiler changed 
to a text based on a London chronicle very similar to that found in BL Cot- 
ton Julius B.ii (see changeover above), though not identical v^dth it, as shown 
by minor additional entries in the continuation.^ 



^ See Antonia Gransden, Historical Writing in England c. 550-c. 1307 (Ithaca, 1974), p. 
145; Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 364-66. Marx suggests that the conflation 
of Florence and Eadmer may have taken place in the compilation of a Latin monastic 
chronicle, which was then used by the compiler of the CV-1422:B. 
^ The popularity of this and similar stories is evinced by its inclusion in several Brut texts, 
such as the PV-1422, PV-1437:A, and Bodl. Lyell 34 (where a truncated form of the 
story appears) and twice in Lambeth 84 (as a marginal addition to the reign of Henry 11 
and, by error, as part of the account of Edward III, although the compiler has then 
stroked out the story). These texts vary in detail and in general moral viewpoint. 
^ Printed in Kingsford, ed., Chrons. London, pp. 1-116. With reference to NLW Peniarth 
397C, Marx ("Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 366-68) argues that the later part of the 
text is derived from Caxton's printed edition of the Polychronicon (1482); however, the 
compiler of the PV-1422:B and Caxton have independently used a common London 
chronicle source. 



The Peculiar Version to 1436: Group A (PV-1436:A) 
MSS. BL Harley 53 and Lambeth 6 form a small group that has used either 
two Brut texts, probably an EV-1419 text and a PV-1437:A text, or an 
exemplar that already combined two such texts, as the basic framework into 
which many passages have been inserted from a number of sources. 



172. BL MS. Harley 53^ 

Latin heading on fol. 14 (followed by 16 Latin verses): Liber de Cronicis 

Anglorum primo de Albina. 
Heading (folio damaged): Here begynne the cronicles of kynges of Eng- 

lo[ . . . ] tyme that it was first inhabit and of theire [ . . . ] be dyuers 

auctores is declaret 6c [ . . . ] 
Begins: After the begynnyng of this worlde M* [ . . . ] yere. In the noble 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 297 

lande of Surry wa[ . . . ] and a strong man of body and of g[ . . . ] was clep- 

it Diodusian 
Contains: Cad, QIL (underlined in red) 
Omits: "5w" heading (see Remarks on the PV-1436:A below) 
Changeover, 1419 to 1422: And then J)e l^oig entert into {)e toune of Roane 

and hym restit in J)e castell till J)e toune was sette in ruyle and in gouer- 

naunce. And aftur J)at was Caudebek and oJ)er garisons {)er negh yolden 

to J)e kyng vnder the same appoyntement. 

Of the trety of pees |)at was betwene I^nig Henry of Englond and kyng 
Charles of Fraunce and of {)e mariage of kyng Henry |)e v''^ and dame 
Kateryn J)e kynges doughter of Fraunce and so J)e pees made and fyn- 
ysshit. 

When kyng Henry of Englond had goton Roane as before is said the dol- 
fyns enbassatures as it was accordit before with fiill power to do al thyn- 
ges as he were J)ere hymself present comen to f)e l^nig to J)e said cite of 
Roane [Brie 559/16-27] 
End of text to 1422, and narrative from 1437 continuation: And J)en a sore 
and a fervent malady hym toke and fro day to day hym vexit til he deyed 
in {)e castell of Bois de Vincent the last day of August when J)at he had 
regnet ix yere v monithis iij wekes and iij days and aftirward he was 
brought into Englond riolly and enterid at Westemynster. 

After the noble victoriose prynce l^nig Henry the v" regnet his sone 
Henry the yj^' that was bore at Wyndesore in the fest of Saint Nycolace 
the Confessoure and began to regne in |)e age of ix monithes and xv 
dayes. [Brie 563/27-35; cf 'DaviesY Chronicle, pp. 52-53] 

Continuation to 1436 begins: And to Richard erle of Warrewik was com- 
myttit J)e kepyng of hym [Brie 563/35-564/1] 

Continuation to 1436 ends imperfectly: And when J)is bullewerk was |)us 
wonne vppon hem of Gaunt they of Brugges were glad and logh hem of 
Gaunt [Brie 580/30-31] 

Remarks: A genealogy from Adam to Henry VI (fols. 2-1 Iv) contains Rich- 
ard of Gloucester (born October 1452) but not Edward, Prince of Wales 
(born October 1453), suggesting that the manuscript may have been written 
between those dates. A coat of arms and motto on fol. 13v has been 
ascribed to the Stokes family.^ 



298 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 



^ Ejctracts are printed in Brie 534-80, collated with Lambeth 6, to which references are 
here made. 

^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 125 n. 4: " 'Silver, a chevron azure with 
three trefoils silver, within a border gules bezanty'; and the motto, 'Laus Deo honor et 
gloria'." Kingsford does not, however, give a source for his ascription to the Stokes family. 

173. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 6^ 

Heading: Here begynne the cronicles of kynges of Englond sith the tyme 

that it was first inhabit and of their actes as be dyuers auctores is declared 

and testyfyed. 
Begins: After the begynnyng of this worlde iij^' CCC 8c Ix yere. In the 

noble lande of Surry was a myghty kyng and a strong man of body and of 

gret fame which was clepid Dyoclesian 
Contains: Cad, QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see Remarks on the PV-1436:A below) 
Changeover, 1419 to 1422: And [jen the king entird into the toune of Roan 

& hym rested in the castel till the towne was sette in ruyle & in gouer- 

naunce. And aftir J)at was Caudebek 8c oJ)er garisons J)ere negh yolden to 

the l^nig. 

Of the trety of pees that was betwene kyng Henry of Englond and kyng 
Charles of Fraunce and of the mariage of l^^ng Henry the v" and dame 
Katheryn the l^^ngis doughtir of Fraunce and so the pees was made 8c 
fynysshid. 

When king Henry of Englond had geton Roan as before is said the dol- 
fyns ambassatours as it was accorded before with full power to do al thin- 
gis as he were J)er hymself present comen to the king to the said cite of 
Roane 
End of text to 1422, and narrative from 1437 continuation: And J)en a sore 8c 
a feruent malady hym toke 8c fro day to day hym vexid til he dyed in |)e 
castel of Bois de Vycene J)e last day of August when J)at he had regned ix 
yere v moneth iij wekes 8c iij dayes and aftirward he was brought into 
Englond ryally 8c enteryd at Westmynster. 

Afftir J)e noble 8c victoriose prynce king Henry the v" regned his son 
Henry the yj^^ and began to regne in J)e age of ix monethes 8c xv dayes. 
[Brie 563/27-35; cf. "Davies's" Chronicle, pp. 52-53] 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 299 

Continuation to 1436 begins: And to Richard erle of Warrewik was comittid 

J)e kipyng of hym [Brie 563/35-564/1] 
Continuation to 1436 ends: & to shippe at Sandwich wher-as lay redy in J)e 

hauen iij*-" sailes to abyde his comyng. [Brie 584/16-17] 

Remarks: This text is often given the name the "St. Albans Chronicle" (the 
text is headed "The Cronicle of St Albans" in a sixteenth-century hand), but 
there is no apparent connection with either that abbey or the town. 

The manuscript is illustrated throughout with magnificent paintings, 
probably by a Flemish artist (though James suspects two artists). A number 
of notes survive, written in English in the lower margins, that give directions 
to the illustrator concerning the subjects to be illustrated. 

The arms in a shield incorporated into the bottom border on fol. 1 have 
been associated with those of the descendants of William Purchas, mercer, 
city chamberlain of London from 1484 to 1492, alderman from 1492 to 
1502, sheriff in 1492-93, and mayor in 1497-98; he died in 1503.^ 



* See James, Descriptive Catalogue. . . Lambeth Palace, pp. 15-18; Eric G. Millar, "Les 
principaux manuscrits a peintures du Lambeth Palace a Londres," Bulletin de la socie'ti 
Jranfaise de reproductions des manuscrits a peintures 9 (1925): 15-19 and plate 44. TTie end 
of the continuation to 1436, missing in the previous text, is printed in Brie 581-84. 
^ See Millar, "Les principaux manuscrits," p. 16 n. 1. See also John W. Papworth, An 
Alphabetical Dictionary of Coats of Arms . . . Forming an Extensive Ordinary of British Armo- 
rials (1874; rpt. London, 1961), p. 795 ("Arg. a lion ramp. sa. over all on a fess az. three 
bezants. PURCHAS, co. York."; and Meale, "Patrons, Buyers and Owners," pp. 206, 
226-27 n. 38. On Purchas, see Alfred B. Beaven, The Aldermen of the City of London 
Temp. Henry UI-1908/1912, 2 vols. (London, 1908, 1913), 1: 101, 138; 2: bd, bdv, 18. 
A selection of the illustrations has been made available separately as a slide set in the 
series "Masterpieces of Mediaeval Art" (London: World Microfilms). 



Remarks on the PV-1436:A 

The PV-1436:A is an elaborate, well-executed compilation that uses two 
types of Brut text derived from either independent manuscripts or a manu- 
script in which the two types were already combined, as well as a number of 
supplementary sources.^ Almost uniquely among the English texts (cf the 
PV-1437:B), it begins with the version of the Albina narrative found in the 
Anglo-Norman Des Grantz Geanz and the Latin Brut, although details and 
language from the Middle English Brut text are introduced. As in the latter. 



300 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Dioclisian is named king of Syria rather than Greece, and he is said to have 
thirty-three daughters. However, in accordance with the Anglo-Norman ver- 
sion, the youngest daughter reveals her sisters' murderous plot against their 
husbands, who thus survive. The thirty-two unrepentant sisters are exiled 
and arrive in Albion, where the details of their modus vivendi are described. 
The devil impregnates the women, whose children then lie with their moth- 
ers and beget sons and daughters of great stature. These and, in turn, their 
incestuous offspring constitute the race of giants whom Brutus will destroy.^ 
Details are also introduced from the Short English Metrical Chronicle that 
correspond to details in the EV groups borrowed from the same source, 
though the first of these occurs at a different point. The giants' mode of 
existence is described (after the account of their generation in the Albina 
story) as follows: 

This geauntes lyued on wilde dere and on herbes and rotes and drank 
watir and mylk of rugh shep and gete and of theire here they made 
hem sclaueyns as pelgrymes vsen. [Lambeth 6; cf pp. 184-85 above] 

A second detail occurs later, at the same point as in the EV, when Brutus 
mocks Coryn's initial lack of success in wrestling Gogmagog: 

Then Brut said to Corineus thes wordes: "Corineus and J)e worde 
spryng of the how you ert thus put to the wurse al thy worship is lost 
for that day was neuer seyne that thou was thus put to |)e wurse as 
thou ert now here and yf Heruburgh thy loue it wist she wolde neuer 
loue the aftir this tyme." [Lambeth 6; cf Zettl, ed., Metrical Chron., 
p. 3, line 65-p. 4, line 79 (see pp. 186-87 above), and the readings in 
the EV groups on pp. 186, 191, 193-94 above] 

The blend of wording in this passage suggests that the compiler was using 
both an EV text and the Short English Metrical Chronicle. 

The subsequent text continues to use the Brut as its primary framework, 
combined with material adapted from Langtoft's Chronicle, Geoffrey of 
Monmouth's Historia Regum Britannie (for example, Latin verses, the thirty- 
three kings chapter. Merlin's Latin prophecies to Vortiger), the Short English 
Metrical Chronicle (for example, the building of the hot baths at Bath), and 
other subsidiary sources.^ A number of Latin verses occur in Harley 53 only 
(for example, at the start of the text, before the accession of Lucy, after 
Gurmond's expedition to France, and at the beginning of the section on 
Anglo-Saxon history). 

At the end of the Cadwallader episode the compiler comments on 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 301 

sources, noting William of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntingdon, Peter Lang- 
toft, and "the bok of Latyn" (Geoffrey's Historia). 

The subsequent text to the death of Edward I in 1307 is a combination, 
to varying degrees in different sections, of the Brut and material adapted 
from some version of Langtoft's Chronicle (which ends in 1307), with the 
addition of numerous interpolations.^ Henceforth the Brut forms the frame- 
work for the narrative, but with many interesting additions and alterations 
in every reign. 

The text from 1419 to a point just after the beginning of the reign of 
Henry VI is based on the PV-1437:A, though the compiler may also have 
borrowed some details for the text before 1419.^ However, after the first 
sentence of the continuation from 1422 to 1437 the compiler switches to a 
continuation that seems to be original, though its general shape may have 
been influenced by the 1422 to 1437 continuation. It concentrates heavily on 
events in Flanders and may, therefore, reflect personal involvement in those 
events. Lambeth 6, which carries the narrative beyond the imperfect conclu- 
sion of BL Harley 53, contains a long mocking song against the Flemings 
(Brie 582/18-584/10). 

It is possible that Lambeth 6 was directly based on BL Harley 53 or that 
both manuscripts were derived from a common exemplar. A number of the 
Latin verses found in the latter are omitted from the Lambeth text; similarly 
some mocking lines of verse in the Halidon Hill chapter have been left out, 
though a space has been left for them for a later insertion, probably in red, 
that was not executed. In general, the text of Harley 53 preserves better the 
wording of the identifiable sources than does that of Lambeth 6, 



^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 104-109, for an analysis based on BL Harley 53. 

Sections from the post-Conquest narrative, including several of the interpolations, are 

printed in Brie 534-84. 

^ Cf. the abbreviated Anglo-Norman text in Brereton, ed., Des Grantz Geanz, reproduced 

in Carley and Crick, "Constructing Albion's Past," pp. 92-112 (even pages). 

^ Cf. Kennedy, Manual, p. 2632. 

* Some of the material for the extended account of Thomas Becket may have been based 

on "pc bok of his lyf which is not littill" (Lambeth 6) to which the reader is referred for 

fiirther information. 

' See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 123-24. 



302 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

The Peculiar Version to 1437: Group B (PV-1437:B) 
This group is most immediately associated with texts of the Latin Brut and 
is related to, though not directly associated with, the PV-1437:A. There has 
been some uncertainty whether this group should in fact be truly considered 
a Bruty since it is not directly derived from the other English texts, and it is 
included here under the "extended family" concept (see the remarks on the 
group below). ^ The group is formed of MSS. Columbia Plimpton 261, 
Holkham 669, and Bodl. Ashmole 791. 



^ Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, p. 100, describes Holkham 669 as a translation from a 
Latin chronicle, of which BL Lansdowne 212 is an example, that is not directly con- 
nected to the Brut. Later, discussing other Latin manuscripts similar in type to Lans- 
downe 212 (though he does not note the connection). Brie mistakenly asserts that their 
Albina text "has nothing to do with our Bruf (p. 128). Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2638-40, 
classifies the manuscripts of the English group as a separate chronicle firom the main 
Brut, though he remarks, correctly, that "Matheson . . . would presumably classify these in 
his fourth category of miscellaneous versions of the Bru^ (p. 2639). 



174. Columbia University Library MS. Plimpton 261 
Heading: Here begynnyth {)e New Croniclis compendiusli ydrawe of jje 
gestis of kyngis of Ingelond wij) oJ)ir notable and meruelose |)yngis J)at 
happed 6c fortuned in ther tymes from J)e firste l^nig Brute J)at cam in to 
|)is land in J)e yere from J)e begynnyng of {)e world ijM' CCC Ixxxx to J)e 
xiiij [x rubbed or partially erased] yere of kyng Harry Jje sbcte anno [domini 
1426 add. in marg. by another hand] 
Begins: The reme of Brytan J)at now is ycallid Inglond at J)e firste namynge 
J)erof was ycalled Albion. But for what cause and whi hit was so ycalled 
almoost no cronicle maketh mencyoun. Neuer-J)e-lasse hitt is founde in 
a certayn story J)ow hit be not of greet auctorite J)at aboute J)e yere from 
pt makyng of the worlde M'M' ix^ iiij'" xviij in Greke-land ptr was a 
my3ti kyng hauyng J)e lordschipp aboue all oJ)ir kyngis a man of greet 
stature hauyng a wiffe of \>e same makyng of \>e whiche he begate xxx 
dou3ters of pe same stature of J)e whiche \>e eldist was ycallid Albyna 
Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad 

Omits: QIL, "5w" heading (see Remarks on the PV-1437:B below) 
Changeover, 1419 to 1422: Then after long hongre |5e cytezens dredyng to 
dye for hongre and hauyng noon hope of socour putt them in |)e l^^ngys 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 303 

grace and yelded vp J)e town; |)is seege endured from \>e begynnyng of 
August to J)e begynnyng of lanuar. And after J3at \>ey had Roon Jjey had 
soon J)e castell of Cawdebeke 8c as meny as were in Roon. Then Charlis 
and J)e dolphyns messangers com to Roon to J)e kyng 
Changeover, 1422 to 1437: grete sikenes toke hym and euery day encresyd 
vnto {)e tyme J)at he was brou3te to his deth. And so he yelded his sowle 
to God J)e laste day of August in |)e castell of Boys Vyncent besyde 
Paryse when he had regnyd ix yere v monthes iij wekys and iij days. And 
he is yberyed att Westmyster att whoos deth was kyng Charlys and J)e ij 
quenys of Ingelond 8c o Fraunce. 

Harry J)e yj J)e sone of J)e noble kyng Harry J)e v ybore att Wyndesore in 
|)e feeste of Seynt Nycholas beyng of ix monthis and xv days of age on 
Seynt Leonarde-is day toke |)e gouernaunce of J)e reme. 

Ends: as he splaide hymself to bedward and for noyse of traytors J)at he 
herde talkyng in a corner fled in to an howse of esement hauyng on but 
oonly hys scherte and his breche he was yslayn of a Scotte ycalled Wyl- 
- liam Grame. And as hitt was seide he had vnto xxx woundes in his body 
where-of vij were deth woundes. And for the playn euydence here-of a 
legate of Jje popis beyng J)at tyme in Scotlond as hit was seyde bare {)e 
kyngis scherte wyth hym and schewed hitt to J)e pope. Sec. 

Colophon: Explicit liber Cronicorum. Quod Ricardus Rede. 

Remarks: The attribution in the colophon to "Ricardus Rede" corresponds to 
a similar attribution in Bodl. MS. Rawlinson C.398, a copy of the Latin 
Brut from which the PV-1437:B was translated (see p. 46). 



175. HOLKHAM Hall MS. 669 

Heading: Here begynnythe the Newe Cronudys compendyusly idrawe of the 
gestys of kynges of Ynglond with meny other notable 8c meruelowse 
Jjyngys J)at happyd and fortunyd in Jjer tymys from |)e first kyng Brute J)at 
cam ynto J)is land {)e yere from J)e begynnynge of J)e worlde ijM' CCC 
iiij'™ X to J)e xiiij yere of kyng Harry {)e sexte. 

Begins: The reme of Bretayne J)at nowe ys callyd Ynglond at J)e first namyng 
Jaerof was callyd Albyon 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad 

Omits: QIL, "5w" heading (see Remarks on the PV-1437:B below) 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: Than after long hunger J)e cytezens dredyng to 



304 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

dye for hunger 8c hauyng noon hope of socor put Jjem yn J)e kyngys grace 
Scyelded vpp f)e town. Thys sege enduryd from J)e begynnyng of Auguste 
[pey de/.] to \>c begynnyng of January & after J)at J)ey had Roon |)ey had 
soon Ipe castell of Cawdebeke 8c as meny as wer ny Roon. Than Charlys 
8c \>e dolphyns massangers com to Roon to pt kyng 
Changeover, 1422 to 1437: grete sykenesse toke hym and euery day encresyd 
vnto J)e tyme |)at he was y-[brw3 del.]hrow2,th. to hys deth. And so he 
yeldyd hys sowle to God {)e laste day of August yn f)e castell of Boys 
Vyncent besyde Parys whan he had reynyd ix yer v monthys iij wekys iij 
dayes. And he ys yberyed att Westemester att whoys dej) was kyng 
Charlys Jje ij quenys of Inglond 8c of Fraunce. 

Herry |)e yj J)e son of |)e nobyll kyng Herry Jje v ybore att Wyndesore yn 
J)e feste of Seynt Nycholas beyng of ix monthys 8c xv dayes of age on 
Seynt Leonardes day toke J)e gouernaunce of J)e reme. 
Ends: as he splayed hymselfe to bedde-warde and for noyse of traytors J)at 
he herd talkyng yn a corner fled ynto an howse of esement hauyng on but 
onely hys scherte and his breche he was yslayn of a Scotte ycalled Wil- 
lyam Grame. And as hit was seyde he had onto a xxx woundys yn hys 
body where-of vij were deJ) woundys. And for a playn euydence herof a 
legate of J)e popys beyng Jjat tyme yn Scottelond as hit was seyde bare J)e 
l^^ngys scherte wij) hym and schewyd hyt to the pope. 



176. Bodleian MS. Ashmole 791^ 

Begins imperfectly during genealogy of Brutus (see below): Qujpiteres sone 
ybegetene of Electra pt whiche Dardanus by strengj)e of armys gate J)at 
regioun and reynyde fyrste J)ere-in. 

Contains: Cad, heptarchy material after Cad 

Omits: QIL, "5w" heading (see Remarks on the PV-1437:B below) 

Changeover, 1419 to 1422: Then after longe hungure |)e cytezens dredynge 
to dye for hungure 8c hauynge noo hope of socoure putt {)em in |)e 
l^^ngys grace and yeldyd vppe J)e towne. t>ys sege enduryd from J)e begyn- 
nynge of Auguste to {)e begynnynge of lanuarye. And after J)at J)ey had 
Roon J)ey had soone J)e castelle of Cawdebeke 8c as mony as were ny3e 
Roon. Pan Charelys 8c J)e dolphyns messengeres come to Roone to |)e 
kynge 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437: grete sykenes toke him 8c euery daye encresyd 
vnto {)e tyme J)at he was brou3te to his dej)e. And so he yeldyd his soule 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 305 

to God J)e last daye of Auguste in pe castelle of Boyes Vyncente besyde 
Paryse when he had reynyd ix yere v mone{)ys iij wekys &, iij dayes & he 
ys beryed atte Westemynster. Atte whose dej)e was l^nige Charelys and 
J)e ij quenes of Inglond and of Fraunce. 

Herry |)e vj pe son of \>e noble kynge Herry pe v bore atte Wyndesoure 
in J)e feste of Seynte Nicholas beynge of ix moneJ)ys & xv dayes of age 
and on Seynte Leonardys daye toke pe gouernaunce of pe reme. 
Ends onfol. 59 v\ as he spayde hymselfe to bedde-warde and for J)e noyse of 
traytoures p2X he herde tall^^nge in a corner fledde into an house of ese- 
mente havyng on hym but onely hys scherte 6c hys breche he was sleyne 
of a Scotte callyd Wyllyam Grame. And as it was seyde he hadde vnto a 
XXX woundys in his body wherof vij were dejje woundes. And for J)e pleyn 
euydence herof a legate of pt poopys beynge p2X tyme in Scottelande as 
it was seyde bare pt l^gys scherte wyj) hym &, schewyd it to pt, poope. 

Remarks: The Brut text is followed on fols. 60-84v by the English trans- 
lation of Martinus Polonus's Chronicle of Popes and Emperors? 



^ Brief extracts from this manuscript, transcribed in 1672, are found in Bodleian Ashmole 
1139.iv.2, fol. 80r-80v. 

^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2663-64, 2879-80; Embree, ed., The Chronicles of Rome 
(forthcoming). This work is also found in conjunction with a Brut text in CUL Ee.4.31 
(see item 77). 



Remarks on the PV-1437:B 

The PV-1437:B, entitled the "New Croniclis," is a fairly close and accurate 
translation of a text of the longer class of the second version of the Latin 
Brut, some texts of which use the title "Nova Cronica," and thus shares the 
features found in the Latin compilation (see pp. 44-46). The basis for the 
English text must have resembled closely the texts in MSS. Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, 311; Bodleian Rawlinson B.169; and St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford, 78. 

Since the Latin text may have been partially modeled on the PV-1437:A 
in its narrative to 1377 and was based on that group for its narrative from 
1377 to 1437, there are many points of similarity between the PV-1437:B 
and the PV-1437:A, although the two groups are not directly related. 

As in the Latin text and the PV-1437:A, the narrative for the reign of 



306 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Edward III is abbreviated. The "5w" heading does not occur; the battle of 
Halidon Hill and the changeover from 1333 to 1377 appear as follows: 

The vij yere ky^ng Edward beseged and toke J)e town of Berwyke a 
greet batayle flirste ydon bytwyxte hym and J)e Scottis on Halydon 
Hylle wher of J)e Scottis were yslayn viij erls M' and CCC horsemen 
and of pe comynte xxxv M^ And ^at hitt is mervayle to sey on the 
Englisch party were slayn but oon kny3th oon squyer and xij fotemen. 
The xij yere l^^ng Edward went into Flaunders and associatyd to hym 
Bauarrus pe emperoure. 



Tbe Peculiar Version to 1437: Group C (PV-1437:C) 

111. Inner Temple Library, Petyt MS. 511, Vol. XI^ 

Heading onfol. 66: Here men mowe knowe how Engelonde firste was callid 

Albion and thorowe whom it hadde the name of Albion. 
Begins: In the noble londe lof [sic] Surrye 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Changeover, 1333 to 1377: without eny calangynge of any man. Deo Gracias. 

How kinge Edwarde chalangid firste J)e kingdome of Fraunce and how he 
made vij duchies of vij erldomes. 

In the yere of our lord M' CCC xxxvij and J)e xij yere of kinge Edwardes 
regne [cf Brie 286/8-9 and 292/26-31] 
Changeover, 1419 exemplar to Latin Brut exemplar. And whan this kinge 
Herry J)e iiij^*^ had regned xiij yere and more he deied at Westmyster and 
is buried at Criste Churche in Caunturbury. 

How kinge Herry the v regned the whiche was a noble conquerour and 
a victorious knyght in bataile to whom ffortune was euer frendely and 
gate his righful enherytaunce in Fraunce with dynte of swerde J)at alle his 
enmyes of him had drede and fere. Alas for his deth for he regned but ix 
yere and an halfe. 

And aftir the deth of kinge Herry the iiij'** regned his sone Herry the v'*' 
prince of Walls duke of Cornewale and erle of Chester |)at was bore at 
Monmothe in Walys. And in the xx day of J)e moneth of Marche he was 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 307 

crowned at Westmyster. And in J)e firste yere of his regne ther aros here- 
tikes and lollardes purposynge to sle the kinge and to destroie the clergye 
of Engelonde. [cf. Brie 372/16-33, Kingsford, English Historical Lit- 
erature, p. 315, and Brie 373/1-6, 18-21, Kingsford, English Historical 
Literature, p. 316] 

Changeover, 1419 to 1437: And {)ere were nombred in J)e cite at the firste 
comynge of |)e sege of men women and children CCCCM' of the whiche 
durynge the sege the[r] deied in f)e same cite for hungur IM'. And J)e 
sege dured from the bigynnynge of Auguste til lanuar next folowynge and 
tho it was yolde to the Icjmge. And aftir he gate Gisours with the castell 
and {)e towne of Seynt Denyse 

Changeover, 1422 to 1437: This gloriouse kinge and conquerour Herry the 
v'*' in alle batailles and iorneyes that he had to done God shewid hym gret 
grace for in alle he had the victory. And whanne he had regned ix yere v 
monthes iij wekis and iij dales a gret infirmyte fille vpon him with whiche 
he deied at Boyez de Vyncent in Fraunce byside Paris ^e last day saf oon 
of August and from thens he was caried and is wurshipflilly buried at 
Westmynster. On whos soule God haue mercye. 

How kinge Herry the yj biganne to regne. Alas J)e sorow J)at fille in his 
dales in the reme of Engelonde for so moche shedynge of blood and 
slaughter of lordis was neuer seyne in this londes bi no kinges regne sith 
Brute come firste into f)is londe of Albion and callid it Breteyne aftir his 
owne name. 

And aftir the deth of kinge Herry the v**^ regned his sone Herry the yj" 
whiche was bore at Wyndesore in J)e feste of Seynte Nicholas the bisshop. 
And whanne he was viij monthis iij wokis and iij dales of age he bigan to 
regne. 
Ends: As J)e kinge was goynge to his bed beynge in his sherte J)e said Wil- 
liam Grame and oJ)erhauynge in her handis spadis and fille vppon her 
kinge. And he for socoure fled out of his chambur for socour into a priuy 
sege and J)er thei cursidly slowe him. And as it was seid the kinge had 
XXX woundes vpon him where-offe were vij dedly. In witnesse of J)e which 
J)e popis legate beynge in Scotlonde J)at tyme bare J)e kinges shirte with 
hym to Rome to ^e pope. And so Englishmen ben moch bounde to yelde 
presynge laude and wurship to almyghty God the whiche of his infynyte 
godenesse fiill ofte tymes tho enemyes and peple that ar euell disposid he 
puttith hem vndir fote. [infynyte . . . fote repeated, with spelling variations, 
by another hand] 



308 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Remarks: The text is a fusion of texts from two separate groups of the Eng- 
lish Brut (which appears at the same time to have been influenced by texts 
from other groups), the ending of which is a translation from one type of 
the Latin Brut ending in 1437. 

There are no EV/AV details in the prologue, but the chapter normally 
listing the kings of Britain may have been influenced by a text of the AV- 
1419:A(a) (cf p. 208): 

How xxxiij kingis regned in pees eche aftir other aftir the deth of 
Hesidour. Capitulo xxxiij°. 

Aftir the deth of Hesidour regned xxxiij kinges eche aftir othir whos 
names ben expressid opinly in oJ)er places but the last of them alle 
was callyd Ely J)e whiche regned but vij monthis. And this Ely had iij 
sones Lud Cassibulanne & Gemyoun. 

The end of the passage on Engist's heptarchy is reminiscent of MSS. BL 
Harley 24 and Addit. 12030 of the EV-1419:A (see p. 187): "the vij kinge 
had Oxfordshire Gloucestre-shire Wurcestire-shire and Warwike-shire." 

There is a curious break in the text after the death of Arthur that is 
probably of no greater significance than a missing leaf or two but which 
happens to resemble the majority of AV texts at this point, for instead of 
Constantine following Arthur, there seems to have been the loss of a few 
chapters and, as it stands, Conan follows: 

[fol. 93, foot] but certis this is the prophicie of Merleyn he sayd that 
his deth schulld be douteus and he said soth for men wete not 
wheder he lyueth or dede. Arthur [fol. 94] moche honour and so- 
lempnite. 

Hou kyng [Arthur del.] Conan regnid in grete pride and slowe his 
vncles ij sonnes. 

After this Curan regnyd Conan [cf Brie 90/22-26 and 92/29-31] 

The combination of features, the end of the narrative to 1333, and the 
break in the narrative at the beginning of the continuation to 1377 suggest 
that the first part of the text has been based on a CV-1333 text and 
shortened to some extent by the compiler. 

After 1333, the text has been taken from a text ending in 1419, although 
abbreviation continues throughout, especially from the beginning of Richard 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 309 

II's reign on fol. 159v. This section of the narrative ends with the death of 
Henry IV (quoted above). 

From the accession of Henry V (1413) to the murder of James I of Scot- 
land (1437), the narrative corresponds to that found in those manuscripts of 
the Latin Brut ending in 1437 that contain the brief account of the reign of 
Henry Y} It is particularly, though not exclusively, close to the text of BL 
Cotton Domitian iv. The compiler appears to have translated his account 
from Latin, though the converse possibility should not be discounted that he 
took it from an English text that formed the basis for the Latin text (see 
further pp. 43, 46, 293). The chapter headings and their editorial apos- 
trophes seem to be the compiler's personal contributions; that for Henry VI 
(quoted above) must date the compilation to the reign of Edward IV. 



^ See J. Conway Davies, Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Library of the Inner Temple, 2 
vols. (Oxford, 1972), 1: 222-24. The manuscript has mid-sixteenth-century connections 
with Carnarvonshire, as marginal notes attest. 
^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, pp. 310-23. 



Tbe Peculiar Version to 1479/82 (PV-1479/82) 

178. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 84^ 

Begins: In the noble land of Surre ther was a noble l^ng and myhty and a 

worthy lord of name and a man of gret renoun 
Contains: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading 
Text to 1419 ends: And than J)e kyng entryd ynto J)e cite &, restyd hym in 

|)e castell tyl J)e cite was sette in rewle 6c good gouernaunce. 
Text from 1419 to ?1422 begins: And aftyr J)at Roan was wonne Deepe &. 

many oJ)er tounes in Baas Normandy gaf them ouer withoute strooke or 

syege [cf Caxton, Liber ultimus, leaf cccix verso] 
Text to ?1422 breaks off on fol. 200v: ffor euyr whan they of Syon rest they 

of J)e Chartrehous begyn theyr servyce. And in lyke [wyse whanne catch- 

words] 
Continuation to 1479/82 begins on fol. 201: [A]nd yn J)e yer of our lorde M' 

CCCC 8c xxiij on \>t last day of August Herry of Wyndelysore J)e sone 

of Herry |)e fyfthe began to reyne whan he was but be monthis of age 

[Brie 598/32-599/1] 
Continuation ends: 8c aftyr J)at cam a gret dethe of pestilence |)at lastyd iij 



310 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

yer &- peple dyed myhtely in euery p[l]ace man woman 8c chylde on 
whois soulys God haue mercy. Amen. [Brie 604/9-12] 

Remarks: This elaborate expanded version of the Brut is the anonymous 
compiler's holograph copy, as the physical condition of the manuscript 
shows. The text fills not only the normal page, but is found written between 
the normal lines, in the margins, and in small notes written in the same 
hand that are inserted between the pages. 

The manuscript was written in two stages at different times. The first 
stage was based on a Brut text ending in 1419, much expanded by the com- 
piler by the insertion of material from a variety of historical and literary 
works. He seems also to have used a PV-1422 text, since a number of inter- 
polated stories occur at points similar to where they occur in that group. 
Historical interpolations come from the compiler's own translation of sec- 
tions of Higden's Polychronicon and William of Malmesbury's Historia Reg- 
um Anglorum; literary adaptations are based on the Havelok and Arthur and 
Merlin romances, Chaucer and Gower's versions of the Constance story, 
saints' lives such as Osbert's life of Dunstan, Lydgate's "Legend of St, 
Austin at Compton," and other literary works. A number of stories appear 
to be taken from works now lost. 

At some point soon after the pubHcation of Caxton's edition of the Poly- 
chronicon in 1482, the compiler thoroughly revised his book by using the 
printed edition as the source for further interpolations, added in the margins 
or on interleaved slips or written over original text that he washed out. 

The original text may have ended on fol. 199 with the (r8cg) ending, 
though the compiler may have added a few lines to the bottom of the page. 
Text at the foot of fol. 199 seems to have been erased, and as it stands the 
text continues with material copied from Caxton's Liber ultimus to the Poly- 
chronicon. This material breaks off with catchwords at the foot of fol. 200v, 
before the death of Henry V, and is now immediately followed by an appar- 
ently unique continuation that begins with the accession of Henry VI (see 
above). The Caxton continuation is written in a smaller hand than what pre- 
cedes and follows it. 

The unique continuation, which contains a ballad mocking the Flemish, 
takes the narrative first to Edward IVs French expedition of 1475 and then 
to what must be the plague of 1479.^ Since the text notes that this "pesti- 
lence" lasted for three years, at least the final entries must have been written 
in or after 1482. However, a Ust of Edward IVs children (Brie 603/16-18) 
within the narrative on fol. 202v, the last page of the text, suggests that the 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 311 

date of writing of that section of the text was 1478-79.^ A possible explana- 
tion for this apparently contradictory chronological evidence is that the con- 
tinuation originally ended after Edward IVs French expedition and that the 
concluding entries, rather vague in content, were added when the compiler 
revised the volume in or soon after 1482. 



* Sec Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," pp. 607-609, and Lister M. Matheson, The 
Arthurian Stories of Lambeth Palace Library MS M" Arthurian Literature V, ed. Richard 
Barber (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 70-91; for full details of the compilation process and the 
interpolated material, see my Literature and History in Late Medieval England- The 
Evidence of Lambeth Palace Library MS. 84 (in progress). Extracts from both stages of 
composition are printed in Brie 585-604, although he did not realize that the Polychro- 
nicon additions represented a later stage; for the Havelok narrative, see also Brie, "Zum 
Fortleben der Havelok-Sage," pp. 366-71. 

^ See Robert S. Gottfried, Epidemic Disease in Fifteenth-Century England (New Bruns- 
wick, 1978), pp. 44-45, 49-50. 

^ See Kingsford, English Historical Literature, p. 125; the list includes George (born in 
1478, died in March 1479) but not Catherine (born towards the end of 1479) or Bridget 
(born in 1480); Richard is called duke of York and Norfolk, having received the latter 
title in February 1478. 



Sections of Longer Brut Texts 

The Peculiar Version to 1431 (PV-1431) 
The Peculiar Version to 1422: Group C (PV-1422:C) 
The PV-1431 consists of closely related continuations, set down in civic 
chronicle form, to otherwise different Brut texts that are found in MSS. BL 
Egerton 650(2) and Bodl. RawUnson B.173(2); Bodl. MS. RawUnson B.166, 
now incomplete, may also have originally contained some version of this 
continuation. The continuation from 1419 to 1422 found in Pennsylvania 
State MS. PS. V-3A(2) is direcdy derived from the PV-1431 and is thus 
considered here. 

179. BL MS. Egerton 650(2)^ 

Continuation begins onfol lllv. In J)at same yere |)e Kyng lay at J)e sege of 

Roon [Brie 444/1] 
Ends on fol 114v: And left |)er J)e Duke of Glaucestre, Leuetenaunte. 

Nicholas Watton maior. M. cccc. xxxi. [Brie 451/38-40] 



312 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Remarks: A folio has been lost between fols. 113 and 114, as comparison 
with the next manuscript shows (see Brie 449/34-35, 452/6-453/38). A 
final folio may also have been lost that would have brought the text to the 
same ending point as that found in the following manuscript. 



^ For (1), see item 29. The continuation is printed in Brie 444-51, whence it is quoted 
here. 



180. Bodleian MS. Rawlinson B.173(2)^ 

Continuation begins imperfectly on fol. 222: And in that yere oure kyng and 

dame Katerin his quene [cf. Brie 445/3] 
Ends: and in that yere come to London the ambassiatours of Spayne to trete 

of pees. [Brie 455/14-15] 

Remarks: The continuation, which follows immediately on the incomplete 
1419(men) text, begins imperfectly since the manuscript has lost some leaves 
that contained the end of the 1419 text and the beginning of the continu- 
ation. 

The manuscript is written in two hands of similar dialectal provenance, 
namely West Herefordshire, from close to the Welsh border.^ 



^ For (1), see item 30. The text from 1422 to 1431 is printed in Brie 452-55, whence it 
is quoted here. 
2 See p. 102. 



181. Pennsylvanl\ State University MS. PS. V-3A(2)^ 

Continuation beyond 1419 begins on fol. 196: In the vij" yere of J)e same king 
lay atte sege of Roan. And the xvij day of lanure it was yolden to oure 
king. And the tithinges come to London the vj day of Feuerer. And then 
J)e duke of Bedford lieutenaunt of Englond and the chaunceler and mony 
other bisshopes and the mayre and shiriefes with the aldermen and al the 
comuners of the cite made a general procession ffrom Poules to West- 
mynster [cf Brie 444/1-6] 

Continuation to 1422 ends: And in the same yere died king Henre the v** in 
Fraunce vpon the euen of the decollacion of Seint lohn the Baptist. And 
than was his sone Henre made king. [cf. Brie 448/35-37] 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 



313 



Remarks: The continuation follows the 1419(men) ending without break and 
in the same hand. 



* For (1), see item 32. 



Remarks on the PV-1431 and the PV-1422:C 

The continuations in BL Egerton 650 and Bodl. Rawlinson B.173 are very 

closely related/ as the beginning of the entry for 1429/30 shows: 



The fi[fl day of Nouember, |)e 
Kyng, wyth hys lordys, ryally rode 
frome Kyngstone ouer London 
Bryge, And so forth Fenchyrche 
strete, evyn vn-to the Toure, to 
hys mete. And {)e Maire and J)e 
Aldermen, all in Scarlete hodys, 
rode to mete the Kyng, And so 
rode forth with hym to J)e Toure 
The Seterday next aftre; wher-of 
were {)e Erie of Denshyre, f)e 
Lord Spencer sone, the Erie of 
Warwyk, J)e Lord Beamounde. 
And aftre none, J)e Kyng, in a 
riall araye, with all hys lordys 
Ryally a-rayed in cloth of gold for 
J)e most part, with the said xxiiij 
newe knyghtes all in blew, the 
prestes rode a-fore J)e Kyng ij and 
ij, from J)e Toure to Westmyn- 
stre. [BL Egerton 650: Brie 450/ 
34-451/7] 



The Friday, the iij*** day of No- 
uember, the King with his lordes, 
Rialli rode fro Kingeston ouer 
London Brige, And so forth Fan- 
chirch strete, even to the Toure, 
to his mete. And the Maire and 
the Aldermen, all in scarlet 
hodes, Rode to mete the King, 
and rode forth with him to the 
Toure. the Saturday next after, 
the King made xxxiij knightes of 
the Bath, in the Toure of Lon- 
don; wherof were the Erie of 
Deuenysshshire, the Lorde Spen- 
cers Sonne, the Erie of Warre- 
wike, the Lorde Beaumond. and 
after none, the King, in riall aray, 
with all his lordes rialli arayed in 
clothes of golde for the most par- 
tie, with the saide xxxiij knightes 
all in blewe like prestes, rode a- 
fore the King ij and ij fro the 
Toure to Westminster. [Bodl. 
Rawlinson B.173: Brie 454/26- 
36] 



The annual entries are in typical civic chronicle "note" form in both 
manuscripts, and the continuations are probably copied from the same 



314 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

exemplar. This exemplar may have been an independent London chronicle, 
or it may have been a continuation to the basic Brut text in Bodl. Rawlinson 
B.166, a now imperfect text of the CV-1419(men):A that agrees very well 
with the first part of the text of BL Egerton 650.^ The Egerton text pre- 
serves a number of entries of local London interest that have been omitted 
from the text of Bodl. Rawlinson B.173. 

The continuation from 1419 to 1422 in Pennsylvania State PS. V-3A(2) 
is an adaptation of part of the narrative represented in civic chronicle format 
in Egerton 650 and Rawlinson B.173 to the continuous narrative form 
typical of the Brut. Thus the names of the mayors and sheriffs are omitted. 
The initial transition is, however, awkwardly done (see the text above). The 
adaptor appears to have decided consciously to end the narrative in 1422 
with the natural stopping-point of the death of Henry V and the accession 
of Henry VI. 



^ See McLaren, "Textual Transmission," p. 60. 

^ See pp. 102, 104. Kennedy, Manual, p. 2845, lists these sections of texts under London 

chronicles. 



Very Brief Works Based on the Brut 

The Peculiar Version to 1307 (PV-1307) 

182. NLW MS. Peniarth 343Ai 

Heading: Afore yat I will speake of Brute yt shalbe shewed how ye lond of 

Inglond was first named Albion 8c by what encheson yt so was named. 
Begins: Off the noble lond of Surrye ther was a royal kyng & mightye &, a 

man of greate renome yat called was Dioclesian 
Contains: Cad 
Ends on p. 58: Edward ye firste xxxii yeare 8c lyethe at Westminster. 

Remarks: This text is a sixteenth- or seventeeth-century abstract of a Brut 
text and is probably the original compilation. The wording of the heading 
suggests that the source may have been one of the early printed editions to 
1461 (cf items 85, 204, 206, 207). 

In the chapter on the British kings, the entries are set out in tabular form 
and only the name of the appropriate king and the length of his reign are 
given, for example, "Eldagan 15 Claten 12." 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 315 

Constantine reigns after Arthur, and the text finally ends up by simply 
noting the names of the kings, the length of their individual reigns, and the 
place of their burial, as on page 45: "William Rouse his sonne xiij yere &.is 
at Westminster." 

After this reign follows an inserted passage on pages 45-57 entitled "De 
Natiuitate Domini nostri Ihesu Cristi" before the truncated Brut text recom- 
mences and ends with Edward I. Pages 59-60 contain a list of popes from 
Peter to Benedict, with notes on their reigns. 

On the first page of the manuscript is the signature of "William White," 
who was probably the scribe, compiler, and owner of the manuscript. 



^ See Marx, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 361-62. 



The Peculiar Version to 1400 (PV-1400) 

183. Lambeth Palace Library MS. 306^ 

Heading. Cronycullys of Englonde. 

Begins: In the noble londe off Surrye was some tyme a grete l^Tige and a 

myghty that was named Diodesyan and he was the moste worthiest kynge 

than levinge on erthe as the story seythe. [Gairdner, ed.. Chronicles, p. 1] 
Contains: Cad (abbreviated) 

Omits: QIL (see below), "5w" heading (see below) 
Ends on fol 1 7v: And thes lordes wiste wele that they were bewrayed and 

fled awaye and after they were taken and put to dethe. [Gairdner, ed., 

Chronicles, p. 28; cf Brie 361/3-4ff ] 

Remarks: The text, which ends in the first year of Henry IV, is extremely 
abbreviated, and the omission of Queen Isabella's letter and the "5w" head- 
ing may not be significant. It is based on a CV text, probably ending in 
1419, with the addition of some chronological and other minor details. 
Unless it is a fair copy, the Brut text is not original to this manuscript, as 
scribal errors show.^ 

The Brut text is immediately followed, in the same hand, by Lydgate's 
verses on the kings of England, ending with Henry VI (who is said to have 
had reigned almost thirty-nine years) and by a chronicle of London from 
1189 to 1465.^ 



316 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 



^ The text of the Brut, the version of Lydgate's verses on the kings of Englond, the 
London chronicle, and various historical memoranda (many by John Stow) are printed in 
James Gairdner, ed., Three Fifteenth-Century Chronicles, Camden Society n.s. 28 (1880), 
pp. 1-28 {Brut text), 28-147; the first three items form a booklet in the same fifteenth- 
century hand. For a description of the numerous other fifteenth- and sixteenth-century 
items in the manuscript, see James, Descriptive Catalogue . . . Lambeth Palace, pp. 421-26. 
See also Maldwyn Mills, ed., Lybeaus Desconus, EETS o.s. 261 (1969), pp. 2-3; Boffey, 
Manuscripts of English Courtly Love Lyrics, p. 21; and Mooney, "Lydgate's 'Kings of Eng- 
land'," pp. 256-63, 277-78. 

^ See, for example, the scribal correction in Gairdner, ed.. Chronicles, p. 25 note. 
^ See McLaren, "Textual Transmission," pp. 40, 50-52. 



The Peculiar Version to 1427 (PV-1427) 
This small group consists of MSS. BL Harley 63, Edinburgh 184, and Bibl. 
Nat. fonds anglais 30. 



184. BL MS. HARLEY 63 

Heading: How this lond was ffirst called Albyon. 
Begins: In the noble land of Surrey 
Contains: Cad 

Omits: QIL (see Remarks on the PV-1427 below) 

Ends: that was oon of the wordieste knyghtes of the world and was buried 
at Burssham. 



185. Edinburgh University Library MS. 184 

Heading: How this lande was fyrst called Albyoun. 

Begins: In the noble lande of Surrey there was a noble I^oig called Dyocles- 

ian which was a grete conquerour 
Contains: Cad 
Omits: QIL (see below) 
Ends: And in the yj*' of his regne was the goode erle of Salysbury slayne atte 

the sege of Orliaunce with a gonne that was oon of the worthiest 

knyghtes of the world and was beryed at Burssham. 

Remarks: Among many others, the folios are missing that might have con- 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 317 

tained Queen Isabella's letter and would have contained the Halidon Hill 
chapter, 

186. BlBUOTHfeQUE NATIONALE MS. FONDS ANGLAIS 30^ 

Begins imperfectly on damaged fol 1: so he desyred of hur and [cf. Brie 8, ca. 

line 14] 
Contains: Cad 
Omits: QIL 
Ends imperfectly: And he [hade del.^ made euery archer to hafe a sharp stake 

afor hym for J)er was [cf. Brie 378/7-9] 

Remarks: This late fifteenth-century paper manuscript has early connections 
with Derbyshire, and the earliest known owner was Henry Lowe the 
Younger of Whittington. 



* See James Simpson, The Index of Middle English Prose, Handlist VH: A Handlist of 
Manuscripts Containing Middle English Prose in Parisian Libraries (Cambridge, 1989), p. 
2. 



Remarks on the PV-1427 

The text to 1419 is extremely abbreviated, but is apparently based on a CV- 
1419 of some type, to which some additional details have been added. A 
version of the Guy of Warwick story is found under the reign of Athelstan, 
and the CV story of Curan is transferred to Havelok to correspond to the 
popular legend. 

Typical of the great shortening of the text is the chapter on the thirty- 
three British kings: 

The first hight Gorbodian & regned xij yere; Morgan ij yere; Eigh- 
naus yj yere; Idwallon viij yere; Rowghgo xj yere [etc.] [Edinburgh 
184] 

The omission of Queen Isabella's letter may not be significant (cf Lam- 
beth 306) in view of the extteme abbreviation, which also marks the Hali- 
don Hill passage: 

And they both came 8c lade sege to Berwyke. And as they lay at the 
sege J)er come downe opon hom all the chyvalry of Scodand that is 



318 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

to say Ixv erles 6c barons C Ix knyghtes ijM' men of armes IxM* 
comyners. And at Halydoun Hyll be syde Benvyke the hostes met 8c 
kyng Edward and Bayloyl hade the feld for the Scottes hade no mor 
fusyoun Jjat day ageyne the Englyssh men then hath xx shepe ageyne 
V wolfes for ther wer [ins.] slayne hot vij Englysch men and ther wer 
[ins.] slayne of the Scottes xxxvM^ vij^. And then they of Berwyk did 
3eld vp the towne to kyng Edward. [Bibl. Nat. fonds anglais 30, p. 
69; cf Brie 281/25-286/9, 291/1-4] 

Some extra details are added to (or were in the CV exemplar for) the 
account of the siege of Rouen, and the end of this section of narrative and 
the beginning of the short continuation to 1427 are as follows: 

And there men mowth see childerin soke ther moderes when thei 
were deid and men layn in the dikes gnawyng grasse and eten 
childryn. And so ther dide in the dikes many thowsandes. And thei 
of the cyte were fiill fayn to yelde vp the cite 8c to have ther lyves 
and become the kyngis ligge men and of hym to holde for euer. And 
after in the vij yere of his regne ther was a trety taken bytwene the 
said owre kyng and the kyng of Fraunce and it was so acorded that 
owre kyng sholde wedde dame Kateryne. [BL Harley 63; cf. Brie 
391/6ff.] 



Texts Containing Brief King- Lists 

Under this heading are grouped MSS. Bodl. Digby 196 (two texts), CUL 
Ff.1.6 (the Findern Manuscript), and Folger Shakespeare Library V.a.l98 
(1232.3). 

These three related manuscripts (and the derivative early printed editions) 
contain brief lists of kings and reigning queens (primarily the monarch's 
name and the length of the reign) and other material that could be derived, 
at least in part, from Brut texts. Kennedy, while noting their possible debt 
to the much longer work, elected to treat these texts as two chronicles separ- 
ate from the Brut, given the wide variety of treatments, often very abbrevi- 
ated, of the Brut, I have chosen to include them here within the extended 
family of Peculiar Versions of the Brut since they may be to some degree 
abstracted from that source.^ Such lists are often useful in dating the manu- 
scripts in which they occur. 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 319 



^ See Kennedy, Manual, p. 2637, and cf. the present writer's review thereof in Studies in 
the Age of Chaucer 13 (1991): 212. 



The Peculiar Version to 1396, 
with a further text to 1422 (PV-139 6/1422) 

187. Bodleian MS. Digby 196^ 

First text begins onfol. 26: Brute come after the makyng of the world to J)e 
lond of Albyon in the tyme |)at Hely J)e preste of {)e law was in J)e land 
of Israel iiijM Ixxvij 3 ere. 

Newe Troye J)at now ys cleped London was fownded by J)e malgnig of 
Brute after J)e begynnyng of J)e world iiijM^ C xxiiij 3ere. 
Rome was fownded by Remo and Romolo iiijM' iiij^ iiij'" iiij 3ere. 
First text ends onfol 27: and fro J)e incarnacion tyl J)e fest of annunciacion 
of owre lady in J)e xx of J)e l^Tige Ricard J)e secounde M^ CCC iiij""" xvj 
3ere: yjM' D^ iiij^ xv 3ere. 
Second text begins onfol 156v\ 

i the first 3ere of kynge Ricard ii. 

ii the ii 3ere J)e lord Latemer slow a squyer at f)e shryne of Seynt 

Edward for J)e erle of Dene wycche was prisoner. 
iii the iij 3ere [ins.] was J)e commyng of J)e galeys robbyng and bran- 

nyng vppe-on J)e lande and tallage of childeren. 
Second text ends onfol 158: 

ix the ix 3ere he cam into Ingeland and crowned hys quene and so 

went into France a3ene and so he ended at Boys Vyncent and as a 

Cristen prynce to God passed owte of this wrecched world on 

whose sowle God have mercy. Amen. 

Remarks: The first text is related to the texts in the two following manu- 
scripts and is self-dated to 1396. The brief notices found in the second text 
could have been derived either from a PV Brut text ending in 1422 or from 
a chronicle of London. 



^ See Patrick J. Horner, The Index of Middle English Prose, Handlist UI: A Handlist of 
Manuscripts Containing Middle English Prose in the Digby Collection, Bodleian Library, 
Oxford (Cambridge, 1986), pp. 59-61; Kennedy, Manual, p. 2637. 



320 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

The Peculiar Version to 1436: Group B (PV-1436:B) 
The Peculiar Version to 1475 (PV-1475) 

188. Cambridge University Library MS. Ff.1.6 (The Findern 
Manuscript)^ 

Heading onfol. 110: The cronekelys of seyntes & kynges of Yngelond. 
Begins: Brute com after {)e makyng of |)e world into J)ys [wo del.^ londe of 

Albyoun nowe Yngland iiij^^ Ixxvij 3ere. 
Ends in 1436 on fol. 113: And fro J)e incarnacioun of Ihesu Crist til J)e xx 

\foll. by blank space] of kyng Herre yj M' iiij^ [xl del.] xlyj 3ere. And J)e 

sum of all aboueseid vjM* yj^ xlyj 3ere. 

Remarks: After the introductory notice of Brutus are notices of the founda- 
tions of London and Rome and the conception and birth of Christ, all dated 
from the creation of the world. There follow notices of saints and martyrs, 
especially those of England, and of significant religious events in England 
dated from the incarnation of Christ, ending with the translation of Thomas 
Becket in 1220. The text then (fol. Ill) returns to Brutus and the succeed- 
ing kings of England, generally noting only the relationship of each king to 
his predecessor and the length of his reign. The CV-1333 order is found for 
kings "Elfred & Kadwalader . . . Oswold & Kadwalyn." 

The ending date suggests strongly that this section of the manuscript was 
written "in or immediately before 1446, and could not have been written 
after 1461."^ The terminus ad quem is implied by the omission of the precise 
number of years for Henry VI's reign. 

The manuscript was possibly compiled at the country seat of the Findern 
family in south Derbyshire.^ The dialect of the texts in the manuscript is 
basically that of Derbyshire, "but with varying degrees of mixture."^ 



^ A facsimile of the full manuscript is published in R, Beadle and A E. B. Owen, introd., 

The Findern Manuscript: Cambridge University Library MS. Ff.1.6 (London, 1977); for a 

complete list of contents, see pp. xix-^xxx therein. 

^ L. F. Casson, ed., The Romance of Sir Degrevant, EETS o.s. 221 (1949), p. xii. 

^ For an account of several families associated with the manuscript, see Harris, "Origins 

and Make-Up of Cambridge University Library MS. Ff.1.6," pp. 302-307; see also 

George R. Keiser, "MS Rawl. A.393: Another Findern Manuscript," Transactions of the 

Cambridge Bibliographical Society 7 (1980): 445-49. 

" See LALME, 1: 67. 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 321 

189. FoLGER Shakespeare Library MS. V.a.198 (1232.3) 

Heading onfol. 1 of item 2: Here begynnythe the cronycles of sayntes and of 

the l^Tigys of Yngelonde. 
Begins: Brute come in to thys londe of Albyon after callyd Bruteyne and 

now Inglonde ycallyd after the mal^oig of J)e worlde iiijM' Ixxvij 3ere. 
Ends in 1475 onfol. 3v: Harry the yj" reygnethe [d add. above second -e-] 

xxxix 3ere. 

Kyng Edward the iiij' raynethe [xxij yer add. in a later hand; orig. left 

blank] 

The somme fro the begynnyng of J)e worlde tyll the xv 3ere of kyng Ed- 
ward yjM* viiC and Ixxv [^second x over v]. 

Remarks: On the page following this chronological list the same scribe be- 
gins a series of geographical notes in Latin and chronological entries in 
English on bibUcal and English religious and historical affairs. The text 
begins: "[T]res fihj Noy diuuserunt [sic\ orbem in tres partes post diliuium"; 
the Latin section ends: "Comitatus sunt in Anglia xxxyj & dj." The English 
begins: "Fro |)e begynnyng of |3e worlde yjMl yjC xlj [.. {two letters, poss. the 
start o/'3e[re])] Adam lyued in erthe ixC xxxij 3ere''; the text ends: "And in 
the same 3ere was {)e batel of Agyngkorte that ys to say xxv [the x del] day 
of the monethe of October and A was dominicall letter that 3ere." Many of 
the entries that pertain to England may have been extracted from a 
chronicle of London. 

The ending of the king-list suggests that the text was written in or soon 
after 1475. 



Remarks on the PV-1396/1422, the PV-1436:B, and the PV-1475 
A text of the type of these brief king-lists formed the basis for a series of 
sixteenth-century printed works, beginning with Richard Pynson's edition of 
?1518, "the cronycle of all the kynges names that haue ben in Englande and 
how many yeres they reygned and how many sayntes & martyrs haue ben in 
this lande."^ For his text up to the Norman Conquest, Pynson uses a king- 
hst very similar to those found in the manuscripts described above, to which 
is then appended Lydgate's verse "Kings of England," supplemented to 
Henry VIL 

Subsequent editions, by a variety of printers, include additional material 
such as "the compass of England" (road distances) or augment the historical 
annotations on the monarchs. The popularity of such aides-memoires or sim- 



322 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

pie historical cribs is shown by their frequent (sometimes annual) republica- 
tion with minor additions to bring them up to date. 



^ For fourteen editions between ?1518 and 1557 (including Wynkyn de Worde's "Lytell 
Shorte Cronycle" [1530]), see STC 9983.3 to 9989.5. The "breuiat cronicle contaynynge 
aU the kinges from Brute to this daye," published by John Mychell in 1552, was based in 
part on William Powell's 1552 edition of the preceding work; nine editions are listed as 
STC 9968 to 9976. 



Appendages to Other Works 

The Peculiar Version to 1066 (PV-1066) 

190. Mayor's Calendar, City of Bristol Record OFncE, no. 

04720(1)1 

Heading onfol. 3: Incipit primum principale a cronicula Brute. 

Begins onfol. 3v\ For asmoche as it is righte convenient and accordinge to 
euery bourgeis of the towne of Bristowe in especiall thoo that been men 
of worship for to knowe and vnderstande the begynnyng and first founda- 
cion of the saide worshipflill toune: Therfore let hym rede the olde Cron- 
ycles of Brute and he shall fynde howe sone after that Brute had sette and 
billed the citee of Newe Troie whiche nowe is London in remembrans of 
the grete Troie that he and all his lynage came fro then Brute reigned xx 
winter and more and was beried in the newe Troie. [cf Smith, ed., 
Kalendar, pp. 6, 8] 

Omits: Cad 

Ends on foL 15: And in this wise lost Harold the reame of Englonde and 
reignid but fro the fest of Epiphanye vnto the saide feste of Seynt Calixt 
that is to say xl wekys and Heth buiyed at Waltham. 

Colophon: Expliciunt Cronicule ante Conquestum. 

Remarks: The manuscript contains the Bristowe Chronicle^ begun in the late 
fifteenth century by Robert Ricart, the town clerk of Bristol from 1479 to 
1503, as an official town chronicle and document for the use of the civic 
officers. The language is, as one might expect, that of Gloucestershire.^ 

The first part of Ricart's compilation, from Brutus to the death of King 
Harold, is a much abbreviated version of a CV text, as the beginning of the 
text, quoted above, indicates; the CV text may have been of an early type, 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 323 

since it did not include the Cadwallader episode. Ricart's introduction to his 
work, in which he explains the contents of the six parts of his book, also de- 
scribes the provenance and purposes of this first part: 

The first to shewe by cronide the begynnyng and flirst foundacioun 
of this saide worshipfiill toune of Bristowe whiche was here furst sett 
and billed vpon a litill hille bytwene iiij yatis scilicet Seinte Nicholas 
yate Seint Johnes yate Seint Leonardes yate & the newe yate bi that 
noble prince Bryneus brother vnto l^Tig Bellynus tofore th'encarna- 
cioun of Crist by recorde of Brutes Cronicles. And of al the l^^ges 
that were in Englonde affore the Conquest conveied in a bregement 
with the yeres of theire reigne and howe many of them were kinges 
anoynted. [cf. Smith, ed., Kalendar^ p. 3] 

True to his stated intention, Ricart inserts an account of the founding of 
Bristol by "Brynne" (see Smith, ed., Kalendar, p. 10, and the facsimile of the 
town plan opposite p. 10). 



^ See N. R. Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: A List of Surviving Books. Supplement 
to the Second Edition, ed. Andrew G. Watson (London, 1987), p. 4. The Brut section is 
edited, with introduction, notes, and plates, in Marcel Dikstra, "An Edition of the Brut 
Chronicle as Found in Ricart's Maior's Kalendar," M.A diss.. University of Bristol, 1992 
(I am grateflil to the author for a copy of his work). Short extracts from the early text are 
printed in Lucy Toulmin Smith, ed.. The Maire of Bristowe Is Kalendar, by Robert Ricart, 
Town Clerk of Bristol, 18 Edward IV, Camden Society n.s. 5 (1872), pp. xv^rxvi below, 
and 8-10. Smith erroneously describes the first part of the text as "taken from some ver- 
sion of Geoffrey of Monmouth" (p. xiv), followed by Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2655-56. 
^ LALME, 1: 62 ("in local language of a late type"). 



The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group D (PV-1419:D) 

191. Cambridge University Library MS. Ll.2.14 

Continuation begins onfol. 143: And in the meane tyme dyede kyng Henry 
at Westmynstre when he had bene kynge Iv yere and xix wekes vppon 
Seynt Edmundes daye. [Brie 177/6-8] 

Contains: QIL 

Omits: "5w" heading (see below) 

Ends imperfectly. And aryuede in Yorke-shire at Ravynsporne fast by Wyd- 
lyngtoun [sic]. And there he entred the londe. [Brie 357/25-26] 



324 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

Remarks: The continuation follows an imperfect prose paraphrase of Robert 
of Gloucester's Chronicle,^ and is written in the same hand; the ink, how- 
ever, is lighter, suggesting that it was added at a later time by the scribe 
when a copy became available for him to use. 

The continuation is a blend of Brut material with material from other 
sources. The text begins with the death of Henry III and contains the 
prophecy of Merlin regarding that king. The narrative of the reign of Ed- 
ward I is abbreviated, while that of Edward II's reign follows the usual CV 
Brut. 

The narrative on Edward III is considerably abridged; events are fre- 
quently rearranged and there are minor verbal correspondences with the 
London chronicles. The Halidon Hill campaign is highly abbreviated, as 
foUows: 

And the vj yere of his regne ky^nge Edwarde besegede the towne and 
the castelle of Berwike. And vppon Seynt Margerettes evene the 
Scottes a huge nombre come hopynge to haue remevede the siege 
withom the kynge faught vppon Halydoun Hille and discomfited 
hem. And Jjer were slayne of the Scottes viij erles a M' and iij hun- 
dred knyghtes and squiers and of fotemen xxxviijM^. And of Eng- 
lysshmen there were dede a knyght and a squier and xij fotemen. And 
vppon Seynt Margerettes day the towne and the castelle were yolden 
to the kynge in the yere of our lorde a M' CCC xxxiij. 

The reign of Richard II corresponds well to the normal Brut account, 
though there are some minor additions. 

Dialectal analysis supports a reference in the Robert of Gloucester text 
that suggests that the manuscript should be associated with Leicestershire.^ 



^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2621-22, 2807. The text is edited in Andrew D. (Lan) Lips- 
comb, "A Fifteenth-Century Prose Paraphrase of Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle" Ph.D. 
diss.. University of North CaroUna at Chapel Hill, 1990. 
^ I thank Lan Lipscomb for this information. 



The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group E (PV-1419:E) 

192. Harvard University MS. Eng. 938^ 

Begins on fol. 91rb\ Now speke we of the dethe of kyng Edwarde the sec- 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 325 

unde the whyche was put doun by the assent of quene Isabell [cf. Brie 

252/21-23] 
Next chapter begins: The yere of grace M' CCC xxyj Edwarde of Wyndesore 

the son of kyng Edwarde the secunde was crouned kyng and anoynted at 

Westmynster [cf Brie 247/22-24] 
Ends imperfectly on fol lOlvb: And there was dede on the kynges syde a 

worthy man called Spryngeys the whiche the kyng let bury in the abbey of 

Cane faste by Wyllyam Conquerour. And thus the l^Tig by manhode gette 

the toune of Cane and made [cf Brie 384/6-8, and probably line 24] 

Remarks: The Brut text, probably based on a CV-1419, has been used as a 
continuation to the incomplete translation of Nicholas Trevet's Chronicle 
(fols. 9ra-91rb), which it follows without break, beginning in the midst of 
a line.^ 

The Brut narrative has been reorganized and adapted in order to treat 
each king in a single chapter. Thus Edward II's death is treated before re- 
verting to the coronation of Edward III and a similar reorganization occurs 
with the death of Richard II; in both instances, material is simply trans- 
ferred to an earlier position. 

Much material is omitted in favor of an outline of historical facts. Thus 
Edward Ill's Scottish campaign, including the battle of Halidon Hill (Brie 
272/7-286/9, 291/1-291/9) is replaced by a single sentence: "Thys kyng Ed- 
warde had grete worshyp in Scotlonde by warre in so moche that all Scottes 
had grete fere of hym" (fol. 92ra-rb). 

One leaf of the last gathering is wanting, and it is probable that the origi- 
nal text ended in 1419. 

An obit added beside November 18 in a calendar (fol. 8v) records the 
death of "Alicie Hungyrforthe," perhaps Alice Hungerford of London, wid- 
ow, whose will dated 1 September 1491, directs that she be buried near her 
husband John in St. Michael's, CornhiU (BL Addit. 33412, fol. 153). Chris- 
tine Rose reports that Jeremy J. Smith suggests very tentatively that the 
dialect might be Northwest Surrey."' 



^ See Voigts, "Handlist," pp. 39-43; Christine M. Rose, "The Provenance of the Trevet 
Chronicle (fMS Eng 938)," Harvard Library Bulletin n.s. 3, no. 4 (Winter, 1992-93): 38- 
55. Both the translation of Trevet and the continuation are edited in Christine M. Rose, 
"An Edition of Houghton Library fMS Eng 938: The Fifteenth-Century Middle English 
Translation of Nicholas Trevet's Les Cronicles with Brut Continuation," Ph.D. diss., Tufts 
University, 1985. 



326 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2666-68, 2881-82; Ruth J. Dean, "The Manuscripts of 
Nicholas Trevet's Anglo-Norman Chronicles," Medievalia et Humanistica 14 (1962): 97, 
99 n. 10. 
^ Rose, "The Provenance of the Trevet Chronicle," p. 51 n. 33. 

The Peculiar Version to 1419: Group F (PV-1419:F) 

193. WoBURN Abbey MS. 181^ 

Heading on fol. [lOOv]: Here enduth the cronycle of Ig^ng Edwarde the 
furste aftur J)e conqueste and begynneth Jje cronycle of his sone Edwarde 
{)e secounde borne at Carnarvan. 

Brut text begins: And aftur {)is Edwarde regned Edwarde his sone J)at was 
borne in Carnariuan & J)is Edwarde went into Fraunce 6c weddet Isabell 
J)e kynges dou3tur of Fraunce |)e xxv day of lanyuere at J)e churche of our 
lady at Boloigne in |)e 3ere of our lorde M' CCC & vij. [Brie 205/14-18] 

Contains: QIL, "5w" heading 

Brut text to 1419 ends on fol. [202v]: And |)anne J)e kyng entered into {)e 
towne 8c restede hym in J)e castell tyl j)e towne was sette in rewle & in 
gouernaunce. 

Remarks: The Brut text, based on a manuscript ending in 1419(r&g), is used 
as the conclusion of a compilation made by Richard Fox of St. Albans. Fox 
was a literate layman who was employed by the abbey of St. Albans, in 
whose records, by John of Amundesham, he appears in 1434 and 1435 de- 
scribed as "litteratus" and "Procurator religiosorum virorum."^ Fox was also 
responsible for compiling CUL MS. Kk.1.6, which primarily contains Mid- 
dle English devotional texts in verse and prose."' His will, dated 1454, in- 
cludes a list of books, including Woburn 181.^ 

A preliminary six-page "table of all \>t kynges that be comprehended 
withinne Jjis boke with mony incidences" begins with Alfred and ends with 
"J)e wynnyng of Roone in J)e yj 3ere of |)e regne of l^^g Harry of Mun- 
mouth." 

The first part of Fox's chronicle is based on Pierre Langtoft's chronicle 
(possibly supplemented by Robert Mannyng's translation of Langtoft), 
Robert of Gloucester's chronicle, and other sources (for example, "anoJ)er 
cronyclere . . .")? 

It would appear that Fox did not obtain a copy of the Brut until after he 
had composed a great part of the earlier section of his work, for immediately 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 327 

after the death of Edward III and before the accession of Richard II, Mer- 
lin's prophecy concerning Edward I is inserted, with the heading: 

Here endeth pc cronycle of kyng Edwarde off Wyndesore. And be- 
gyneth Merlynes prophecyee |)at he prophesyed of kyng Edward with 
\>e longe schankes wheche was graunfader to kyng Edward of 
Wyndesore and ffader to l^g Edwarde off Carnarvan. The cause Jjat 
J)is prophesye is set here is J)is for at pe wiytyng of pt seyd kyng 
Edward with J)e longe schankes J)e copy of {)is prophecye was not 
hade. 

The account of Richard II contains a number of additions: his premature 
birth "as somme croneders wryte," after which he was wrapped in animal 
skins; a story of dishonorable treatment accorded the daughter of John Tyler 
(the true name of Jack Straw, according to Fox) by an officer of the king; 
and an account of the eighteenth and nineteenth years of the reign (printed 
in an appendix to "Davies's" Chronicle). Additions made to the reign of 
Henry IV include details on the capture and deaths of the duke of Surrey, 
the earl of Salisbury, and Sir "Raff Lompney." To the reign of Henry V are 
added details of a naval battle with the French in 1416. 

An account of the deposition of Richard II, based on the "Record and 
Process" with some additions and omissions, and of the coronation of Henry 
IV (and subsequent parliamentary proceedings) appears as an appendix with 
a marginal note and signe de renvoi in the main Brut text:^ 

Whoso liste to to \sic\ loke on pt deposyng of k)nig Rychard the 
secounde let hym turne to pz laste ende of f)is booke & in J)e too 
laste quayeris he schall fynde hit at J)is same signe. 

The colophon of this account names the author and dates the writing to 
1448: "And thus enduth the Deposyng off I^^g Rychard the secounde aftre 
the conqueste. Quod Rychard Fox off Seynt Albones. Anno domini M' 
CCCC xlviij°." Fox's name appears throughout the manuscript, often in the 
phrase "Ghenade Fox Rychard" (or some variation thereof). 

The "Deposing" is followed by accounts of the parliament at Bury and the 
death of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester (1446/7; printed in 'Davies's" Chro- 
nic/e); acts of the parliament of 27 Henry VI (1449); and, in different hands, 
five lines of alliterative verse on Richard, duke of York, and regulations con- 
cerning cooks' fees in Lx)ndon. 

The bulk of the main text of the compilation is in a distinctive hand of 



328 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

unprofessional appearance, probably that of Fox himself since the text shows 
signs of immediate correction. In the reign of King John appear ten pages 
written by other hands. 

Early names that occur in memoranda at the end of the manuscript 
include those of "Thomas Northlond grocer," possibly the sheriff of London 
in 1483 who died in 1484,^ and "Elyssabeth Carpenter" (possibly fifteenth 
century); "John Ashe grocer" (1523); "Wylliam Stoddarde," son of one of the 
same name, and "Thomas Blackewell" (1543); Thomas Cantrell, William 
Hamyleen, and Henry Cantrell (sixteenth century). 



^ The accounts of the eighteenth and nineteenth years of Richard II and of the parlia- 
ment at Bury St. Edmunds are printed in an appendix to "Davies's" Chronicle, pp. 111-18. 
^ See Henry T. Riley, ed., Annales Monasterii S. Albani, a Johanne Amundesham, Monacho, 
2 vols., Rolls Series 28 (London, 1870, 1871), 2: 4, 90, 93, 94, and 97. For a discussion 
of the manuscript and the text of the Tyler story, see Lister M. Matheson, "The Peasants* 
Revolt through Five Centuries of Rumor and Reporting: Richard Fox, John Stow, and 
Their Successors," Studies in Philology 95 (1998): 124-28. 

^ See Alexandra Barratt, ed., The Seven Psalms: A Commentary on the Penitential Psalms 
Translated from French into English by Dame Eleanor Hull, EETS o.s. 307 (1995), pp. 
xiii-xl, especially pp. xix-xx (scribes, including Fox), xxii (later history of the manuscript), 
xxxiii^ (dialect of South-West NorfolkAVest Suffolk area); Alexandra Barratt, "Dame 
Eleanor Hull: A Fifteenth-Century Translator," in The Medieval Translator: The Theory 
and Practice of Translation in the Middle Ages, ed. Roger Ellis (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 87, 
92; Tarvers, "English Women as Readers and Writers," p. 309. 

* See G. R. Owst, "Some Books and Book-Owners of Fifteenth-Century St. Albans," 
Transactions of the St. Albans and Hertfordshire Architectural and Archaeological Society 
(1929): 179; Harris, "Patrons, Buyers, and Owners," pp. 164 and 184 n. 5. 
' See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2640-41. Robert of Gloucester is noted by name in the ac- 
count of the sl^^'s darkening after the battle of Evesham (1265): "a good clerke {)at was 
called sir Robert sawe |)is sy3t xxx" myle fro Jje place wher |)e batajde was. And for J>is 
merveyle he labered fyrst J)is booke." 

^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2714-15, 2939-40. Cf Given-Wilson, trans, and ed., Chro- 
nicles of the Revolution, pp. 168-89. A copy is also found in Lambeth 738 (item 33 and 
n. 2). 
^ BL MS. Cotton Vitellius Ajcvi, in Kingsford, ed., Chrons. London, pp. 191, 193. 



The Translation Attributed to John Mandeville ( JM-1333) 

Two medieval manuscripts have survived that contain all or part of a second 
translation into Enghsh of the Anglo-Norman Brut The fiill text is found 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 32^ 

as the first part of BL MS. Harley 4690, while Coll. of Arms MS. Arundel 
58 incorporates three passages from this translation in an elaborate historical 
compilation. A seventeenth-century transcript of Arundel 58 occurs in Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge, Pepys 2833. The translation can be attributed 
on the basis of external evidence to a John Mandeville, rector of Bumham 
Thorpe in Norfolk, who made it in 1435. 

194. BL MS. Harley 4690^ 

Heading onfol. 4: In nomine trino hoc opus incipio. 

Here a manne mey here how Englonde was cleped Albion and by wham 
itte received thate name and sine Britaine also 8c bi wham. 
Begins: [Y]nne the nowble lond of Syrye 
Omits: Cad, QIL, "5w" heading (see below) 

Poem on Halidon Hill begins: And there men mighte see the nowbell king 
Edwarde off Englonde & his ffolke hough mannefully J)ei chaseden the 
Skottes were-off J)is romance was made: 
There men mighte well see 
Many a Skotte lightely fflee [Brie 287/7-12] 
Poem on Halidon Hill (and text to 1333) ends: 
Butt Godde J)atte is heven king 
Sende vs pees and gode ending. [Brie 289/3-4] 
Continuation to 1377 begins: Hough king Edwarde made a dewke off Corin- 
waile. And also of yj ojjer erles thatte werren newe made. And oflf {)e 
ffirste chalenge off the realme off Fraunce. 

In J)e yeere of our lorde Ihesu Criste a M' iijC & xxxvij and off king 
Edwarde {je xij [Brie 292/26-31] 
Ends onfol 108: and mannefully counterd wij) our Englischemen. 

Remarks: Mandeville's translation ended in 1333 with the poem on Halidon 
Hill, but is supplemented in this manuscript by a 1419(men) continuation 
taken from a CV text of the first translation. The change of exemplar is 
marked by a chronological and textual gap in the narrative from 1333 to 
1337 (see Brie 291/1-292/25). 

Pols. 109-118 contain a copy, by the same scribe, oi Richard Coeur de 
Lion} 

The name of a Roger Newburgh occurs on a front flyleaf. 



330 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 



^ The end of the prose text to 1333 and the poem on the battle of Halidon Hill are 
printed in Brie 287-89; also in Joseph Ritson, ed., Poems, Written Anno MCCCUI by 
Laurence Minot (London, 1825), pp. 55-64. 

^ See Karl Brunner, ed., Der Mittelenglische Versroman iiber Richard Lowenherz, Wiener 
Beitrage zur englischen Philologie 42 (Vienna, 1913). 



195. College of Arms MS. Arundel 58^ 

Heading of first section onfol. 5ra (modern numbering): Here a man may hure 

how Yngelonde was ycleped Albyon and by wham hit receyued the name. 

Begins: In J)e noble londe of Syrye was a noble kynge myghty and of gret 

renoun 
First section ends at foot offol. 6ra (column b is left blank): Brute aryuede at 
Totynesse in J)e same londe & J)er conquered he J)e gyauntis byfore 
yseyde. Here endith J)e prologe of ^e yle of Albyon. 
Second section begins imperfectly onfol 76ra: and shal the dragon & he bynde 
hure tailis togedre and than shal come a lyon out of Irlond [cf. Brie 
75/33-34] 
Second section ends onfol 76rb: and thane this lond shal be cleped the lond 
of conquest and so shullen the rightfiill eyris of Engelond end. [cf. Brie 
76/17-19] 
Third section begins on fol 302va: And in that yere was Seynt Thomas of 
Cauntelbury [sic\ itranslated in J)e 1 yere of his martirdom [cf. Brie 173/9— 
10] 
Omits: QIL, "5w" heading 

Poem on Halidon Hill begins: and so men myght se J)e worJ)y and noble kyng 
Edward of Engelond and his folk how manfully J)ey chastyde jje Scottes. 
There J)an men myght se 

Many a Scott swiftly fie [Brie 289/5-6 (start of poem)] 
Poem on Halidon Hill (and text) ends (imperfectly?) onfol 334vb: 
8c [)e Englisshmen pursywid hem so 
Fort |)e flood was al ago 
And ^us J)e Scottes discomfytyd were 
In lytil tyme wij) gret fere. [Brie 287/27-30] 

Remarks: A leaf is missing between fols. 75 and 76 that would have contained 
the end of the Arthur narrative and the beginning of the prophecies of 
Merlin, taken from the Mandeville translation (see the second section above). 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 331 

The sections from the Mandeville translation of the Brut form part of an 
ambitious historical compilation in verse and prose finished in 1448, a narra- 
tive prospectus of which, followed by a list of contents, is given on fols. 1- 
Av-} 

Heading. The tabile of cronycul offe Engelonde fro quene Albion the 
flirste erthely creature that entriede into this londe ynto l^nig Richard 
the secunde. 

Begins: The fferste ether erthely creature that entred into this londe 

Ends (page rubbed): This tabel kalender of [ . . . ] plennarly knowhch 
ffoluyng with a boke offe the fJul text. Allso a petegrew ffro William 
Conquerour of the crowne of Engelonde lynnyally descendyng vnto 
l^^ng Henre the yj in the end of thys boke lymned in ffygurs. Thys 
boke with hys antecedens and consequens was fill ended the yj day offe 
August the 3ere of oure lorde a M' CCCC xlviij and the [blank] yere 
of oure souerayn lorde kyng Harry the vj affter the conquest the xxyj. 

The ensuing list of contents (probably imperfect at the end) is numbered 
by the medieval folio numbers and runs from "Albyon ffolio j°" to "Penda 
fo. C iiij" (a king of Sussex; a following reference to the "lettre of Boneface" 
is expuncted). 

The basis of the compilation is the first recension of Robert of Glouces- 
ter's Metrical Chronicle, somewhat modernised in language and amplified 
and supplemented extensively by interpolations in prose and verse.-' 

These additions (indicated in the manuscript by being written in double 
columns) are translated or adapted from Geoffrey of Monmouth (to the end 
of his Historia, including Geoffrey's account of his sources [fol. 87]), Wil- 
liam of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum Anglorum, ]ohn of Glastonbury's Cronica 
sive Antiquitates Glastoniensis Ecclesie (for the story of Joseph of Arimathea 
and the early history of Glastonbury [fols. 90-91v]), and Nicholas Trevet (as 
noted on fol. 300va),^ among other, unidentifiable sources that the compiler 
has collated (for example, "here is a fallyng in of another cronicle of the 
same doyng" [fol. 240]). 

The compiler has inserted a version of the romance of Richard Coeur de 
Lion (fols. 252ra-276ra), a copy of which is also found in BL Harley 4690.^ 

He has also preserved passim a series of extracts from a verse history simi- 
lar in style (and literary quality) to the Short English Metrical Chronicle. 

Fol. 335 contains a list of the burial places of the kings from Arthur to 
Harold. Fols. 335v to 342v contain a copy of the anonymous verse "Kings 
of England" (from William the Conqueror to Henry VI), illustrated with 



332 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

roundels containing full-length portraits of the individual kings and roundels 
with the names of their children.^ These are linked to show lines of succes- 
sion; since the manuscript was completed in 1448, no issue is shown for 
Henry VI, whose son Edward was born in 1453. 

The dialect of the manuscript is that of Wiltshire/ 

Extracts transcribed from this manuscript are found in Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge, Pepys 2833, pages 1-3 and fols. 485-518. They were made 
ca. 1685 for Sir William Hayward, after whose death the manuscript passed 
to Samuel Pepys. 



^ The poem on the battle of Halidon Hill is printed in Brie 289; also in Thomas Hearne, 

ed., Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1724; rpt. as vols. 3 and 4 of Works 

[London, 1810]), 1: Ixxxiii-iv. 

^ The manuscript also contains at its beginning an acephalous treatise on hunting and a 

list of terms of association. 

^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2617-21, 2642. 

* A notice of Thomas Trevet, justice of the eyre, is followed by the remark "This 

Treuetes sone made cronicles icleped Triuetes Cronicles of whiche many thyngus of thes 

cronicles beth idrawe oute of." 

^ See Brunner, ed., Der Mittelenglische Versroman uber Richard Lowenherz. 

^ See Mooney, "Lydgate's 'Kings of England'," pp. 263-73, 278-89. The Arundel text is 

published in Hearne, ed., Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle, 2: 585-95. 

^ LALME, 1: 117, 3: 547, where two hands, in similar language, are distinguished. It is 

possible, though, that only one scribe was involved. 



Remarks on the JM-1333 

In content the full text of BL Harley 4690 resembles the CV-1333, as 
might be expected, since both translations are based on texts of the Anglo- 
Norman Long Version. Stylistically and verbally, however, the versions differ 
considerably, and it appears that the translation exemplified by BL Harley 
4690 must have been based on an Anglo-Norman text similar to that of 
Bibliotheque Mazarine 1860, a text as far removed as possible from that 
used for the first translation.^ 

In the Halidon Hill passage in BL Harley 4690, the layout of the wards 
of the Scottish army is different from that found in the CV in that the 
names of the knights are given in Ust form; accordingly, the "5w" heading is 
not found. This layout is similar to that found in many of the Anglo-Nor- 
man manuscripts.^ In Coll. of Arms Arundel 58, however, the wards and 



PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 333 

the Scots in them are presented as prose, in which the "Sw" heading does 
not occur. Instead of the concluding prose description of the battle found in 
the Anglo-Norman texts (and followed in the first English translation), 
there appears a poem in rhyming couplets. 

The translator of this version is not named in either BL Harley 4690 or 
Coll. of Arms Arundel 58. The evidence for ascribing the translation to 
John Mandeville is found in BL Harley 2279, which probably belongs to the 
CV-1377 f c. Stage 1, but which breaks off in 1340.^ At the end of this text 
a sixteenth-century hand has added the following lines: 

This English booke that is present 
was made to a good entent 
fFor hem that Englishe understonde 
of the Chronicles of Engelonde 
This was translated by good avyse 
owt of t^rench into Englyse 
By Sire lohn the Maundeuyle 
that hath ben person but a whyle 
In Brunham Thorp that little toun 
God graunt him hise benysoun 
The yeer of Henry I understonde 
the sexte kyng of Engelonde 
After the conqueste soth to seyne 
1435 the xiij yeere of hise reygne 

He that sitt in Trynitee 
one God and persons three 
Save the kyng from all mischaunce 
Bothen in Engelond and in Fraunce. 

Beside these lines occur two comments. The first, in the same hand as the 
verses, reads "Thes verses written in the end of this mans translacioun which 
doth somwhat vary from this translacioun owt of ye first originall Frenche." 
The second, in a later, seventeenth- or eighteenth-century hand, reads "hie 
desunt 13 cap. que sunt in alio libro." 

Brie has demonstrated that there are sufficient contemporary references to 
"John Maundevyle" to authenticate the existence of this person and that 
from 1427/28 to 1441 the rector of Burnham Thorpe in Norfolk was indeed 
so named.'* The records suggest that Mandeville must have been born ca. 
1380, and that he lived most of his life in obscure parishes in Norfolk, Lin- 
colnshire, and apparently Worcestershire for a time. The series of parishes 



334 PECULIAR TEXTS AND VERSIONS 

with which Brie associates him is Quidenham (Norfolk), Flegg (Norfolk), 
Brettenham's or Bridgeham's Manor (Norfolk), Hamburg (Worcester), 
Great Cressingham (Norfolk), Burnham Thorpe (Norfolk; 1427-1441), 
Ivenho (Lincoln), and Netherhall Manor (Norfolk). That he is called "Sir" 
John Mandeville is due to his clerical status. 

The lines in BL Harley 2279 must have been copied from a manuscript 
of Mandeville's translation; however, the remark that thirteen chapters are 
missing that are in the other book shows that the later annotator was refer- 
ring to a text that included a continuation to 1377, which would fit the 
number of missing chapters. 

Although Brie apparently did not notice the later remark, he raises the 
question whether the evidence of BL Harley 4690 implies that the continu- 
ation to 1419 found therein was supplied by John Mandeville and was there- 
after transferred to the first translation. The second marginal remark raises 
the question whether the 1377 continuation was first supplied by Mande- 
ville. However, Brie's arguments for not ascribing the 1419 continuation to 
him can also be applied to the 1377 continuation: 

1. Coll. of Arms Arundel 58 probably contained no more than the end of 
the poem on the battle of Halidon Hill in its original full state. 

2. There is a gap in BL Harley 4690 between 1333 and 1337, suggesting 
hesitation on the scribe's part for some reason. This probably reflects a 
change of exemplar at this point. 

3. A number of manuscripts of the CV-1377 were written before 1435, 
which is when John Mandeville apparently made his translation. 

Textual comparison shows that neither of the surviving manuscripts is the 
original text of the translation, which must, in addition, have ended with the 
verses of ascription that were copied later into BL Harley 2279.^ Nor can 
either manuscript be a copy of the other. Mandeville's translation does not 
seem to have had much circulation or any great popularity, and the extant 
manuscripts are probably close to the original, especially given the date of 
the translation (1435) and the date of compilation of Coll. of Arms Arundel 
58 (1448). 



^ See Brie, Geschichte und Quelletty pp. 75-77. 

2 See pp. 86-87. 

•* See item 15. 

* See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 78-80. 

' See Brie, Geschichte und Quellen, pp. 76-77. 



V. Unclassified Texts 



196. BiBLIOTHECA BODMERIANA, COD. BODMER 43 

Begins onfol. 1: In the noble londe of Surrey there was a noble kynge and a 

myghti man and of grete renowne that men callede Dioclician that weUe 

and wortheli gouernede hymself thrugh his noble chiualry 
Ends onfol. 2v: and thei conceuede and broght forth geantes Gogmagogge 

and Laugheryan and so dweUede in Albyone to the tyme that Brute londe 

at Totnesse. [cf. Brie 4/26-32] 

Remarks: The Albina prologue of a CV Brut has been used as a preface to 
a prose paraphrase of much of Robert of Gloucester's Chronicle (fols. 3- 
103v).^ 



^ See Kennedy, Manual, pp. 2621-22. For an analogous use of Brut narrative (as a con- 
tinuation) in conjunction with a prose version of Robert of Gloucester, one can compare 
CUL Ll.2.14 (see item 191); cf. also Coll. of Arms Arundel 58, where sections of John 
Mandeville's translation are interpolated in the verse form of Robert's Chronicle (see item 
195) and BL Sloane 2027, where the Brut is used as a frame for Robert's Chronicle (sec 
item 159). 



197. Lincoln Cathedral MS. 70 (C.5.l2)^ 

Heading on damaged and rubbed foL 1: Here begynneth |)e boke callyd Brute 

J)[ . . . ] tretith of |)e kynges of Ingelonde. 
Begins: In J)e noble londe of Surre 
Ends imperfectly. How Gurmonde drave kynge Cartyff to Chicester and 

killed the Bretons and J)urgh queyntyse gate the towne. [Brie 94/15-17] 

Remarks: Despite the heading, which is reminiscent of the heading and be- 
ginning of EV texts, there are no distinctive EV signs in, for example, the 
giant passages or the passages on Lud's naming of London and on Engist's 
heptarchy. 



336 UNCLASSIFIED TEXTS 

The chapter on the thirty-three kings is slightly abbreviated: "|)e fflirst 
kynge off Ipe xxxiij" kynges men callyd Gorbodia; he reigned xij yere; {)e ij' 
kynge Morgan ij yere; Eighnaus yj yere [^/f.]." 

The text should be assigned to the CV, and, given the heading, it is pos- 
sible that it represents a form of CV ending in 1377 that underlay the EV 
texts. 



^ See Thompson, Catalogue, p. 51, for sixteenth- and seventeenth-century names in the 
manuscript. (There are several misreadings in Thompson's description.) 



198. Cambridge University Library MS. Kk.1.3 

Begins imperfectly: after jjat bataill Vter tooke his weye toward Wynchestre 

[Brie 64/29] 
Ends imperfectly: And he sente before in to Scotlonde ser Aymer de Val- 

aunce erl of Pembrook [Brie 200/14-15] 

Remarks: The text consists of ten unnumbered folios inserted at the end of 
the manuscript that contain discontiguous pieces of text between Uther and 
Edward I. What remains corresponds well to the text of the earlier CV 
groups, but they could also be part of an EV text. 



199. NLW MS. Peniarth 396D(1)i 

Heading on damaged p. i: [ . . . ] may [.] m[ . . . ]s fyste called [ins.^ Albion & 

thorugh [ . . . ] yt hadde that name. [Here may [.] man here how Eng- 

lande was marg.^ 
Begins: In the noble londe of Surrey 
Ends imperfectly on p. 16: but oon geaunte \_last word a catchword] 

Remarks: The text has been copied from a CV as far as chapter four before 
it breaks off imperfecdy. The text then goes back to the third chapter and 
is thereafter a copy of the AV-1419:B. 



^ For (2), which is foliated rather than paginated, see item 138. See Marx, "Middle 
EngUsh Manuscripts," p. 362. 



UNCLASSIFIED TEXTS 337 

200. Brogyntyn MS. 8 (Lord Harlech; on deposit at NLW)^ 

Begins imperfectly: changed as the deuell wolde [Brie 70/30] 
Contains: Cad 

Ends imperfectly onfoL 18v: of tillers and this myschefe endured [Cad epi- 
sode: see pp. 58-59] 

Remarks: The manuscript consists of one gathering, perhaps preserved be- 
cause it contains the section on King Arthur, including Merlin's prophecies. 
Constantine reigns after Arthur. 
The text could be a CV, EV, or AV. 



* See Maix, "Middle English Manuscripts," pp. 376-77; Rosalynn Voaden, ed. and trans., 
Brogyntyn Manuscript No. 8, introd. Felicity Riddy (Moreton-in-Marsh, 1991). 



201. BL MS. Royal II.B.dc 

First fragment begins imperfectly on fol. 133: bene kynge xvij yere [Brie 

142/16] 
First fragment ends imperfectly in next chapter on fol. 133 v. 
Second fragment begins imperfectly on fol. 134 and ends on fol. 134v. 

Remarks:. The two fragments, which are very damaged and only partially 
legible, are bound into the Regis trum Cartarum Prioratus S. Andreae North- 
ampton. The fragments are from the reign of Heniy I; the second comes 
from the chapter preceding the narrative of the first fragment (see Brie, 
chapter 135, 140/16-142/11). Kennedy notes that the manuscript is related 
to BL Harley 2182 but gives no evidence for the relationship.^ 



^ See Kennedy, Manual, p. 2819. 



202. Lehigh University (3 fragments)^ 

Fragment A, recto, begins: kyng of moche Britaigne. Capitulum liij™. [Brie 

46/31-32] 
Fragment A, verso, ends: and natheles he was somdel glad of his deth and 

[Brie 48/29] 
Fragment B, recto, begins: herde telle that Engist was come a3en [Brie 54/7- 

8] 



338 UNCLASSIFIED TEXTS 

Fragment B, verso, ends: Another kyng hadde Southsex where is now [Brie 

55/8-9] 
Fragment C, recto, begins: forto maken hym kyng [Brie 127/15] 
Fragment C, verso, ends: & alle the lordes of Engelonde 8c heelde a grete 

par[ . . . ] [Brie 129/18-19] 

Remarks: The three fragments come from a double-columned manuscript 
that was probably dismembered and cut up for its illustrated and decorated 
initials in the early 1930s. Fragments A and B preserve full columns, while 
Fragment C is the top part of a leaf Fragment B has the modern foliation 
number 28 {2S}); Fragment C is numbered 51. 



^ See John C. Hirsh, Western Manuscripts of the Twelfth through the Sixteenth Centuries in 
Lehigh University Libraries: A Guide to the Exhibition (Bethlehem, Penn., 1970), pp. 11- 
14. Hirsh prints the text of Fragment B on pp. 13-14. 



203. Geelong Church of England Grammar School MS.^ 

Begins (imperfectly?): Afftre |)e dethe of f)is Eldrede knoght J)at was a danoys 

bigan J)o forto regne but Edmond Irensyde that was l^^ng Eldrede sonne 

bi his ferst wyf [Brie 119/5-7] 
Omits: QIL (see below), "5w" heading (see below) 
Ends imperfectly: Rebelles {)at afore had done moche harme to oure Enghsh 

men marchauntes and to many Toynes [izV] and Poortes in Englonde 

upon t)e [Brie 365/17-19 and cf. note 9] 

Remarks: Sinclair's description indicates that, among many others, the folios 
are missing that might have contained QIL, the "5w'' heading, and the 
changeover passages between 1333 and 1377 and 1377 and 1419. The infor- 
mation given in the published description concerning the contents of the re- 
maining leaves suggests that the text was a CV, or possibly an EV, ending 
in 1419. 



* The manuscript has been missing since the late 1960s. The present description is based 
on Sinclair, Descriptive Catalogue, pp. 306-307, from which quotations are taken and on 
which the Remarks are based. 



VI. The Early Printed Editions 



Thirteen printed editions of the English Brut appeared between 1480 and 
1528 under the title The Chronicles of England ox some variant thereof. Wil- 
liam Caxton's editio princeps of 1480 was based on a manuscript text similar 
to that found in Huntington MS. HM 136(1), with the addition of a short 
prologue, a table of contents, and a continuation from 1419 to 1461 that 
was probably compiled by Caxton himself. The printed editions fall into two 
groups, here designated Types 1 and 2. Type 1 follows Caxton's text, while 
Type 2 follows the expanded edition published at St. Albans by the School- 
master-Printer. Both types end in 1461. 



[85.] "The Cronicles of Englond." William Caxton, Westmin- 
ster, June 10, 1480 (STC 9991).^ Type 1. 

Remarks: [See item 85 for a description and pp. 165-66 for discussion.] 
Later in 1480, Caxton published The Description of Britain (STC 13440a), 
consisting of geographical material from John Trevisa's translation of Ra- 
nulph Higden's Polychronicon. This small work was probably intended as a 
supplement to the Chronicles of England^ with which a number of the extant 
copies are bound.^ In certain later editions it became a regular part of the 
book. 



^ Available on microfilm in Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 
1573. For bibliographical details, see E. Gordon Duff, Fifteenth-Century English Books 
(Oxford, 1917), no. 97. The prologue and conclusion are printed in N. F. Blake, Caxton's 
Own Prose (London, 1973), pp. 68-69. 

^ See Duff, Fifteenth-Century English Books, no. 113; Blake, Caxton's Chun Prose, p. 155. 
A modern rendering is available in Marie Collins, Caxton: The Description of Britain (New 
York, 1988). 



340 EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 

204. "The Cronycles of Englond." William Caxton, Westmin- 
ster, October 8, 1482 (STC 9992).^ Type 1. 

Preface begins: [I]n the yere of th'yncarnaq^on of our lord Ihesu Crist M 

CCC Ixxx and in the xx yere of the regne of kyng Edward the fourth 
Heading: How the land of Englond was fyrst named Albyon and by what 

encheson it was so named. 
Begins: In the noble land of Sirrie 
Ends: and that after this present & short lyf we may come to the euerlastyng 

lyfe in the blysse of heuen. Amen. 
Colophon: Thus endeth this present book of the Cronycles of Englond en- 

prynted by me William Caxton in th'abbey of Westmestre by London. 

Fynysshed and accomplyssed the viij day of Octobre the yere of the incar- 

nacyon of our lord God M CCCC Ixxxij and in the xxij yere of the regne 

of kyng Edward the fourth. 

Remarks: Caxton's second edition was set up from the first, retaining the 
same pagination, although the spelling system and punctuation marks have 
been altered.^ Textually, only the colophon has been altered to reflect the 
new date. 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 3. See Duff, Fifteenth- 
Century English Books, no. 98. 
2 Cf. N. F. Blake, Caxton: England's First Publisher (London, 1976), pp. 92-93. 



205. "The Croniclis of Englonde with the Frute of Timis." 
[Schoolmaster-Printer,] St. Albans, [?1483] (STC 9995).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Here begynnys a schort & breue tabull on thes 

cronicles 
Prologue begins: The Prolog. In so myche that it is necessari to all creaturis 

of Criston religyoii or of fals religyon 
Prologue ends: we vse most to nombnr [read nombur] fro the begynyng off 

the world vnto Crist wos borne and fro Crist wos borne vnto our tyme 

and this ordyr is kepyt in all the boke of euery thyng in his place as it is 

sayd afoor. 
Heading to first part Hie incipit Fructus Temporum. 
First part begins: [B]e cause thys boke is mad to tel what tyme ony thyng 

notabull wos therfoor the begynyng of all tymes chortly shall be tochit. 
Heading to Brut text: Incipit regnum Britanie nunc dicta Anglia. Afor J)at I 



EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 341 

will speke of Brute it shall be shewed how \>e londe of Englond was fyrst 
namd Albion 6c by what encheson it vos so namit. 

Brut text begins: In the nobull land of Sine 

Brut text ends: And about Mydsomer after thee yere of our lord M CCC be 
and thee firist yere of his regne he wos crouned at Westmynstre &, 
anoynted kyng of Englond hauyng possession of all thee reame. 

Seventh part ends'. Ihon th'abbot of Habingdon was the popys legate to dis- 
pose thys godli tresure of the chirch to eueri faythflill man J)at was dis- 
posed and that wolde habuU him to resayue it. 

Colophon: Here ende the Croniclis of Englonde with the Frute of Timis. 
Sanctus Albanus. 

Remarks: This edition is based on Caxton's text (probably that of 1480), 
greatly augmented by material drawn from the popular Fasciculus temporum 
of Werner RolewincL^ 

There is a prologue on the use of history and on historical authorities that 
also contains an explanation of the seven parts into which the narrative has 
been divided and other matters thought necessary for understanding chroni- 
cles. The first part begins with a "Fructus Temporum" from the Creation to 
Homer, who "wrotte and fened gloriusli mony a lesyng." Interpolations on 
popes and foreign rulers are interspersed throughout the Chronicles of Eng- 
land text. 



1 Early EngUsh Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 161. See Duff, Fifteenth- 
Century English Books, no. 101. The edition, ascribed here to ?1483, is undated but is fre- 
quently ascribed to 1485 (as in the STC). However, the prologue assigns the compilation 
of the text to 1483, 23 Edward IV (March 4, 1483-April 9, 1483, the date of Edward's 
death, if the regnal year is used). The wording is similar to that of the colophon that 
gives 1486 as the date of compilation (but not necessarily that of printing) of the School- 
master-Printer's typographically related Book of Hawking, Hunting, and Biasing ofArmr, 
see William Blades, introd.. The Boke of Saint Albans (London, 1881), leaf fix", and 
Rachel Hands, ed., English Hawking and Hunting in The Boke of St. Albans, Oxford Eng- 
lish Monographs (Oxford, 1975), pp. xvi-ixvii. Near the end of the Chronicles of England, 
however, the Schoolmaster-Printer refers to Sextus IV, who died on August 12, 1484, as 
the current pope. Innocent VIII was elected his successor on August 29, 1484. 
^ The first official pubUcation of the Fasciculus temporum was in Cologne in 1474; Johan 
Veldener, a former business associate of Caxton, published an edition at Louvain in 1475 
that may have been used by Caxton in his compilation of the 1419-1461 continuation of 
the Chronicles of England. See Matheson, "Printer and Scribe," p. 599 and the references 
in nn. 25 and 29 therein. 



342 early printed editions 

206. ["Chronicles of England."] [Willlam de Machlinia, Lon- 
don, ?1486] (STC 9993).^ TYPE 1. 
Table of contents begins'. Fyrst in the prologue is conceyued how Albyne with 

hir susters entrid into this ile and named yt Albyon. 
Heading. How the lande of Englonde was fyrst namd Albyon and bi what 

encheson it was so namd. 
Text begins: [I]n the noble lande of Surre 
Text ends'. &c that after this present & short lyfe we may com to the euerlast- 

yng lyfe in the blisse of heuen. Amen. 

Remarks: This edition, probably printed by Machlinia, omits Caxton's short 
prologue and colophon but otherwise follows his edition of 1480 (though 
with some errors). 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 3 (the British Library 
copy, which is imperfect at the end). See DufF, Fifteenth-Century English Books, no. 99. 



207. "Cronycles of the londe of Englond." Gerard de Leew, 
Antwerp, 1493 (STC 9994).^ Type 1. 

Heading to table of contents: Here begynneth the table of thys boke that men 
kalled Cronycles of the londe of Englond. 

Table of contents begins: First in the prologue is conteyned how Albyne wyth 
hir sustres entrid into this ile & named it Albyon. 

Heading. How the lande of Englonde was fyrst named Albion and by what 
encheson it was so named. 

Text begins: Ther was in the noble lande of Surre 

Text ends: &c that after this present 8c short lyfe we may comen to the euer- 
lasting lyfe in the blisse of heuen. Amen. 

Colophon: Here ben endyd the Cronycles of the reame of Englond with their 
apperteignaunces. Enprentyd in the duchye of Braband in the towne of 
Andewarpe in the yere of owr lord M CCCC xciij by maistir Gerard de 
Leew a man of grete wysedom in all maner of kunnyng which nowe is 
come from lyfe vnto the deth which is grete harme for many a poure 
man. On whos sowle God Almyghty for hys hygh grace haue mercy. 
Amen. 

Remarks: De Leew's edition, which is based on Caxton, has a title-page with 
the title "Cronycles of the londe of Englond." 



EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 343 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 8. See DufF, Fifteenth- 
Century English Books, no. 100. 

208. "Cronycle of Englonde wyth the Frute of Tymes." Wyn- 

KYN DE WORDE, WESTMINSTER, 1497 (STC 9996).^ TYPE 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte and a breue table 
on these Cronydes 

Prologue begins: The prologue. In so moche that it is necessary to all crea- 
tures of Crysten relygyon 

Text ends: to euery faythfull man that was dysposyd & that wolde able hym 
to receyue it. 

Colophon: Here endyth this present Cronycle of Englonde wyth the Frute of 
Tymes compiled in a booke & also enprynted by one somtyme scole- 
mayster of Saynt Albons on whoos soule God haue mercy. And newely in 
the yer of our lord God M CCCC booocvij enpryntid at Westmestre by 
Wynkyn de Worde. 

Remarks: It is clear that this expanded text of the St. Albans type was 
intended to be issued with de Worde's 1498 edition of The Description of 
Britain (STC 13440b), since the latter work is listed at the end of the table 
of contents. 

The colophon gives a terminus ad quem for the death of the School- 
master-printer of St. Albans. 



' Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 924. See DufF, Fifteenth- 
Century English Books, no. 102. 

209. "Cronycle of Englonde wyth pe Fruyte of Tymes." 
Wynkyn de Worde, London, May, 1502 (STC 9997).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte & a breue table on 
these Cronycles 

Prologue begins: The prologue. In so moche that it is necessary to all crea- 
tures of Crysten relygyon 

Text ends: too euery faythfull man J)at was dysposyd and that wolde able 
hym too receyue it. 

Colophon: Here endeth this present Cronycle of Englonde wyth J)e Fruyte of 



344 EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 

Tymes compyled in a booke and also enprynted by one some tyme scole- 
mayster of Saynt Albons vppon whoos soule God haue merq^. Amen. 
And newely in the yere of oure lorde God M CCCCC ii enprynted in 
Flete Strete in pe sygne of the Sonne by me Wynkyn de Worde. 

Remarks: This is a reprint of de Worde's edition of 1497 and of the Tbe 
Description of Britain of 1498, printed after his move from Westminster. 



^ Early EngUsh Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 3. 



210. "Cronycle of Englonde wyth pe Fruyte of Tymes." Julyan 
Notary, London, August, 1504 (STC 9998).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte and a breue table 
on these Cronycles 

Prologue begins: The prologue. In so moche that it is necessary to all crea- 
tures of Crysten relygyon 

Text ends: to euery feythfiiU man J)at was disposed and that wolde able hym 
to receyue it. 

Colophon: Here endeth this present Cronycle of Englonde wyth J)e Fruyte of 
Tymes compyled in a booke & also enprynted by one somtyme scole- 
mayster of Saint Albons vpon whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. And 
newely in the yere of our lorde God M CCCCC & iiii enprynted at 
Tempelbarre by me Julyane Nottary. 

Remarks: The edition agrees with de Worde's editions of 1497 and 1502 and 
seems to have been taken from the latter; it also contains The Description of 
Britain. 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 3. 



211. "Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte of Tymes." Rich- 
ard Pynson, London, December 19, 1510 (STC 9999).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte & a breue table on 
these Cronycles 

Prologue begins: The Prologue. In so moche that it is necessary to all crea- 
tures of Cristen relygion 



EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 345 

Text ends: to euery faythfull man that was dysposed and that wolde able hym 
to receyue it. 

Colophon: Here endeth this present Cronyde of Englonde with the Fruyte 
of Tymes compyled in a boke 8c also enprynted by one some tyme scole- 
mayster of Saint Albons vpon whos soule God haue mercy. Amen. And 
newely in the yere of oure lorde God M CCCCC x enprynted in Flete 
Strete at the sygne of the Gorge by Rycharde Pynson prynter vnto |)e 
l^ges noble grace. 

Remarks: This edition appears to be a reprint of de Worde's edition of 1502, 
with The Description of Britain, which it resembles closely in typography and 
layout. 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 3. 



212. "Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte of Tymes." 
JULYAN Notary, London, 1515 (STC 10000).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte and a breue table 
on the Cronydes 

Prologue begins: The Prologue. In soo moche that it is necessary to all crea- 
tures of Crysten relygyon 

Text ends: to euery feythflil man J)at was diposed and that wolde able hym 
to receyue it. 

Colophon: Here endeth this present Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte 
of Tymes compyled in I boke and also newely enprynted in the yere of 
our lorde God M CCCCC &. xv by me Julyan Notary dwellynge in 
Powlys chyrche yarde besyde J)e westedore by my lordes palyes. 

Remarks: Notary's edition is presumably based on his earlier edition of 1504, 
with some minor changes. Thus, in his colophon to the chronicle Notary 
drops the attribution to the Schoolmaster-Printer; in the colophon to The 
Description of Britain he also drops Caxton's references to himself as the first 
printer thereof and to Trevisa as the translator. 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 4. 



346 early printed editions 

213. "Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte of Tymes." Wyn- 
KYN de Worde, London, 1515 (STC 10000.5).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte and a breue table 
for to fynde lyghtly wherof ony man shall please hym to rede in this boke. 

Prologue begins'. The prologue. In so moche J)at it is necessary to al creatures 
of Crysten relygyon 

Text ends: to euery faythfull man that was dysposed 5c that wolde able hym 
to receyue it. 

Colophon: Here endeth this present Cronycle of Englonde with the Fruyte 
of Tymes compyled in a boke and also enprynted by one somtyme scole- 
mayster of Saynt Albons vpon whose soule God haue mercy. Amen. And 
newly enprynted in Flete Strete at the sygne of the Sonne by me Wynkyn 
de Worde in the yere of our lorde God M CCCCC and xv. 

Remarks: This edition is based on de Worde's edition of 1502, with The De- 
scription of Britain^ and provides a new system of reference by folio in the 
table of contents. 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 4. The British Library 
copy filmed therein has a title-page imitated from de Worde's edition of 1528 (with the 
royal arms copied from Richard Pynson's version) and for that reason contains the title 
found in the later edition. Other copies contain de Worde's woodcut of the royal arms 
but no title. 



214. "Cronycle of Englande with the Fruyte of Tymes." Wyn- 
kyn de Worde, London, 1520 (STC lOOOl).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte and a breue table 

Prologue begins: The prologue. In so moche J)at it is necessary to al creatures 
of Crysten relyg[y]on 

Text ends: to euery faythful man that was dysposed 8c that wolde able hym 
to receyue it. 

Colophon: Here endeth this presente Cronycle of Englande with the Fruyte 
of Tymes compyled in a boke 8c also imprynted by one sumtyme scole- 
mayster of Seynt Albons vpon whose soule God haue mercy. Amen. And 
newly imprynted in Flete Strete at the sygne of the Sonne by me Wynkyn 
de Worde in the yere of oure lorde God M CCCCC and xx. 

Remarks: This is a reset edition, with some spelling variation, of de Worde's 
edition of 1515. 



EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 347 



Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 79. 



215. "The Cronycles of Englonde with the dedes of popes and 

EMPEROURS AND ALSO THE DESCRIPCYON OF ENGLONDE." WYNKYN 

DE WORDE, London, April 9, 1528 (STC 10002).^ Type 2. 

Table of contents begins: Tabula. Here begynneth a shorte and a breue table 

Prologue begins: The prologue. In so moche |)at it is necessary to all creatures 
of Chrysten relygion 

Text ends: vnto euery faythfuU man that was disposed and that wolde able 
themselfe to receyue it. 

Colophon: Thus endeth the Cronycles of Englonde with the Fruyte of Tymes 
compyled in a boke and was fyrst imprynted by one somtyme scole- 
mayster of Saynt Albons on whose soule God haue mercy. Amen. And 
now lately imprynted at London and dilygently amended in dyuers places 
where as ony faute was in Flete Strete at the sygne of the Sonne by me 
Wynl^ de Worde in the yere of our lorde God M CCCCC xxviij the 
ix daye of Apryll. 

Remarks: The new title occurs on a title-page that also contains de Worde's 
woodcut of the royal arms. Generally, the text corresponds to de Worde's 
earlier edition of 1520 and is accompanied by The Description of England. 
Despite the claim in the colophon, the revisions are slight. 



^ Early English Books 1475-1640 (University Microfilms), Reel 4. 



The new title and the exaggerated claim for diligent amendment in de 
Worde's edition of 1528, the last of the early printed editions., may be indi- 
cations of a failing market. As the sixteenth century progressed, the salability 
of the Chronicles of England declined and they were superseded by the works 
of, inter alia, Richard Grafton, Edward Hall, Raphael Holinshed, and John 
Stow, most of whom, however, used the Brut or the Chronicles of England zs 
a source. Continuing influence of the Brut can be seen in the succession of 
ever-augmented printed editions between ?1518 and 1557 (STC 9983.3 to 
9989.5) of the short list of kings and saints (found in MSS. CUL Ff 1.6 and 



348 EARLY PRINTED EDITIONS 

Folger Shakespeare Library V.a.l98) and in the similar Breuiat Cronic/e, 
published between 1552 and 1561 (STC 9968 to 9976). The number of 
printers who were prepared to update and augment annually such ready-ref- 
erence works suggests their widespread popularity and a continuing, indirect 
role for the Brut as a source of historical information for a popular audience. 



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Index of Manuscripts and Early Printed Editions 



All references to manuscripts, whether of the Brut or of other works, and 
early printed editions of the Chronicles of England or other derivative works, 
are listed below. The order for manuscripts is alphabetical by the geographi- 
cal location of library, repository, or collection. Early printed editions are 
arranged in a separate list under the printer's name. Those pages that in- 
clude the formal descriptive entries for each text or portion of text are in- 
dicated by a preceding asterisk (*). Supplementary information on the manu- 
scripts (for example, the names of previous owners and the number of folios) 
and early printed editions (STC references and the locations of copies) can 
be found in the lists given on pp. xviii-xx, xx-xxi, xxiii-xxxi, and xxxiii- 
xxxvi. A further listing of the manuscripts and early printed editions of the 
English Brut^ arranged by version, group, and type, appears in the Synoptic 
Inventory of Versions on pp. 67-7%. 



Manuscripts 

Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales 
442D: xxviii, 64-65, 72, 188, n94-95 
21608D: xxviii, 44, 75, 278, *290-93 
Brogyntyn 8: xxii, xxviii, 77, *337 
Peniarth 343A: xxviii, 27, 76, *314-15 
Peniarth 396D: xxviii, 73, 77, 215, *223-24, 226, 228, *336 
Peniarth 397C: xxviii, 75, 294, *294, 296 n. 
Peniarth 398D: xxviii, 68, 79, *83-84 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 367 

Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, Hatcher Library 
225: xxix, 73, 215, *222, 226, 228, 241-42 

Berkeley, University of California at Berkeley, Bancroft Library 

152: xxix, 69, 114, *115 
Bern, Biirgerbibliothek 

568: 176 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Lehigh University Library 

3 fragments: xxix, 11 ^ *337-38 
Bradfer-Lawrence 11: see Tokyo, collection of Toshiyuki Takamiya, 67 
Bristol, City of Bristol Record Office 

Mayor's Calendar, no. 04720 (1): xxii, xxiii, 76, *322-23 
Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale 

IV.461: xxviii, 70, 114, *117 
Buckinghamshire, Flackwell Heath, Allison collection 

MS.: 19 n. 

Cambridge, Cambridge University Library 

Additional 2775: xxiii, 72, 188, *190 

Dd.14.2: 187 

Ee.1.20: xviii, 31, 34, 36 

Ee.4.31: xxiii, 71, 134, *137, 305 n. 

Ee.4.32: xxiii, 70, 124, *125-26 

Ff 1.6: xxii, xxiii, 12, 15, 76, 318, *320, 347 

Ff 2.26: xxiii, 15, 72, 188, *190-91 

Gg.1.1: xviii n., 32 

Gg.1.15: xviii, 34 

Hh.6.9: xxiii, 13, 71, 73, 150, *15(>-51, 153, 154-56, 230, *231, 232-33 

Ii.6.8: xviii, 36 and n. 

Kk.1.3: xxiii, 77, *336 

Kk.1.6: 326 

Kk.1.12: xxiii, 15, 48 n., 69, 107, *107-108 

Ll.2.14: xxiii, 76, *323-24, 335 n. 

Mm.1.33: xviii, 32-33 
Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 

53: xviii n. 

98: xviii 

133: 18 n. 

174: xxiii, 68, 88, *88, 234 



3^8 INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

182: xxiii, 12, 197, *197 

311: XX, 39 n., 43, 44, 305 
Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum 

McClean 186: xxiii, 69, 107, *111 
Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College 

72: xxi, 39 n., 43, 44 

82: 45 n. 
Cambridge, Magdalene College 

Pepys 2833: xxii, xxiii, 27, 329, 332 
Cambridge, Peterhouse 

190: xxiii, 13, 68, 71, 98, *99, 166, *169-70, 172 
Cambridge, Trinity College 

0.9.1: xxiii, 13, 71, 72, 131, 150, *151-52, 152, 154-56, 197, *197-98, 
235, 236, 238, 239 

O.10.34: xxiii, 69, 107, *108-109 

O.ll.ll: xxiii, 75, 278, *279-81, 285, 293 

R.4.26: xviii n., 30 n. 

R.5.32: xviii, 34 

R.5.43, Part II: xxiii, 70, 124, *126-27 

R.7.14: xviii, 11, 34 

R.7.23: xviii n. 

R.14.9: xviii n. 
Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, Houghton Library 

Eng. 530: xxix, 71, 74, 157, *164, 165, 166 n., *257-59 

Eng. 587: xxix, 69, 107, *1 12-13 

Eng. 750 (two texts): xxix, 75, 278, (first text) *282-83, 293 (second text) 
*283 

Eng. 938: xxix, 76, *324-26 

Richardson 35: xxix, 13, 72, 176, 177, *178-79, 184, 185, 186, 187, 212 
Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University, Law School 

1: xviii n. 
Chapel Hill, collection of Robert G. Heyneman 

MS.: xxix, 70, 98, 117, *1 19-21, 121 
Charlottesville, University of Virginia Library 

38-173: xxix, 72, 188, *193 
Chicago, University of Chicago Library 

224: 39 n. 

253: xxix, 68, 94, *96-97, 97 

254: xxix, 13, 70, 71, 131, *131-32, 150, *152, 153, 156 and nn. 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 369 

Cleveland, Cleveland Public Library 

W q091.92-C468: xxix, 74, 259, *259-60, 261, 262, 263 
Cologny-Geneve, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana 

Cod. Bodmer 43: xxix, 77, *335 
Corio, Victoria, Geelong Church of England Grammar School 

MS.: xxxi, 77, *338 

Dublin, Trinity College 

489: xxviii, 74, 259, *260-61, 262, 263 

490: xxviii, 13, 70, 79, 81, 84-86, 87, 117, *118-19 

500: XX, 11, 34 

501: XX, 36 and n. 

505: xxviii, 75, 98, 278, *285-87 

506: xxviii, 74, 272, *273-74, 276 

5895: xxviii, 74, 215, 226, 228, 268, *268, 269, 270 

Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland 

6128: xxvii, 68, 94, *95, 97, 123, 128 
Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh Library 

181: XX, 34 

184: xxvii, 76, 316, *316-17 

185: xxvii, 72, 188, *189 

Glasgow, collection of John Edwards 

MS.: xxxi-xxxii 
Glasgow, University of Glasgow Library 
Hunterian 61: xxvii, 70, 114, *116 
Hunterian 74: xxvii, 12, 15, 51, 70, 71, 129, *129, 130, 139, 141, 142, 

157, *161, 165, 189 
Hunterian 83: xxvii, 15, 27, 71, 73, 166, *167-68, 170, 171-72, 181, 205, 

*205, 207-208, 235, 236, 241-42 
Hunterian 228: xxviii, 69, 71, 107, *112, 157, *162, 165 
Hunterian 230: xxviii, 12, 72, 188, *189-90, 190, 240 
Hunterian 443: xxviii, 15, 73, 215, *216, 220, 225, 226, 227, 228, 235, 

236, 243, 244-46, 247-50 

Hamburg, Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek Hamburg 

Cod. 98 in serin: xxviii, 57-61, 68, 92, *93 
Hereford, Hereford Cathedral 

O.V.12: 11 n. 



370 INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Leeds, University of Leeds Library 

Brotherton 29: xviii, xviii n., 11, 34, 37 
Leicester, University of Leicester Library 

47: xxiv, 70, 124, *127 
Lincoln, Lincoln Cathedral 

70: xxiv, 77, *335-36 

98: xxiv, 72, 188, *193-94 
London, Bedford Estates Office 

Woburn Abbey 181: xxiv, 14, 76, 105 n., *326-28 
London, British Library 

Additional 6915: xxiv 

Additional 10099: xxiv, 71, 92, 104, 157, n59-60, 164, 165, 170, 171 

Additional 10622: xviii n. 

Additional 12030: xxiv, 72, 177, *179-80, 184, 185, 186, 187, 212, 237, 
239, 241, 250, 308 

Additional 18462(a): xviii, 36 and n., 119 

Additional 18462(b): xviii, 34 

Additional 24859: xxiv, 72, 188, *192 

Additional 26746: xxiv, 69, 114, *115-16 

Additional 33242: xxiv, 69, 105, *106 

Additional 33412: 325 

Additional 34648: 267 n. 

Additional 35092: xviii, 30 

Additional 35113: xviii, 32 

Additional 35295: 18-19 n. 

Additional 70514: xxii, xxiv, 12, 74, *265-66 

Cotton Claudius A.viii: xxiv, 30 n., 71, 157, *161-62, 165 

Cotton Cleopatra Civ: 263 

Cotton Cleopatra D.iii: xviii, 11, 31 n., 35, 36 and n., 84-85, 86-87 

Cotton Cleopatra D.vii: xix, 34 

Cotton Cleopatra D.ix: 33 

Cotton Domitian iv: xxi, 43, 309 

Cotton Domitian x: xix, 31 n., 34 

Cotton Galba E.vii: xxi, 38, 43 

Cotton Galba E.viii: xxiv, 71, 134, *134-35, 140, 141, 142-43, 149-50 

Cotton Julius A.i: xix, 33 

Cotton Julius B.ii: 105 n., 296 

Cotton Julius B.iii: xxi, 16, 37, 39, 41-42 

Cotton Tiberius A.vi: xix, 30, 36 n. 

Cotton Titus D.xv: 20 n. 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 371 

Cotton Vltellius Ajc: 11 

Cotton Vitellius Ajcvi: 328 n. 

Cotton Vitellius V.vi: 19 n. 

Egerton 650: xxiv, 13, 14, 69, 75, 98, *100-101, 102, 103, 104, 311, 

*311-12, 313, 314 
Egerton 672: 39 n. 
Egerton 1995: 134 n., 144, 145 n. 
Harley 24: xxiv, 72, 177, *179, 184, 185, 186, 212, 234, 235, 236, 237, 

238, 239, 240, 241, 250, 308 
Harley 53: xxiv, 12, 22, 75, 296, *296-98, 300, 301 and n. 
Harley 63: xxiv, 76, 316, *316, 318 
Harley 200: xix, 34 

Harley 266: xxiv, 68, 71, 92, 94, *95-96, 97, 104, 123, 134, *137-38 
Harley 540: 156 n. 

Harley 753: xxiv, 71, 90, 92, 104, 145, *146-47, 148 
Harley 902: 10 
Harley 941: xxi, 38, 47 

Harley 1337: xxiv, 73, 215, *217, 226, 227, 228 
Harley 1568: xxiv, 70, 117, *121 
Harley 2182: xxiv, 72, 188, *188-89, 240, 337 
Harley 2248: xxiv, 69, 107, *109 
Harley 2252: 160 

Harley 2256: xxiv, 71, 134, *135-36 
Harley 2279: xxiv, 68, 88, *89-90, 333, 334 
Harley 3730: xxiv, 71, 73, 166, *170-71, 172, 205, *205-206, 207 
Harley 3884: xxi, 16, 43 
Harley 3906: xxi, 16, 43 
Harley 3943: 92 n. 
Harley 3945: xxiv, 68, 79, *83 

Harley 4690: xxii, xxiv, 76, 87, 98, 329, *329-30, 331, 332, 333, 334 
Harley 4827: xxv, 64-65, 72, 174-75, 176, 188, *188, 235, 236, 238, 239, 

243, 244-46, 247-50, 252-53 
Harley 4930: xxv, 70, 129, *130, 131 
Harley 6097: 267 n. 

Harley 6251: xxv, 73, 215, *217-18, 226, 227, 228 
Harley 6359: xix, 33 

Harley 7333: xxv, 13, 15, 74, 215, 226, 228, 268, *269, 269, 270-71 
Lansdowne 204: 21 
Lansdowne 212: xxi, 16, 43, 302 n. 
Royal ll.B.ix : xxv, 77, *337 



372 INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Royal 17.D.xxi: xxv, 13, 69, 107, *109-10 

Royal 18.A.ix: xxv, 73, 211, *211-13, 213, 213-14, 235, 236, 240-41 

Royal 18.B.iii: xxv, 12, 69, 114, *114-15 

Royal 18.B.iv: xxv, 73, 208, *209-ll, 235, 236 

Royal 19.C.ix: xix, 12, 36 and n., 37, 116 n., 119 

Royal 20.A.iii: xix, 36 and n., 80 

Royal 20.A.xviii: xviii n., xix, 36 and n. 

Royal 20.C.vi: xviii n. 

Royal App. 85: xix, 36 

Sloane 2027: xxv, 13, 15, 74, 272, *274-75, 335 n. 

Stowe 68: xxv, 68, 88, *90 

Stowe 69: xxv, 13, 69, 105, *105-106 

Stowe 70: xxv, 73, 230, *230, 232, 233, 235, 236, 252-53 

Stowe 71 : xxv, 73, 215, *218-19, 226, 227, 228 
London, College of Arms 

Arundel 5: xxi, 16, 38 n., 43 

Arundel 8: xxv, 74, 271, *272-73 

Arundel 14: 32 

Arundel 31: xix, 32, 33 

Arundel 58: xxii, xxv, 15, 27, 77, 329, *330-32, 332, 333, 334, 335 n. 

Vincent 421: xxv, 69, 107, *111-12 
London, Guildhall 

3313: 24 

Roll A lb: 63 n. 
London, Lambeth Palace Library 

6: xxv, 14, 22, 7S, 296, 298 n., *298-99, 300, 301 and n. 

84: xxv, 3, 25 n., 75, 263 n., 296, 309 

99: xxi, 15, 37, 39-42 

259: xxv, 14, 70, 129, *130, 131 

264: xxv, 13, 69, 71, 98, *100, 157, *163, 165 

306: xxv, 13, 26 and n., 76, *315-16, 317 

331: xxv, 71, 90, 92, 104, 145, *147-48, 148 

386: 39 n. 

491: xxv, 68, 90, *91, 104, 133 

504: xix, 34 

738: xxv, 69, 92, 98, *104-105, 123, 328 n. 

751: xxxi n. 
London, Library of the Inner Temple 

Petyt 511, Vol. XI: xxv, 75, *306-309 

Petyt 511, Vol. XIX: xix, 34 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 373 

London, Lincoln's Inn 

88: xix, 34, 35 n., 36 and n. 
London, Public Record Office 

E154/1/19: 10 n. 

Elxchequer 164/24: xviii n. 
London, Sion College 

Arc. L.40.2/E.42: xxv, 69, 98, *99 
London, Society of Antiquaries 

93: xxv, 68, 79, *82, 86, 87 

223: xxv, 72, 197, *201-202 
London, Westminster Abbey 

25: xix, 34 

Manchester, John Rylands University Library 
Eng. 102: xxvi, 68, 88, *88-89, 124 
Eng. 103: xxvi, 67, 68, 79, *81, 86, 87, 88, *89, 90 
Eng. 104: xxvi, 70, 114, *116 
Eng. 105: xxvi, 72, 177, *177-78, 184, 185, 186, 187, 212, 235, 236, 237, 

239, 241, 252-53 
Eng. 206: xxvi, 68, 79, *83 
Eng. 207: xxvi, 74, *263-65 

New Haven, Yale University, Beinecke Library 

86: XX 

323: xxix, 13, 69, 107, *11(>-11 

405: XX, 32 

494: XXX, 13, 14, 67, 79, *81-82, 86 

593: XX, 34 
New York, Columbia University Library 

Plimpton 261: xxii, xxx, 46, 75, 302, *302-303 

Plimpton 262: xxx, 57-61, 62-63, 69, 98, *99 
New York, collection of Mrs. J. D. Gordan 

63: xxx, xxxi, 67, 79, *80-81, 86 
Norfolk, Holkham Hall 

210: xxxi n. 

236: xxxi n. 

669: xxii, xxvi, 75, 302 and n., *303-304 

670: xxvi, xxxi n., 71, 134, *136-37 

672: xxxi n. 



374 INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Norfolk, Keswick Hall, Gurney collection 

116.13: xxxii 
Northumberland, Alnwick Castle 

457A: xxvi, 73, 215, *222-23, 226, 228 
Nottingham, Nottinghamshire County Council 

DDFS 3/1: xxvi, 75, 278, *278-79, 293 

Oxford, Bodleian Library 
Arch. Selden B.24: 205 
Ashmole 791: xxii, xxvi, 27, 75, 302, *304-305 
Ashmole 793: xxvi, 73, 101 n., 225, 228, *228-29, 230, 235, 236, 251, 

254 
Ashmole 1139.iv.2: xxii, xxvi, 27 
Ashmole 1804: xix, 36 and n. 
Bodley 231: xxvi, 69, 114, *114 
Bodley 754: xxvi, 75, 294, *294-95 
Bodley 840: xxvi, 15, 48 n., 70, 79, 86, 117, *118 
Digby 185: xxvi, 12, 15, 73, 205, *206-207, 207, 208, 254 
Digby 196 (two texts): xxii, xxvi, 76, 318, *319 
Douce 120: xix 
Douce 128: xix, 34 
Douce 290: xxvi, 70, 114, *1 16-17 
Douce 323: xxvi, 12, 67, 79, *80, 82, 84-86, 87 
e Musaeo 39: xxvi, 74, *267 
e Musaeo 108: xix, 33 
Eng. hist. b. 229: 10 n. 
Fairfax 24: 32 

Hatton 50: xxvi, 64-65, 73, 215, *217, 226, 227, 228 
Laud Misc. 550: xxvi, xxxi n., 74, 271, *272, 277, 286, 290 
Laud Misc. 571: xxvi, xxxi n., 13, 11, 197, *198-99 
Laud Misc. 733: xxvi, 12, 13, 74, *26()-67 
Lyell 17: xix, 11, 34 
Lyell 34: xxvi, 15, 26, 44, 45, 75, 278, 283, *287-90, 292, 293, 293-94, 

296 
Rawlinson B.147: xxi, 43 

Rawlinson B.166: xxvi, 15, 69, 98, *102, 311, 314 
Rawlinson B.169: xxi, 38, 43, 44, 305 
Rawlinson B.171: xxvi, 12, 15, 48 n., 67, 68, 79, *79-80, 81, 82, 84-86, 

87, 90, *91, 187 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 375 

RawUnson B.173: xxvi, 13, 14, 15, 48 n., 69, 75, 98, *101-102, 103, 104, 
311, *312, 313, 314 

RawUnson B.187: xxvi, 72, 177, *180, 187, 238-39, 241 

RawUnson B.190: xxvii, 73, 215, *224-26, 226, 227, 228 

RawUnson B.195: xxi, 38, 43 

RawUnson B.196: xxvii, 70, 129, n29-30, 131 

RawUnson B.205: xxvii, 70, 124, *124-25 

RawUnson B.216: xxvii, 69, 107, ni2 

RawUnson C.155: xxvii, 27, 68, 79, *82-83 

RawUnson C.234: xxi, 38 n., 43 

RawUnson C.398: xxi, 16, 38, 43, 44, 46, 303 

RawUnson C.901: xxvU, 73, 215, *224, 226, 227, 228 

RawUnson D.329: xix, 34 

RawUnson poet. 32: xxvii, 71, 72, 74, 157, *162-63, 165, 188, *195-97, 
240, 254, 272, *275-76 

Selden Supra 74: xviii n. 

Tanner 11: xxvii, 73, 215, *220-22, 226, 228 

Tanner 188: xxvii, 72, 177, *183-84, 187, 239, 254 

Wood empt. 8: xix, 31 n., 32 
Oxford, Corpus Christi CoUege 

78: xix, 31, 32 n,, 37 

293: xix, 33 
Oxford, Jesus CoUege 

5: xxvii, 73, 215, *219-20, 226, 227, 228 
Oxford, Lincoln CoUege 

Lat. 151: xxvii, 74, *267-68 
Oxford, Magdalen CoUege 

200: xxi, 37, 39-40 
Oxford, Queen's CoUege 

304: 92 n. 
Oxford, St. John's CoUege 

78: xxi, 16, 43, 305 
Oxford, Trinity CoUege 

5: xxvii, 72, 188, *191-92 
Oxford, University CoUege 

154: xxvii, 73, 230, *230-31, 233, 253-54 



Paris, BibUotheque de I'Arsenal 
3346: XX, 11, 34 



376 INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 

Paris, Bibliotheque Mazarine 

1860: XX, 36 and n., 332 
Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 

fonds anglais 30: xxviii, 76, 316, *317, 317-18 

fonds fran9ais 6761: 23 

fonds fran9ais 12155: xx, 12, 22, 36 and n., 37, 119 

fonds fran9ais 12156: xx, 12, 34 

fonds fran9ais 14640: xx, 30 

nouvelles acquisitions fran9aises 4267: xx, 30 
Paris, Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve 

935: XX, 12, 36 and n., 37 
Philadelphia, Free Library of Philadelphia 

Lewis 238: xxx, 68, 88, *89 
Princeton, Princeton University Library 

Garrett 150: xxx, 12, 12, 197, *199-200 

Taylor Medieval 3: xxx, xxxii, 68, 70, 93-94, *94-95, 97, 98, 118, 132, 
*132-33 

Rennie 733: see New York, collection of Mrs. J. D. Gordan 

San Marino, Henry E. Huntington Library 

HM 113: xxx, 70, 124, *128 

HM 114: 92 n. 

HM 131: xxx, 73, 211, *213-15, 235, 236 

HM 133: xxx, 72, 197, *202-203 

HM 136: xxx, 13, 70, 71, 92, 104, 117-18, *123, 128, 157, 158, *163-64, 
165, 339 

HM 19960: xxi, 22 n., 39 n., 43 
Suffolk, Beeleigh Abbey, Foyle collection 

MS.: xxxii 
Sydney, University of Sydney Library 

Nicholson 13: xxxi, 70, 124, *127-28 

Tokyo, collection of Toshiyuki Takamiya 
12: xxxi, 72, 177, *181-83, 187 
18: xxxi, 75, 278, *281-82, 293 
29: xxxi, 69, 98, *99-100 
67: xxxi, 69, 107, *113 



INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS 377 

University Park, Pennsylvania State University Library 

PS. V-3: 103 

PS. V-3A: XXX, 15, 69, 75, 98, n02-104, 104, 286, 287, 311, *312-13, 314 
Urbana, University of Illinois Library 

82: XXX, 73, 75, 228, '229, 278, *283-85 

116: XXX, 71, 72, 145, *148-49, 197, *200-201 

Washington, Folger Shakespeare Library 

V.a.l98: xxii, xxx, 76, 318, *321, 348 

V.b.l06: xxx, 62, 70, 117, *122 
Wiltshire, Longleat House 

183A: xxvii, 13, 69, 107, *108 
Worcestershire, Rhydd Court, collection of Sir Edward Lechmere 

MS.: xxxii 

Yorkshire, Brough Hall, collection of Sir John Lawson 
MS.: xxxii 

Early Printed Editions 

Caxton, William, Chronicles of England (Westminster, 1480): xxxiii, 3, 7, 8, 
14, 23, 30 n., 48, 71, 77, 92, 100, 104, 118, 157, *157-59, 159 n., 165, 
166, 167, 170, 171, 172, 191, 258, 276, 290, 339, *339, 341, 342; 
(Westminster, 1482): xxxiii, 77, 162, 165, *340 

Leew, Gerard de. Chronicles of England (Antwerp, 1493): xxxiv, 77, *342-43 

[Machlinia, William de,] Chronicles of England [London, ?1486]: xxxiii- 
xxxiv, 77, *342 

Mychell, John, "A breuiat cronicle" (London, [1552]): 322 n., 348 

Notary, Julyan, Chronicles of England (London, 1504): xxxiv, 77, *344, 345; 
(London, 1515): xxxv, 78, *345 

Powell, William, [Chronicle of years] (London, 1552): 322 n. 

Pynson, Richard, Chronicles of England (London, 1510): xxxiv-xxxv, 77, *344- 
45, 346 n.; "The cronycle of all the kynges names" (London, ?1518): 321 

[Schoolmaster-Printer,] Chronicles of England (St. Albans, [?1483]): xxxiii, 
77, 168, 172, 339, *340-41, 343 

Worde, Wynl^Ti de. Chronicles of England (Westminster, 1497): xxxiv, 77, 
*343, 344; (London, 1502): xxxiv, 77, *343-44, 344, 345, 346; (London, 
1515): xxxv, 78, *346, 346; (London, 1520): xxxv, 78, *346-47, 347; (Lon- 
don, 1528): xxxv-xxxvi, 78, 346 n., *347, 347; "LyteU Shorte Cronycle" 
(London, 1530): 322 n. 



Index of Persons y Places, and Texts 

Associated with Manuscripts and 

Early Printed Editions 



Listed below are the names of persons and places and the titles or de- 
scriptions of texts that are directly or closely associated with the manuscripts 
and early printed editions of the Brut. The names of modern scholars and 
references to the Brut itself are excluded, though narrative references to the 
Cadwallader episode, Queen Isabella's letter, "The Description of Edward 
III," and John Page's "Siege of Rouen" are included. A number of early 
names of codicological interest that occur in the manuscripts are listed, 
generally through the sixteenth century but exceptionally into the seven- 
teenth century and, in the case of transcribers of texts, even later. (It should 
be noted that such names and titles of works do not exhaustively cover all 
those that occur in the texts but only those of particular interest that are 
recorded in the present volume.) 

Additional or further references to printers can be found in the preceding 
Index of Manuscripts and Early Printed Editions. 

Adam through Roman rulers, genea- nor, mother of 199; William, father 

logical chronicle from 287 of 199 

Adam to Henry VI, genealogy from Amundesham, John of 326 

297 Anonimalle Chronicle, The 11, 34 

Alen, Isabel (legatee) 13, 199; Elea- archbishops of Canterbury, genealogi- 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



379 



cal chronicle of 287; from Augus- 
tine to William Whittesley, chroni- 
cle of 40, 41 

Ardyn, John, son of (name in MS.) 
281 

arms, treatise on 266, 267 n. 

Arrival of Edward IV, The 22 

Arthur and Merlin 310 

Ashe, John, grocer (name in MS.) 328 

Autun, Honorius of, Ymago mundi 40 

Avesbury, Robert of, De Gestis Mira- 
bilibus Regis Edwardi Tertii 34 and 
n., 37 

Awntyrs ofArthure, The 92 n. 

Baker, Geoffrey le, of Swinbrook, Ox- 
fordshire, Chronicon 17 

Barret, William, of Sholton, Stafford- 
shire (name in MS.) 198 

Batde Abbey, Sussex (provenance?) 
132; Roll 108 

Baxter, John (owner) 183 

Beauchamp, Guy, earl of Warwick 
(donor) 9 

Becket, Thomas, life of 301 n. 

Beckwith, Leonard 161 

Belamy, S. (owner) 14, 82 

Benet, John, Chronicle 21 

Bentelee (Bentele, Bentyle), William 
(owner) 130 

Berkshire 100 

biblical and English religious and his- 
torical affairs, entries on 321 

bishoprics, Ust of 40, 41 

Blackwell, Thomas (name in MS.) 328 

Bohun family 17 

Bohun, John de, earl of Hereford 
(borrower) 10 n. 

Bohun, Ralph de (abridger), Le Petit 



Bruit 10, 17, 18 

Bordesley Abbey, Worcestershire (re- 
cipient) 9 

Bourchier family 200 n. 

Bourghier, Thomas, archbishop of 
Canterbury, 200 n. 

Bourghier, Thomas, constable of 
Leeds Casde (owner) 12, 200; 
Anne, Avife of 12, 200 

Braundon, William, of Knowle, War- 
wickshire (owner) 13, 274-75 

Bray, Berkshire (place name in MS.) 
100 

Brayne, Henry (owner) 147 

Brice, Alice (owner) 13, 108 

"Bridlington Prophecy" 123 

Bristowe Chronicle xxii, 14, 322 

Bromley(e), Thomas (owner?) 219 

Bruges, Louis de, seigneur de Gru- 
thuyse (owner) 22 

Brut abrege, Brut DEngletere abrege 
xviii n., 30 n., 187 n. 

Burgh, Benedict 269 n.; Parvus Cato 
137 n.; see also Lydgate, John 

Burgundy, ducal library of 22 

Burgundy, dukes of (owners?) 12 

Burley, Sir Simon (owner) 10 

Burton, Thomas (scribe) 160 

Burton, Thomas, chronicle of the ab- 
bey of Meaux, Yorkshire 19 and n. 

Bury St. Edmunds, account of parlia- 
ment at 327 

Button, Francis (owner) 99 

Cadwallader episode xxxii, 3, 6, 7, 18 
n., 22, 30, 40, 45, 49, 52, 53, 57, 
84, 88, 91, 92, 93 and n., 94, 102, 
105, 106, 107, 113, 114 and n., 
116, 117, 124, 125, 133, 137, 149, 



380 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



157, 173, 175, 176, 220, 223, 266, 
274, 277, 283, 286, 289, 293, 300, 
323; text of 58-61 

Cantrell, Henry and Thomas (names 
in MS.) 328 

Cardynall, William (scribe?) 222 

Carnarvonshire (provenance) 309 n. 

Carpenter, Elizabeth (name in MS.) 
328 

Caxton, WUliam (owner? and compi- 
ler), 14, 14 n., 28 n., 164, 165, 166, 
339, 341 n.; Advertisement 165; Li- 
ber ultimus of Polychronicon (1482) 
23, 24, 25, 71, 166, 166-67, 167, 
168, 170, 171, 172, 189, 310; Poly- 
chronicon (1482) 296 n., 310, 311 n.; 
see also Description of Britain, The 

Cecil, William, Baron Burghley 
(owner?) 94 

Central Midland Standard (dialect) 
15, 191 

Chadertun (-ton), Edmund and Wil- 
liam (owners) 127 

Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy 
(owner?) 22 

Charter of the Abbey of the Holy Ghost, 
The 80 n. 

Chaucer, Geoffrey 269 n.; version of 
Constance story by 310 

Chaworth, Thomas, of Wiverton, 
Nottinghamshire (testator) 14 

Chelmsford, Essex (?), Dominican 
convent in (owner) 13, 82 

Chicester family, notes on 287 

Christ, notices of conception and birth 
of 320 

Christianity, account of spread of 279 

Chronicle of the Rebellion in Lin- 
colnshire, The 22 



Chronicles of England (printed editions) 
23, 24, 27 

Cokerych, John (name in MS.) 151 

Cogman (scribe) 122 

Colyer, Raynold, prior of St. Bartho- 
lomew's, Smithfield, London (name 
in MS.) 110 

"compass of England, the" 321 

Complaint of Christ, The 25S 

"Continuation of Murimuth" 92 and n. 

Cooke, Hugh (owner) 137 n. 

Cookham, Berkshire (place name in 
MS.) 100 

cooks' fees in London, regulations 
concerning 327 

coronation of Edward IV, note on 229 

Creation to Brutus and of subsequent 
English history, account of world 
history from 279 

Cronekelys of Seyntys and Kyngys of 
Yngelond, The xxii 

"cronycle of kyng Henry the v, the" 30 
n. 

Cronicles dAngleterre 11 

"Cronides of Englond, The" see Cax- 
ton, William 

Croniques de London 17 

Crowland, Lincolnshire, chronicle of 
abbey of 21 

dates and events from 1042 to 1461, 

lists of 229 
"Davies's" Chronicle 21, 26, 44, 46, 75, 

278, 287-90 
Dawbne, Elizabeth (owner?) 13, 266 
"De Natiuitate Domini nostri Ihesu 

Cristi" 315 
Denny, John, of Burnwood (name in 

MS.) 223 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



381 



Denny, Thomas (name in MS.) 223 
"Deposition of Richard II, The" 105, 

327 
Derbyshire (scribal provenance) 15, 

320; (provenance?) 317 
Des Grantz Geanz 2, 33, 34, 299 
Description of Britain, The (William 

Caxton, Westminster, 1480) 14 n., 

159 n., 339, 345; (Wynkyn de 

Worde, Westminster, 1498; rpt. 

1502) 343, 344, 345, 346, 347 
"Description of Edward III, The" 52, 

90, 92, 94, 96, 97, 98, 104, 107, 

117-18, 123, 128, 133, 149, 157, 

173, 265 
Deuenysshe, Richard (name in MS.) 

136 
distance between earth and moon, 

item on 282 
Dunstable, Bedfordshire, priory of 21 
Dwnn, Lewis (writer and scribe), 

Welsh verses on the zodiac 287 

Eadmer, Historia Novorum in Anglia 
295, 296 n. 

edipses from 1384 to 1462, table of 
130 

Edinburgh Castle (provenance) 17-18 

Edward I to Pope Boniface VIII, let- 
ter from 160 

Edward III, king of England (legatee) 
10; account of retinue of 283; gene- 
alogical narrative of descendants of 
265 

Edward IV, king of England (owner) 
22; note on victories in 1471 of 229 

Edward IV to EUzabeth, notes on 
accessions of monarchs from 160 

Edward IVs claim to various crowns. 



treatise on 160 

Edward Balliol to Edward III, charter 
from 160 

election of Thomas Warthel to abbacy 
of Westminster, notes on 160 

emperors and popes, genealogical 
chronicle of 287 

Erdeswicke, Sampson (name in MS.) 
27 

Essex (scribal provenance) 15, 48 n., 
118; Central South (scribal prove- 
nance) 15, 129; North-West (scri- 
bal provenance) 15, 129 

Eu/ogium Historiarum 18, 38, 43, 44, 
45, 274, 277; continuation to 290 

Extended Version exordium, text of 
64^5 

Fabyan, Robert, New Chronicles of 

England and France 24, 25, 26 
Fastolf, John (owner) 1 1 
Fell, John, of York (testator) 14 
Findern family of Derbyshire (owners) 

12, 320 
Flanders (provenance) 12 
Fleming, Abraham 25, 26 and n. 
Flemings, song against 301 
Flemish, ballad mocking 310 
Fortescue, John (owner) 16 
Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire (owner) 

11 
Fox, Richard, of St. Albans (compiler 

and scribe) 326, 327, 328 and n. 
France (provenance) 12 
Frobyser, John (name in MS.) 183 
Froissart, Jean, Chroniques 22 
Frost, William (name in MS.) 109 
Fytt, James (name in MS.) 151 



382 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



Gaguin, Robert, Compendium super 
Francorum Gestis 24 

Gaimar, Geffrei, Estoire des Engleis 31 
and n. 

Gardenere, John (owner) 11 n. 

Gaynesford family of Carshalton, Sur- 
rey (owners) 12, 115 

Gaynesford, Erasmus, George, Mary, 
Ralph, and Thomas (names in 
MS.) 115 

geography, notes on 321 

George Lord Abergavenny (name in 
MS.) 266 

Gesta Romanorum 269 n. 

GUdas 45 

Giles's Chronicle 20 

Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset (owner) 
16 

Glastonbury, John of, Cronica sive 
Antiguitates Glastoniensis Ecclesie 
331 

Gloucester, Robert of, 328 n.; Metrical 
Chronicle 137, 274, 326, 331, 335 
n.; prose paraphrases of 324, 335 
and n. 

Gloucestershire (scribal provenance) 
322 

Godstow Chronicle 43 

Gogh, Matthew, epitaph on 292 

Goodwyn, Edmond (name in MS.) 
113 

Governance of Princes, The 258 

Gower, John 269 n.; version of Con- 
stance story by 310 

Grafton, Richard 25 n., 347 

Gray, Thomas, of Heaton, Northum- 
berland, Scalacronica 17-18, 18 n. 

Graystock, John (purchaser) 1 1 

Great Chronicle of London, The 24, 189 



Gruthuyse, seigneur de la (owner?) 12; 

see also Bruges, Louis de 
Guisborough, Walter de. Chronicle 18 

Hailes, Gloucestershire, abbey of 
(owner) 11 

Halidon Hill, poem on battle of 52, 
329, 330 n., 332 n. 

Hall, Edward, Union of the Two Noble 
Families of Lancaster and York 25 
and n., 26, 347 

Hampshire (scribal provenance) 15, 
269 and n. 

Hamundson, John, of York (testator) 
14, 15 n. 

Hamyleen, William (name in MS.) 328 

Hardyng, John, Chronicle 20-21, 25, 
26, 172, 206 

Havelok 310 

Hayward, William (owner) 27, 332 

Hearne, Thomas (transcriber) 225 

Helbartun (-ton), Dorothy (owner) 13, 
123 

Henry VI and Richard, duke of York, 
accord between 261 

Herdes, Robert (owner?) 147; Ellen, 
wife of 147 

Hereford, Franciscan convent at 
(owner) 11 n. 

Herefordshire (provenance) 15, 48; 
Central (scribal provenance) 15, 48 
n., 108; South- West (scribal prove- 
nance) 15, 48 n., 79; West (scribal 
provenance) 14, 15, 48 n., 102, 312 

"Heruest hath iij monethis" 198 n. 

Higden, Ranulph, Polychronicon 18 
and n., 21, 23, 40, 45 and n., 46, 
92, 260, 261, 289, 295, 310, 311; 
extracts from, 160, 212, (English) 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



383 



260, 261; index to, 160; see also 
Caxton, William, and Trevisa, John 

Hill family of Nettlecombe, Somerset- 
shire (owners) 12 

Hill, Egidius, of Nettlecombe, Somer- 
setshire (owner) 266; Agatha, wife 
of 266 

Hill, John (owner) 127 

Hill, Robert, of Nettiecombe, Somer- 
setshire, obit for 266 

Hindley, J. H. (transcriber) xxiv 

historical subjects, Latin verses on 123 

Hobbes, Richard (owner) 178 

Hocdeve, Thomas 269 n.; "Gerelaus" 
206; "Jonathas" 206; Regiment of 
Princes 206 

Holinshed, Raphael, Chronicles of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland 25, 25- 
26 n, 26, 27, 347 

Hooker, John 25 

Hopton fannily of Swillington, York- 
shire (owners) 12, 206 

Hopton, Thomasin (legatee) 207 n. 

Hopton, William (owner?) 206, 207 n. 

"Hought'" (so in MS.), Thomas 
(owner) 178 

Humphrey, duke of Gloucester (pa- 
tron) 20; account of death of 327 

Hungyrforthe, Alice (name in MS.) 
325 

hunting, poem on 92 n. 

Huntingdon, Henry of 301 

Ipotis 80 n. 

Ipswich area (scribal provenance) 15, 

129 
Isabella of France, queen of Edward II 

(testator) 10 and n.; see also C^een 

Isabella's letter 



Isham, Robert (owner) 11 

Jones, William (owner?) 189 

King Ponthus and the Fair Sidone 206 
kings and their coronations from Wil- 
liam the Conqueror to Henry III, 
note on 160 
kings from Arthur to Harold, list of 

burial places of 331 
"Kings of England" 331-32 
kings of England, table of 197 
Knighton, Henry, Chronicon 18 
Knights Hospitallers of St. John, prio- 
ry of, Clerkenwell, London (owner) 
11 
Knyvet, Edmund (name in MS.) 109 

Lacy, Henry de (patron) 10 
Langtoft, Pierre 301; Chronicle 32, 
300, 301, 326; see also Mannyng, 
Robert 
Lathum, Roland (owner?) 136 
Leche, John, of Nantwich, Chester 

(owner) 13, 123 
Leicestershire (provenance?) 324 
Liber ultimus see Caxton, William 
Livius, Titus, Vita Henrici Quinti 20, 

24 
Lokington, Walter (name in MS.) 151 
London (provenance) 15, 17, 48; area 
of (provenance) 228; chronicle(s) of 
xxii, xxiv, XXV, 13, 16, 17, 18, 24, 
26, 104, 105 n., 133, 142, 151, 
152-53, 153-54, 156 nn., 166, 167, 
263, 271, 296, 313, 314, 315, 316 
n., 319, 321; see also Croniques de 
London and Great Chronicle of 
London, The 



384 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



London and Rome, notices of founda- 
tions of 320 

London, Thomas, of Teberton, Suf- 
folk (owner) 115 

Lorraine (provenance) 12 

Louth Park, Lincolnshire, chronicle of 
the abbey of 19 

Lowe, Henry, the Younger of Whit- 
tington, Derbyshire 317 

Lydgate, John 258, 259, 269 n.; "Die- 
tary" ("Doctrina sana") 160; Guy of 
Warwick 258; "Kings of England" 
106, 135, 315, 316 n., 321; "Leg- 
end of St. Austin at Compton" 310; 
Life of St. Edmund 112 n.; Serpent 
of Division 258; and Benedict 
Burgh, Secrees ofO/dPbi/osof^es 275 

Maidenhead, Berkshire (place name in 
MS.) 100 

Malmesbury, William of 45, 301; 
Gesta (Historia) Regum Anglorum 
310, 331 

Malmesbury, Wiltshire, abbey of 
(provenance) 18 

Mandeville, John, rector of Burnham 
Thorpe, Norfolk (translator) xxii, 
xxiii, xxiv, xxv, 5, 6, 8, 10, 27, 48- 
49, 52, 76-77, 87, 90, 98, 256, 328, 
329, 330, 331, 333, 334, 335 n. 

Mandeville's Travels 112 n. 

Mannyng, Robert, Chronicle 326 

Marche, counts of (owner) 22 

Marianus Scotus 295 

Martinus Polonus, Chronicle of Popes 
and Emperors 137 n., 305 

memoranda, historical 316 n., 285 

Mettham, Thomas, of Brayton, York- 
shire (owner) 183 



Midlands, East (scribal provenance) 
15; West (scribal provenance) 15, 
103; central West (scribal prove- 
nance) 15 

Milton, John, History of Britain 28-29 

Mondeffeld, William, de Charre 130 
n. 

Monmouth, Geoffrey of, Historia Re- 
gum Britannie 18 n., 21, 23 and n., 
24, 25, 27-28, 29, 30, 37, 41, 44, 
57, 176, 211, 213, 252, 300, 301, 
323 n., 331 

Monstrelet, Enguerran de, Chronique 
22,24 

Nasby, William, of London (owner) 

14,82 
Naysbe, Robert (owner) 82 
N(e)uton, John, prior of Battle Abbey, 

Sussex (owner) 13, 131-32, 152 n. 
"New Cronidis" 305 
New Croniclys Compendyusly Idrawn of 

the Gestys of the Kynges of England, 

The xxii 
Newburgh, Roger (name in MS.) 329 
Newnham, Bedfordshire, prior of 130 

n. 
Noah to Edward IV, genealogical 

chronicle from 287 
Norham, Master, chronicle of (writer 

or owner) 21 
Northamptonshire (scribal provenance) 

15, 103 
Northlond, Thomas, grocer (name in 

MS.) 14, 328 
notations and chronologies, historical 

283 
notes and extracts, historical 283 
Noua Cronica, "Nova Cronica" 16, 305 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



385 



Ormonde, earl of 24 
Osbert, life of St. Dunstan 310 
Osburn, John (name in MS.) 275 
Osney, Oxfordshire, abbey of 17 n. 
Otterbourne, Thomas of, chronicle 19 

Page, John, "The Siege of Rouen" 20 

n., 52, 71, 133, 134 and n., 137, 

142, 143-44, 144, 144-45, 145, 

150, 153, 263 
Pakington, William (supposed writer) 

35, 36 n. 
parliament of 27 Henry VI, acts of 

327 
Pat(s)all, John and Thomas (names in 

MS.) 92 
Pawlyn, Thomas (owner) 178 
Pepys, Samuel (owner) 332 
Percyhay, John, of Swynton (testator) 

10 
Peterhouse, Cambridge (owner) 170, 

172 
Petit Bruit, Le see Bohun, Ralph de 
Phelippus, John, of Mansell 

(borrower) 11 n. 
Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy 

(owner?) 22 
Picquigny, provisions of Treaty of 160 
Piers Plowman 80 n. 
Ponce, John (name in MS.) 188 
popes from Peter to Benedict, list of 

315 
popes to Gregory XI, chronicle of 40, 

41 
Proverbs of Solomon, The 112 n. 
pseudo-Elmham, Vita et Gesta Henrici 

Quinti 20 
Purchas, William (owner?) 14, 299 



Queen Isabella's letter 6, 17 and n., 
49, 52, 53, 62, 63 and nn., 84, 88, 
93, 94, 98, 101, 105, 106, 107, 113, 
114 and n., 117, 122, 124, 133, 
157, 173, 175, 176, 231, 262, 266, 
315, 317; text of 62-^3 

Red, Robert (owner) 183 

Rede, Richard (compiler, owner, or 
scribe) 16, 46, 303 

Rede, William, bishop of Chichester 
(compiler?) 16, 42, 46 

Registrum Cartarum Prioratus S. An- 
dreae Northampton 337 

religious events in England, notices of 
320 

religious sites, account of 279 

Rendale, Richard (owner?) 135 

Ricart, Robert, town clerk of Bristol 
(compiler) 14, 322, 323 

Richard Coeur de Lion 329, 331 

Richard, duke of York, verse on 327 

Rither, Ryther (scribe) 113 

"Roger \_sic\, monk of Chester," Cos- 
mographia 40 

Rolewinck, Werner, Fasciculus tempo- 
rum 165, 341 and n. 

Rolls of Parliament 261, 263 

Roman and Holy Roman emperors 
from Julius Caesar to Charles IV, 
chronicle of 40, 41 

Rotuli Parliamentorum see Rolls of Par- 
liament 

roundels, set of genealogical 111 

Rous, John, Historia Regum Anglie 23 
and n. 

Russell, John, Boke of Nurture 275 

Rydyng, Thomas (scribe and owner) 
163 



386 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



"St. Albans Chronicle" 299 

St. Bartholomew, Smithfield, London, 
priory of (owner) 13, 109-10 

St. George, Richard, Norroy Herald 
(owner) 272 

St. George's Chapel, Windsor (owner) 
15, 40 n. 

St. James, prose life of 198 n. 

St. Katherine, prose life of 198 n. 

St. Mary de Pratis, Leicester, abbey 
of (provenance, owner?) 13, 269 
and n. 

St. Mary's Abbey, York (owner) 11 

saints and martyrs, notices of 320 

saints in England, catalogue of 40 

Sarum use, calendar of 130 

Scardeburgh, John de (legatee) 10 

Schoolmaster-Printer of St. Albans, 
343, 345; Book of Hawking, Hunt- 
ing, and Biasing of Arms 341 n. 

Shakerley, Rowland (owner) 147 

Sheldwych (annotator) 22 n. 

Shelley, William (name in MS.) 223 

Sherborne, Dorset, abbey of (prove- 
nance) 16 

shields of arms 179 

Shirley, John 164, 258, 259, 269 

Shirley, John, of Staunton Harold and 
Rakedale, Leicestershire 103 

Short English Metrical Chronicle 7, 48, 
53, 173, 176, 184, 185, 186, 186- 
87, 202, 203, 204, 238, 253, 300, 
331 

Shyrburne, John (owner or scribe) 16 
and n. 

Sidrak and Bokkus 94 

Siege of Jerusalem, The 92 n. 

Slegill, Thomas (temporary possessor 
of book) 10 



Somerset, John (dedicatee) 20 

South-West NorfolkAVest Suffolk 
(scribal provenance) 328 n. 

Speed, John (writer and owner) 26; 
Historie of Great Britaine 26 

Spelman, Henry (transcriber and 
owner) xxvii, 27 

Staffordshire (scribal provenance) 15 

Staffordshire (scribal provenance) 102 

Stokes family (owners) 12, 297, 298 n. 

Stoddard, William (name in MS.) 
328; WUliam, sonof328 

Stow, John (writer, transcriber, and 
owner) 25, 26 and n., 27, 156 n., 
347; Annales of England 26 and n.; 
Chronicles of England 25, 26; A 
Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles 26 
and n.; historical memoranda by 
316 n. 

Strecche, John, Historia Regum Anglie 
19 

Suffolk(?), Dominican convent in 
(owner) 13, 82 

Suffolk, South-East (scribal prove- 
nance) 15, 129 

Sulyard, John, justice of the King's 
Bench (owner) 12, 200 and n.; 
Anne, widow of 12, 200 

Surrey (scribal provenance) 15, 145 n., 
290; Central (scribal provenance) 
15, 216; Northwest (scribal prove- 
nance?) 325 

Symons, John (name in MS.) 109 

"T[...]l, Sere I[.]h[.r (so in MS.; 

owner?) 79 
This(?), George (owner) 189 
Thomas, Richard, of Neath, Glamor- 
ganshire (owner) 13, 179 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



387 



Thomas, William (owner) 109 

Thomborough, Timothy (name in 
MS.) 115 

Three Kings of Cologne, The 92 n., 126 
nn., 258; (Latin) 135 

Thynne, Francis 25; (owner) 108 

Tiptoft, John, earl of Worcester, his- 
torical compilation by 21, 22 n. 

Toddington, Bedfordshire, chapel and 
hospital at 21 

Towers, Bartholomew (owner?) 218 

Translator of Livius, English life of 
Henry V 24, 26 

Trayfort, Edmund, Alexander, and 
Robert (names in MS.) 97 

Trevet, Nicholas, Chronicle 283, 331, 
332 n.; translation of 325 

Trevisa, John, of Berkeley, Cornwall, 
translation of Ranulph Higden's 
Polychronicon 18 and n., 23, 25, 159 
n., 339, 345; see also Caxton, Wil- 
liam; Description of Britain, The, 
Higden, Ranulph 

Trouthe, William, vicar, Salisbury 
(testator) 13, 199 

Troyes, copy of Treaty of 112 n. 

Turbantisville, John (name in MS.) 80 

Tynemouth, John of, Historia Aurea 
17, 18 n., 63 n. 

Ughtred, Thomas (testator) 10; wife of 
(legatee) 10 

Vegetius, De Re Militari (1408 Eng- 
lish translation) 275 

Veldener, Johan 165, 341 

Vergil, Polydore, Anglica Historia 24- 
25,28 

Virgin, prose life of the 198 n. 



Virgin Mary and St. Margaret, Dart- 
ford, Kent, priory of the (owner) 
13, 119 

Vmnor, William, of Sharrington, Nor- 
folk (owner) 89 

Wace, Roman de Brut 30, 31 
Waleran, lord of Waurin (patron) 22 
Walsby, Richard (name in MS.) 183 
Walsingham, Thomas, chronicles 26 
Walter Lord Hungerford (dedicatee) 20 
Waltham, Essex, annals of abbey of 20 
Warkworth, John, master of Peter- 
house, Cambridge (owner) 13, 166, 
170 
"Warkworth's" Chronicle xxiii, xxvii, 
71, 168, 170, 171, 172 and n., 205 
Warwickshire (scribal provenance) 15, 

274 
Watson, Christopher (owner) 115 
Watson, Thomas (name in MS.) 115 
Wattsoun (Watson), Richard (owner) 

183 
Waurin, Jean de, lord of Forestal, Re- 
cueil des Croniques et Anchiennes Is- 
tories de la Grant Bretaigne 22 
Wauton family of Great Staughton, 
Huntingdonshire, and Basmead, 
Bedfordshire (owners) 12, 129 
Waveley, Surrey, annals of abbey of 31 
Welles, Francis (name in MS.) 282 
Wendover, Roger of, Flores Histori- 

arum 283 
Westmer to 1368, text on Scottish 

history from 40 
Westminster 48 

Whinkop, Mary (name in MS.) 115 
White, William (scribe, compiler, and 
owner) 27, 315 



388 



INDEX OF PERSONS, PLACES, AND TEXTS 



Willeys, John, probably of Berkshire 

(owner) 13, 100 
William the Conqueror, tractate and 

epitaphs on 40 
Willoughby family of Nottingham- 
shire and Derbyshire (owners) 12, 

189 
Wiltshire (scribal provenance) 15, 332 
Winkfield, Berkshire (place name in 

MS.) 100 
Wise Book of Philosophy and Astronomy, 

The 137 n. 
Wolston, Richard (owner) 99 
Woods, W., clerk of the Privy Council 

(owner) 266 



Worcester, Florence of, Chronicon ex 

chronicis 21, 295, 296 n. 
Worde, Wynkyn de see Description of 

Britain, The 
Wylloughbe, Richard (owner?) 189; see 

also Willoughby family 
Wynnard, Hugo (owner) 178 

Yorkshire, West Riding of (scribal 
provenance) 15, 206 

Zouche family of Nottinghamshire 
and Derbyshire (owners) 12, 189